|Exam Name||:||Microsoft Windows 2000 Network Analysis and Troubleshooting|
|Questions and Answers||:||150 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||February 21, 2019|
|PDF Download Mirror||:||Pass4sure 1T6-323 Dump|
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1T6-323 exam Dumps Source : Microsoft Windows 2000 Network Analysis and Troubleshooting
Test Code : 1T6-323
Test Name : Microsoft Windows 2000 Network Analysis and Troubleshooting
Vendor Name : Network-General
Q&A : 150 Real Questions
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REDMOND, Wash., June 6, 2000 — Kelly Balmer is $1 million richer thanks to her expertise of arcane information about area shuttle, a chopping-area internet service and Microsoft know-how. In a hectic hour of interactive, online gaming, the Springfield, Mo., resident beat out greater than two million other cyber contestants closing month to win the primary grand prize for GoldPocket.com’s weekly information superhighway trivialities game.
GoldPocket Interactive and its on-line host information Return Corp. relied on Microsoft home windows 2000 Server and different network features to handle the massive load of cyber site visitors generated by means of the contestants — the most ever to play an online, interactive online game. they're happy they did.
“It’s almost unprecedented for a server’s web utility to address greater than two million clients at once, primarily the complicated, time-crucial interactions required with GoldPocket.com. That’s why we use windows 2000 Server,”spoke of Jason Lochhead, records Return’s co-founder and chief technology officer.“it's a global-class working equipment, on par or more suitable than another operating gadget available.”
The success of online ventures reminiscent of GoldPocket.com is an illustration of why statistics Return and many different provider providers agree with home windows 2000 the next technology of networking systems. Microsoft plans to continue spreading the be aware this week at SUPERCOMM 2000, in sales space 1027, with live demonstrations of comprehensive, conclusion-to-end options according to the home windows 2000 platform. SUPERCOMM is being held in Atlanta, Ga., and is North the usa’s greatest telecommunications exchange reveal.
“We’re going all-out to reveal home windows 2000 in real, are living community environments — powering highly respectable and massively scalable solutions for subsequent generation community features nowadays,”referred to Thomas Koll, vice chairman of Microsoft’s community solutions group.“We’re displaying how provider suppliers can use home windows 2000 to deploy their most crucial functions with the expertise that the underlying platform offers the complete coverage and service they and their purchasers demand.”
Groundswell of guide
Success reports comparable to records Return’s talk to the scalability, reliability and value effectiveness of windows 2000. So do unbiased research reports, different benchmarks, and the increasing number of provider suppliers adopting the home windows platform. for example, British Telecommunications, FutureLink and Qwest Communications are among the many tons of of groups leveraging Microsoft systems to construct and grow their corporations.
“one of the crucial biggest misconceptions about Microsoft is that our platforms are not ‘telecom competent’. really, windows 2000 presents service providers essentially the most scalable, official, flexible and within your means platform out there,”mentioned Jonathan Usher, group manager for provider company advertising in Microsoft’s community solutions group.
“in fact, there is a groundswell of assist for the home windows platform in the operations assist techniques business, for instance,”Usher said.“In nowadays’s rapidly evolving industry, service providers should make certain that their community administration, billing, client care and provisioning capabilities assist their clients’ needs. They need to installation these methods charge comfortably, instantly and with the realizing that the solutions can grow with them. home windows 2000 is tailor-made for these initiatives.”
GoldPocket.com winner Balmer talked about she“felt like she became hallucinating”after as it should be answering the last query (“Who become the primary dog in outer house?”reply: Laika) to win the weekly video game reveal’s first $1 million prize on can also 23. statistics Return is in a similar way joyful by way of windows 2000 Server and its impact on the business’s final analysis.
together with the weekly GoldPocket.com game, facts Return has used home windows 2000 Server to host two other huge internet events: Victoria Secret’s reside style reveal remaining month from Cannes, France, and site visitors from several advertisements proven all over tremendous Bowl XXXIV previous this yr. valued clientele with smaller but growing calls for also have been comfortable with windows 2000.
“We’ve had purchasers who have been having scalability problems earlier than they came to statistics Return. With home windows 2000, we had been capable of put them in a versatile new ambiance where they have quite a lot of room to grow,”Lochhead referred to.
computer journal’s fresh internet structures roundup attests to the computing vigor and scalability of home windows 2000. The magazine determined a four-processor windows 2000 Server platform changed into capable of manner more than 3,500 requests per 2d — or 300 million a day — in its API Dynamic E-Commerce benchmark test. That’s more than twice the highest for the closest competitor, the 4-processor Solaris/iPlanet platform.
windows 2000 additionally tops a key Transaction Processing efficiency Council benchmark. The Microsoft solution, which become working home windows 2000 Server and Microsoft SQL Server on Compaq ProLiant 8500 programs, delivered the desirable performance ever recorded on the TPC-C benchmark prior this 12 months. The home windows 2000 and SQL Server mixture registered 227,079 transactions per minute — almost double sun Microsystems’ surest effect of one hundred thirty five,461 tpm. each answer used ninety six processors. along with presenting greater common efficiency, the Microsoft answer charge lower than one third the fee of the sun answer.
“In rate performance, home windows 2000 offers greater than any one else,”Lochhead defined.“It saves us cash and that saves the client cash.”
home windows 2000 is reducing fees a further manner for Interland Inc.: it is all however putting off gadget downtime.
“Now that we have home windows 2000, we will also be assured of much less downtime,”mentioned Robert Malally, chief know-how officer for the Atlanta-based internet hosting company. This translates to less money spent on technicians.“We’re actually getting an improved return on our funding with the windows 2000 Server,”he referred to.
An independent analyze past this 12 months via Aberdeen neighborhood confirms the reliability of windows 2000 Server. The market research and consulting firm found the networks of nine dot-com sites that made the circulate early to home windows 2000 were obtainable a mixed 99.95 percent of the time. From Aberdeen’s standpoint, this degree of availability is“stunning,”due to the fact that most bills nevertheless hadn’t totally optimized windows 2000, upgraded to the closing release, or built expertise in the product.
With a number of corporations developing excessive availability systems that run home windows 2000, Microsoft expects provider providers to be in a position to deploy these structures for his or her most mission vital purposes — ones that require 99.999-% or enhanced availability. for instance, superior configurations of Stratus’ upcoming ftServer, working home windows 2000, are expected to offer ninety nine.9999-percent hardware availability. That’s under one minute of downtime per year.
When information Return hosts great internet movements, such because the GoldPocket.com video games, they keep technicians on the able in case of complications. but, Lochhead noted, they’ve not been obligatory.“The platform is very constant,”he mentioned.“provided there aren’t any complications with the web or connectivity, we’re confident that issues will run easily.”
Microsoft understands the magnitude of reliability.“provider providers can’t come up with the money for for a provider to be down. They lose revenue. They lose customer pride. They may even lose their consumer to a competitor,”Koll talked about.
New enterprise opportunities in cell statistics and hosting
building on scalability, reliability and value mark downs, windows 2000 allows for carrier suppliers to take full competencies of recent areas of probability such as cellular statistics functions and providing application and other purposes by means of the internet.
lively listing makes it easier for carrier providers to guide dissimilar shoppers or valued clientele whose users count on greater than their home computer to speak and navigate the net, Koll spoke of. It does so by centralizing the administration of community clients, enabling carrier suppliers to constitution their networks and clients into organizations which are more straightforward to control.
“lively directory additionally enables provider suppliers to admire and accommodate everything from mobile phones to computing device systems, from laptops to handheld PCs,”Usher said.“Ease of use is where a service provider’s company turns into seen to customers. As competitors has extended, customers have begun to are expecting less demanding entry to functions — even actual time provisioning they can do over the information superhighway.”
Interland plans to take capabilities of these advances when it expands its company into software hosting. Malally says that a windows 2000-primarily based solution is the first providing the business intends to roll out.
“home windows 2000 can be the cornerstone of our construction in this enviornment,”he mentioned.“lots of the functions customers seek are very rich. home windows offers these functions and makes it possible for us to deal with them.”
in addition to its center of attention on establishing and offering notable utility, Microsoft has a strong center of attention on partnerships and initiatives for the provider issuer industry.
when you consider that its formation in 1999, the Microsoft-led Operations help techniques Working neighborhood has grown from 26 to 37 members. It brings collectively telecommunications management network providers to advance expertise solutions for service suppliers. The community has extended its focal point recently to employ new, open applied sciences — equivalent to XML, cleaning soap and directory functions — to develop the next generation of net purposes for provider providers.
The business also opened an elevated Microsoft partner solutions middle in March to aid service providers impulsively produce and set up options to their newest networking and repair challenges. The 21,000-rectangular-foot facility at Microsoft headquarters in Redmond enables companions to construct and examine“jumpstart prototypes,”which service providers can personalize and right now bring to their purchasers.
furthermore, Microsoft continues to work with key companies within the trade reminiscent of Qwest, Nextel, AT & T, Lucent, Cisco, Ericsson, Nortel, Compaq, HP and others, to aid them abruptly deploy new solutions. A key part of this work includes Microsoft offering technical suggestions to assist these corporations take most suitable potential of recent technologies.
“Microsoft is both a technology company and a company accomplice to provider suppliers,”Koll spoke of.“once they win, all of us win, specially consumers who increasingly rely on and improvement from community features, whether or not they comprehend it or no longer.”
That includes a Midwesterner who can count number her benefits — all one million of them.
book storiesAll You deserve to know about Designing a home windows 2000 community
more than just the counsel required to pass a single exam.
All-in-One MCSE home windows 2000 Designing is a superb analyze e book for the three MCSE 2000 design tests: Designing a Microsoft windows 2000 listing functions Infrastructure (70-219), Designing safety for a Microsoft windows 2000 network (70-220), and Designing a Microsoft windows 2000 community Infrastructure (70-221). The e-book is handy to read, very smartly illustrated with logical diagrams and display pictures of home windows 2000 GUI, and has critical true-existence situations using a hypothetical overseas building company. In a nutshell, All-in-One MCSE home windows 2000 Designing is written to position the reader in the attitude demanded my Microsoft's new Win2K design assessments.
[Note: Co-author Harry Brelsford is a columnist for MCP Magazine.—Editor]
The insurance of design subject matters within the publication varies from analyzing enterprise necessities (together with risk management theory) to certain configuration and even registry settings inside a home windows 2000 Server. each and every chapter has a few arms-on lab exercises, which permit the reader to put in force ideas described within the booklet in a basic lab/construction ambiance. The book also includes case reviews that require the reader to come up with particular technical solutions in accordance with both the lined cloth and the reader's judgment (a skill you're going to need for the design tests!). The CD-ROM included with the booklet gives a collection of apply exams and a LearnKey Video. The observe tests include assorted alternative questions, which are positive to evaluation the ideas. These apply assessments are not significant for the precise assessments as MCSE Design assessments are in keeping with case experiences and don't encompass dissimilar option questions. The LearnKey Video on active directory is superb, but very high-stage for exam instruction applications.
The greatest challenge the authors of the book confronted become to come to a decision no matter if the bird or the egg came first. It isn't unless Chapter 14 (out of 21 chapters) that the booklet receives into explaining the basics of the TCP/IP protocol suite and its implementation inside home windows 2000 (in spite of everything the network safety themes were coated). If the reader is new to the Microsoft home windows platform or networking, he can also must go straight to half three of the book for imperative heritage. In customary following the stream presented in the ebook, with energetic directory design ideas at the start, network security concepts next, and community infrastructure design concerns as a ultimate step is an affordable method for a more skilled reader.
average, many of the guidance found in the book is critical for the preparation for the windows 2000 Design exams. You may additionally, besides the fact that children, deserve to appear elsewhere for a collection of follow exams (all of which can be conventional to be in keeping with case reports) for the reason that the in-depth coverage of 1 company/community all over the book can also not be adequate from the apply standpoint.
ultimately, the biggest concern with the publication is that just one design exam is required as a part of the MCSE curriculum, and the candidate has the option of four exams (one in every of them—Designing enormously purchasable net solutions with Microsoft windows 2000 Server applied sciences (70-226)—is not coated within the publication). inspite of the indisputable fact that an IT skilled can discover all the counsel within the booklet valuable, individual parts of the book geared toward each examination put the candidates vulnerable to not being thoroughly organized for his or her target checks with out reading chapters technically aimed toward other assessments. but if you need to study common home windows 2000 lively directory and community design considerations past passing a required exam, the publication is right for you.
Greg Saoutine, MCSE, is an IT consultant working in ny metropolis.
home windows 2000 (W2K) is a est business version of Microsoft's evolving home windows operating device. in the past known as home windows NT 5.0, Microsoft emphasizes that home windows 2000 is evolutionary and "built on NT technology." home windows 2000 is designed to enchantment to small company and skilled users in addition to to the more technical and larger business market for which the NT turned into designed.
The home windows 2000 product line carries 4 products:
home windows 2000 is mentioned to be extra solid (much less apt to crash) than home windows 98/NT systems. a big new feature is Microsoft's lively directory, which, among different capabilities, allows for a company to installation digital private networks, to encrypt information in the community or on the community, and to provide clients entry to shared info in a consistent manner from any network computing device.
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Figuring out the cause of a problem is often the hardest part of troubleshooting, but by itself it doesn't do you much good. When you know the source, you need to parlay that information into a fix for the problem. I discussed a few solutions in the previous section, but here are a few other general fixes you need to keep in mind:
More Troubleshooting Tools
Windows 7 comes with diagnostic tools -- together, they're called the Windows Diagnostic Infrastructure (WDI) -- that not only do a better job of finding the source of many common disk, memory, and network problems, but can detect impending failures and alert you to take corrective or mitigating action (such as backing up your files). The next few sections describe these tools.
Running the Windows 7 Troubleshooters
Windows Vista introduced the idea of the troubleshooter, a Help system component that offered a series of solutions that led you deeper into a problem in an attempt to fix it. In Windows 7, the troubleshooters have been beefed up and given their own home within the Control Panel interface. To see the Windows 7 troubleshooters, select Start, type trouble, and then choose Troubleshooting in the search results. The Troubleshooting window (see Figure 21.5) is divided into several categories (Programs, Hardware and Sound, and so on), each of which offers a few links to general troubleshooting tasks.
Note, too, the Get the Most Up-to-Date Troubleshooters check box at the bottom of the window. If you leave that option activated, and then click a category, Windows 7 queries the Windows Online Troubleshooting service for the latest troubleshooting packs, and then displays the complete list for that category. For example, Figure 21.6 shows the troubleshooters that were available for the Programs category as I wrote this.
TIP If you want to see all the available troubleshooters, click the View All link in the Troubleshooting window.
FIGURE 21.5 Windows 7's new Troubleshooting window offers links to various troubleshootingcategories and tasks.
FIGURE 21.6 Click a category to see its available troubleshooters.
Understanding Disk Diagnostics
A hard disk can suddenly bite the dust thanks to a lightning strike, an accidental drop from a decent height, or an electronic component shorting out. However, most of the time hard disks die a slow death. Along the way, hard disks almost always show some signs of decay, such as the following:
Other factors that might indicate a potential failure are the number of times that the hard drive has been powered up, the number of hours in use, and the number of times the drive has started and stopped spinning.
Since about 1996, almost all hard disk manufacturers have built in to their drives a system called Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology, or SMART. This system monitors the parameters just listed (and usually quite a few more highly technical hard disk attributes) and uses a sophisticated algorithm to combine these attributes into a value that represents the overall health of the disk. When that value goes beyond some predetermined threshold, SMART issues an alert that hard disk failure might be imminent.
Although SMART has been around for a while and is now standard, taking advantage of SMART diagnostics has, until now, required third-party programs. However, Windows 7 comes with a Diagnostic Policy Service (DPS) that includes a Disk Diagnostics component that can monitor SMART. If the SMART system reports an error, Windows 7 displays a message that your hard disk is at risk. It also guides you through a backup session to ensure that you don't lose any data before you can have the disk replaced.
Understanding Resource Exhaustion Detection
Your system can become unstable if it runs low on virtual memory, and there's a pretty good chance it will hang if it runs out of virtual memory. Older versions of Windows displayed one warning when they detected low virtual memory and another warning when the system ran out of virtual memory. However, in both cases, users were simply told to shut down some or all of their running programs. That often solved the problem, but shutting everything down is usually overkill because it's often the case that just one running program or process is causing the virtual memory shortage.
Windows 7 takes this more subtle point of view into account with its Windows Resource Exhaustion Detection and Resolution tool (RADAR), which is part of the Diagnostic Policy Service. This tool also monitors virtual memory and issues a warning when resources run low. However, RADAR also identifies which programs or processes are using the most virtual memory, and it includes a list of these resource hogs as part of the warning. This enables you to shut down just one or more of these offending processes to get your system in a more stable state.
Microsoft is also providing developers with programmatic access to the RADAR tool, thusenabling vendors to build resource exhaustion detection into their applications. When such a program detects that it is using excessive resources, or if it detects that the system as a whole is low on virtual memory, the program can free resources to improve overall system stability.
NOTE The Resource Exhaustion Detection and Recovery tool divides the current amount of committed virtual memory by the commit limit, the maximum size of the virtual memory paging file. If this percentage approaches 100, RADAR issues its warning. If you want to track this yourself, run the Performance Monitor (see Chapter 6), and add the % Committed Bytes in Use counter in the Memory object. If you want to see the exact commit numbers, add the Committed Bytes and Commit Limit counters (also in the Memory object).
Running the Memory Diagnostics Tool
Few computer problems are as maddening as those related to physical memory defects because they tend to be intermittent and they tend to cause problems in secondary systems, forcing you to waste time on wild goose chases all over your system.
Therefore, it is welcome news that Windows 7 ships with a Windows Memory Diagnostics tool that works with Microsoft Online Crash Analysis to determine whether defective physical memory is the cause of program crashes. If so, Windows Memory Diagnostics lets you know about the problem and schedules a memory test for the next time you start your computer. If it detects actual problems, the system also marks the affected memory area as unusable to avoid future crashes.
Windows 7 also comes with a Memory Leak Diagnosis tool that's part of the Diagnostic Policy Service. If a program is leaking memory (using up increasing amounts of memory over time), this tool will diagnose the problem and take steps to fix it.
To run the Memory Diagnostics tool yourself, follow these steps:
1. Select Start, type memory, and then click Windows Memory Diagnostic in the search results. The Windows Memory Diagnostics Tool window appears, as shown in Figure 21.7.2. Click one of the following options:
After the test runs (it takes 10 or 15 minutes, depending on how much RAM is in your system), Windows 7 restarts and you see (for a short time) the Windows Memory Diagnostic Tool icon in the taskbar's notification area. This icon displays the results of the memory text.
FIGURE 21.7 Use the Windows Memory Diagnostic tool to check for memory problems.
TIP If you're having trouble starting Windows 7 and you suspect memory errors might be the culprit, boot your machine to the Windows Boot Manager menu (refer to Chapter 4). When the menu appears, press Tab to select the Windows Memory Diagnostic item, and then press Enter. If you can't get to the Windows Boot Manager, you can also run the Memory Diagnostic tool using Windows 7's System Recovery Options. See "Recovering Using the System Recovery Options" in Chapter 23, "Troubleshooting Startup."
Checking for Solutions to Problems
Microsoft constantly collects information about Windows 7 from users. When a problem occurs, Windows 7 usually asks whether you want to send information about the problem to Microsoft and, if you do, it stores these tidbits in a massive database. Engineers then tackle the "issues" (as they euphemistically call them) and hopefully come up with solutions.
One of Windows 7's most promising features is called Problem Reporting (it was called Problem Reports and Solutions in Vista), and it's designed to make solutions available to anyone who goes looking for them. Windows 7 keeps a list of problems your computer is having, so you can tell it to go online and see whether a solution is available. If there's a solution waiting, Windows 7 will download it, install it, and fix your system.
Here are the steps to follow to check for solutions to problems:
1. Select Start, type action, and then click Action Center in the results. (You can also click the Action Center icon in the taskbar's notification area, and then click Open Action Center.) The Action Center window appears.2. Click Maintenance to view the maintenance-related tools and messages.3. Click the Check for Solutions link. Windows 7 begins checking for solutions.4. If you see a dialog box asking whether you want to send more information about your problems, you can click View Problem Details to see information about the problems, as shown in Figure 21.8. When you're ready to move on, click Send Information.
FIGURE 21.8 If Windows 7 tells you it need more information, click View Problem Details tosee the problems.
5. If a solution exists for your computer, you see it listed in the Maintenance section of the Action Center window. Click the solution to install it. By default, when a problem occurs, Windows 7 does two things:
You can control this behavior by configuring a few settings:
1. Select Start, type action, and then click Action Center in the results. (You can also click the Action Center icon in the taskbar's notification area, and then click Open Action Center.) The Action Center window appears.2. Click Maintenance to view the maintenance-related tools and messages.3. Click Settings. The Problem Reporting Settings window appears.4. In the Choose How to Check for Solutions to Computer Problems window, click Advanced Settings to display the Advanced Settings for Problem Reporting window shown in Figure 21.9.
FIGURE 21.9 Use the Advanced Settings for Problem Reporting window to configure theProblem Reporting feature.
5. To configure problem reporting, click one of the following options:
6. By default, Windows 7 applies the setting from step 5 only to the current user. If you want to configure the same problem reporting option for every user, click the Change Report Settings for All Users link to open the Problem Reporting dialog box, choose the reporting option you want everyone to use, and then click OK.
NOTE If you change your mind and prefer each user to choose his or her own reporting option, click the Change Report Settings for All Users link, activate the Allow Each User to Choose Settings option, and then click OK.
7. If you don't want Windows 7 to send information about a specific program, click the Select Programs to Exclude from Reporting link to open the Advanced Problem Reporting Settings window. Click Add, locate and select the program's executable file, click Open, and then click OK.8. Click OK to put the new settings into effect.
Troubleshooting and recovering from problems Troubleshooting Windows 7 problems by determining the root cause Windows 7 troubleshooting tools and tips Troubleshooting Windows 7 issues using online resources
Printed with permission from Sams Publishing. Copyright 2009. Microsoft Windows 7 Unleashed by Paul McFedries. For more information about this title and other similar books, please visit Pearson.
Windows 7 monthly rollup KB4103718 and security-only update KB4103712 break down networking on computers installing them, and while Microsoft has already acknowledged the problems, a fix is yet to be provided to impacted systems.
In the meantime, however, 0patch has released a third-party Windows 7 update that addresses the security vulnerability detailed in CVE-2018-8174, and also fixed in Microsoft’s botched patches, without actually causing any other problems on Windows machines.
While some people might be reluctant to installing third-party Windows updates on their systems, an in-depth analysis published by 0patch shows exactly how their team of engineers managed to determine the root cause of the issue and resolve the vulnerabilities without breaking down network connections like Microsoft’s original fixes.
“Our micropatches for this vulnerability have been labeled ZP-320 and ZP-321 for 32-bit and 64-bit version of oleaut32.dll respectively, and are applicable on Windows 7 and Windows 2008 Server updated up to April 2018 Windows updates,” 0patch co-founder Mitja Kolsek explains.The vulnerability
CVE-2018-8174 is a remote code execution vulnerability in VBScript engine, and an attacker can successfully exploit it using a crafted website loaded in Internet Explorer or applications using this browser engine. The flaw exists in all versions of Windows, including in Windows 10, and Microsoft has already patched it.
But with Windows 7 updates causing networking issues, some users might decide to remove them, instead leaving their computers open to attacks.
Microsoft itself has already acknowledged attacks aimed at this flaw in the wild, and this emphasizes just how critical it is for users to keep their devices protected.
“An attacker who successfully exploited the vulnerability could gain the same user rights as the current user. If the current user is logged on with administrative user rights, an attacker who successfully exploited the vulnerability could take control of an affected system. An attacker could then install programs; view, change, or delete data; or create new accounts with full user rights,” Microsoft says.
The next Patch Tuesday takes place on June 12, though there’s a good chance that a revised update for Windows 7 systems might be released by Microsoft in the coming days.
Incident detection and response across thousands of hosts requires a deep understanding of actions and behavior across users, applications, and devices. While endpoint detection and protection tools can provide some lift out-of-the-box, deep insight and analysis of security-relevant events is crucial to detecting advanced threats. Over the past few years, Palantir has maintained an internal Windows Event Forwarding (WEF) pipeline for generating and centrally collecting logs of forensic and security value from Microsoft Windows hosts. Once these events are collected and indexed, alerting and detection strategies (ADS) can be constructed not only on high-fidelity security events (e.g. log deletion), but also for deviations from normalcy, such as unusual service account access, access to sensitive filesystem or registry locations, or installation of malware persistence. The goal of this blog post is twofold: First, to share our learnings and step-by-step instructions with WEF configuration and management workflows, and second to introduce our recently open-sourced library of consolidated WEF configurations, subscriptions, and group policy objects: http://github.com/palantir/windows-event-forwarding. The GitHub project provides the necessary building blocks for organizations to rapidly evaluate and deploy WEF to a production environment, and centralize public efforts to improve WEF subscriptions and encourage adoption. While WEF has become more popular in recent years, there are few comprehensive deployment guides. As such, WEF is — in our opinion — still dramatically underrepresented in the community, and it is our hope that this project may encourage others to adopt it for incident detection and response purposes. As we work with customers across the globe to help secure their environments, we believe that our configuration represents a solid security standard that can be applied in organizations of any size and maturity to deliver immediate security outcomes for detection and response. We acknowledge the efforts that Microsoft, IAD, and other contributors have made to this space — and wish to thank them for providing many of the subscriptions, ideas, and techniques that are covered in this post.WEF Basics
Windows Event Forwarding (WEF) is a powerful log forwarding solution integrated within modern versions of Microsoft Windows and has excellent documentation on its Microsoft Docs page. In summary:
While WEF can be configured as either a source or a collector-based model, we will be focusing on a source-initiated model, where each device forwards their logs to a centralized collector. This allows mobile devices (e.g., laptops) to connect back to the network and forward logs on their own schedule. A WEF connection requires a few basic components:
The following actions occur upon first receiving appropriate GPOs on a workstation:
As new devices are added to the domain and receive the appropriate security logging and WEF subscription GPOs, they will automatically begin forwarding events, reducing the administrative burden of ensuring log coverage and quality. The following is a visual depiction of a deployment scenario:WEF deployment architecture
A WEF server (e.g., WEST-WEF-01) is deployed for each Active Directory site (e.g., US-WEST) and runs the Event Log Collector service. A group policy object instructs all clients in the site to communicate with the WEF server, which provides a copy of the subscriptions that the workstation should use. The subscriptions are managed in Git, and are deployed via a continuous integration (CI) pipeline. Lastly, the forwarded events are written to custom Event Channels, and are then tagged and indexed into a Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) system.Limitations
While WEF provides immense value, it is not without limitations. These limitations should be considered when evaluating a WEF deployment for your organization.
Subscriptions are the central WEF configuration mechanism and determine which events should be forwarded, how they should be stored, and at what cadence and batch size they are sent.Defining WEF Subscriptions
The meat of a WEF subscription ruleset is defined by a collection of XML documents. The below picture annotates a representative subscription and its core components:
The XML schema is explained in the Microsoft MSDN documentation. The central configuration points are:
As the subscriptions are XML files, they can be source-controlled in a Git repository. When combined with a continuous integration (CI) pipeline, WEF subscription modification, revision, collaboration, and deployment become reliable and repeatable. An example workflow could allow the InfoSec team to directly modify the WEF subscriptions to collect security-critical event logs, while allowing the Support and Operations team to file a pull request with a subscription to collect crash logs for their own usage.Filtering Events with XPath
In order to maintain a high-fidelity event database or SIEM, it is important to filter down events to the subset relevant to an organization’s infrastructure. WEF supports XPath as a query language to implement such filters. The following is only a short primer on WEF XPath filtering, but hopefully will get you started with producing and testing your own custom filtering to make the most out of WEF. XPath is essentially a method for selecting specific XML nodes from an XML document, and WEF supports a subset of XPath 1.0. The primary restriction is that only XML elements that represent events can be selected by an event selector. All valid selectors start with Event or *. For simple queries that select events from a single source, using an XPath expression is fine. If the XPath expression is a compound expression that contains more than 20 expressions or you are querying for events from multiple sources, then you must use a structured XML query, see Consuming Events. For details on the elements of a structured XML query, see Query Schema. There are 4 main selectors:
The following shows a structured XML query that specifies a set of selectors and suppressors. This filter will grab all of the specified event IDs except those matching the SECURITY_LOCAL_SYSTEM_RID.<Query><![CDATA[<QueryList><Query Id="0" Path="Security"><!-- 4624: An account was successfully logged on. --><!-- 4625: An account failed to log on. --><!-- 4634: An account was successfully logged off. --><!-- 4672: Special privileges assigned to a new logon, administrative logins -sa, -ada, etc. --><!-- 4775: An account could not be mapped for logon. --><!-- 4777: The domain controller failed to validate the credentials for an account. --><!-- Suppress SECURITY_LOCAL_SYSTEM_RID A special account used by the OS, noisy --><Select Path="Security">*[System[(EventID=4624 or EventID=4625 or EventID=4634 or EventID=4672 or EventID=4775 or EventID=4777)]]</Select><Suppress Path="Security">*[EventData[Data="S-1-5-18"]]</Suppress></Query></QueryList>]]></Query>
You can use the Event Schema Elements as a starting point for your selector and suppressor queries. A few quick tips:
As described in the blog post Creating Custom Windows Event Forwarding Logs, WEF can be extended with additional custom event channels. Extending the number of event channels available provides a few primary benefits:
See below for instructions for defining and deploying custom event channels.Deploying WEF
The following is an enumeration of installation and configuration steps for a typical WEF deployment.Configure Auditing
In addition to the default Security, System, and Application logs generated by Windows, there are additional auditing settings available that are not enabled by default. These settings enable Windows to generate events that can be invaluable during the course of an investigation. For example, you can enable detailed process, registry, and file auditing among many others. The most straightforward way to configure these settings is by creating Group Policy Objects (GPOs) for them. You might consider creating separate policies for your Domain Controllers, servers, and workstations depending on your log capacity and risk profile. Auditing recommendations can be found at Microsoft — Security Auditing. It is highly recommended that you also account for PowerShell logging, and enable Script Block, Module, and Transcript logging.Deploy GPOs
The easiest way to manage WEF at scale is to create a series of GPOs that will configure subcomponents of the pipeline. For instance, with a multi-site network, you may wish for the following:
Examples of how to configure the GPOs can be found on the “Use Windows Event Forwarding to help with intrusion detection” post by Microsoft, or can be viewed in our GitHub Repository.Define and Deploy Subscriptions
After configuring auditing settings across your fleet, the next step is to determine which of those logs you would like to collect and centralize via the WEF infrastructure. Palantir’s WEF library contains a curated series of subscriptions for you to adopt or modify to suit your needs, see below for a more detailed description. Subscriptions can be defined and deployed from XML definitions or can be manually created in the Event Viewer GUI. To deploy descriptions from XML files, place them all in a single directory and navigate to that directory using PowerShell. The following script can be used to create and enable the Subscriptions that we provide in this repo. NOTE: This script is specifically designed to work with the Subscription filenames we provide in our WEF library. You may have to modify it if your XML filenames don’t match your actual Subscription names.Write-Output "Starting the Windows Event Collector Service"Start-Service wecsvcSet-Service wecsvc -StartupType Automatic Write-Output "Creating custom event subscriptions"cd c:\folder-containing-xml-subscriptions\cmd /c "for /r %i in (*.xml) do wecutil cs %i" Write-Output "Enabling custom event subscriptions"cmd /c "for /r %i in (*.xml) do wecutil ss %~ni /e:true" Configure Collectors
After you’ve defined the events you would like to collect via Subscriptions, it’s time to configure one or more servers to act as event collectors (also commonly referred to as Subscription Managers). This is also generally accomplished via a GPO, as described in the “Deploy GPOs” section above. If configuring WEC servers by hand, it is important to start the “Windows Event Collector” service and to configure it to start at boot. You will additionally need to enable WinRM and allow inbound connectivity on TCP/5985 (Kerberos) or TCP/5986 (HTTPS).Deploy Channels
Custom event channels are not a requirement in a WEF setup, but they do provide additional benefits outlined above in the “Windows Event Channels” section. Generally, this process involves creating a manifest file and building a resulting DLL from it, see Creating Custom Windows Event Forwarding Logs for details. Palantir’s WEF library provides a manifest and a pre-compiled DLL. The following steps to deploy the DLL have to be executed on each Subscription Manager:
Once you have functional WEC servers, you should consider turning them into dual-purpose PowerShell transcript servers. As PowerShell transcription logging creates files over an SMB share, it will not use the native WEF pipeline. We can take advantage of the existing infrastructure and simplify aggregation and collection through an SMB share, a security script, and additional GPOs. An overview of how to do so can be found in the blog post Microsoft ❤s the Blue Team.Extend WEF
Once a WEF pipeline has been created, it can be leveraged for reporting custom events. With strong assurances that any given event will eventually be indexed in a SIEM, both security and productivity tools can be deployed and write to a unified log facility. Our WEF library contains two such extensions, Autoruns-To-WineventLog and EMETDiag, see below.Shoot the Trouble
It can be frustrating to stand up logging infrastructure, only to discover that it’s not sending any of the logs you expected it to. Although sometimes unintuitive, there are a few key tools you can use to gain deeper insight into where a breakdown exists. Start by reviewing the necessary components described in the “WEF Overview” section above. Ensure all of the required components exist in your environment and are configured correctly. If you’re in the testing phase, consider setting the Subscription Manager refresh interval to a small value such as 60 seconds. This will ensure that logs are offloaded from your clients in a timely basis and reduce the amount of time you need to wait for logs to arrive. If you ever need to force push logs to the Subscription manager, running gpupdate /force from the client will also force a check-in. Additionally, information about errors or misconfigurations can be found in the Microsoft-Windows-Eventlog-ForwardingPlugin Event Log Channel on each of your clients. This event log is helpful for determining when ACLs are misconfigured on event logs, Subscriptions are somehow invalid, or when logging channels are missing from a host. On a subscription manager, the Event Viewer tool can help you gain insight into the status of each subscription by clicking on the “Subscriptions” option in the left hand column, selecting a Subscription, and clicking “Runtime status”.Palantir’s WEF Library
The following sections describe the configuration and tools provided in Palantir WEF library on GitHub: https://github.com/palantir/windows-event-forwarding/. It is important to note that the subscriptions and configurations provided will not solve all security use cases and may not run in all environments. It is highly recommended that the configurations are tested and tweaked for each organization. While we have done our best to find a good trade-off between signal and noise, we greatly welcome and encourage community participation in this project by filing a pull request or opening a GitHub issue.Subscriptions
In addition to our own definitions, our subscription library contains subscriptions from IADGOV’s excellent Event Forwarding Guidance repository as well as Microsoft’s documentation. The exhaustive list of WEF subscriptions can be found in the GitHub project; they cover the following scenarios:
Note that our WEF subscriptions assume you will be using the provided event channels, see below. If you do not choose to do so, you will need to change the target log file in each subscription.Event Channels
The Palantir WEF library contains a collection of custom Windows Event Channels, please refer to the README for a complete list. The channels are provided as a standard manifest file as well as a precompiled DLL. If you’re like us and don’t trust random DLLs, feel free to use our manifest file and build your own DLL. The Event Channel manifest provided in this project consists of 16 individual providers, each with 7 channels. Channels follow a standard naming scheme of WEC[#], where the number is related to the provider.Autoruns-To-WineventLog
Sysinternal’s Autoruns tool is used to search across different components of the Windows operating system to enumerate areas that are commonly used for persistence by malware and attack tools. While it’s commonly used on an ad hoc basis by forensic investigators, we wanted a steady stream of this information from our entire fleet. Having the ability to search through freshly reported persistence indicators is an invaluable dataset when hunting for badness. To accomplish this, we wrote a PowerShell script that we call Autoruns-to-Wineventlog. This script downloads the latest version of Autoruns onto the host, sets up a scheduled task to kick off Autoruns on a daily basis, and then parses the resulting CSV data into the “Autoruns” Windows Event Log channel. The resulting data is then ingested into our SIEM via the WEF pipeline. The code for Autoruns-to-Wineventlog serves as a representative sample of how easy it is to plug custom security tooling into a WEF pipeline.EMETDiag
While officially sunset and slated to be replaced with Defender Exploit Guard, the Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolset (EMET) provides an invaluable defense-in-depth layer against memory corruption and other exploit techniques. While configuring and using EMET is out of the scope of this article, there are instances where an application may not play well with the protection mechanisms offered, causing instability and crashes. When troubleshooting EMET crashes internally, we rely on a custom PowerShell script called EMETDiag that can be remotely pushed via our systems management suite, or deployed by hand. Once deployed, it automatically queries the EMET configuration, pulls back the most recent EMET events, application crashes, and other related data, and then summarizes and writes the data to a custom event that is indexed by WEF. Leveraging WEF allows for near-instant generation, forwarding, and indexing of data that can be used for troubleshooting purposes. Once indexed in the SIEM, it is available for immediate use by the Desktop Engineering team for analysis. The code for EMETDiag is slated for release in the GitHub project in the near future.Further Reading and Acknowledgements
Many open source publications were referenced for the development of our WEF library, and we wish to acknowledge those who have contributed to this effort:
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NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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