|Exam Name||:||OBJECT ORIENTED ANALYSIS AND DESIGN (JCERT)|
|Questions and Answers||:||112 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||February 15, 2019|
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evaluation emphasizes an investigation of the problem and requirements, as opposed to an answer. for example, if a brand new on-line trading device is preferred, how will it be used? What are its functions?
"analysis" is a huge term, most useful qualified, as in requirements analysis (an investigation of the necessities) or object-oriented evaluation (an investigation of the domain objects).
Design emphasizes a conceptual answer (in utility and hardware) that fulfills the necessities, in preference to its implementation. for instance, an outline of a database schema and software objects. Design ideas commonly exclude low-level or "obtrusive" details—glaring to the meant buyers. finally, designs will also be applied, and the implementation (comparable to code) expresses the actual and finished realized design.
As with evaluation, the term is most useful certified, as in object-oriented design or database design.
helpful evaluation and design have been summarized in the phrase do the correct thing (analysis), and do the factor appropriate (design).
Abstraction is a technique of hiding the implementation details from the consumer, simplest the functionality will be offered to the consumer.
In other phrases, the consumer may have the advice on what the item does as an alternative of the way it does it.
by using hiding complicated steps/particulars/computations/statements inner your courses and creating public find out how to entry them. Ex: Wrapper courses
Abstraction is a very broad subject matter. Above may also be seen as fundamental definition to assert every time anyone asks.
If we wish to go deep, Abstraction in particular depends upon element of view and a lot of definitions.
each feature can be viewed as primary abstraction.
for instance: A programmer doesn’t care about how malloc() works or how rubbish assortment works.Can have distinct implementations:
Don’t get confused this with polymorphism.
Abstraction is outlined via the desirable left and suitable correct images of the cat. The surgeon and the old woman designed (or visualized) the animal differently. in the identical manner, you can put diverse features in the Cat class, based upon the need of the application.
each cat has a liver, bladder, heart and lung, but when you want your cat to ‘purr’ simplest, you are going to abstract your application’s cat to the design on good-left as opposed to the true-correct.
nonetheless didn’t get it?
An abstraction is an idea that can have one or more implementations.
as an example: There are numerous ways in which your desktop can connect to a local network (Ethernet, Wi-Fi, dial-up modem, and many others.), but your internet browser doesn’t often have to be anxious about which of those you’re the usage of at any given time, as a result of lower-degree utility provides a common abstraction that your browser can rely on. So “connection to the network” is the abstraction, and Ethernet and Wi-Fi and so forth are implementations of that abstraction.
You’ll be aware that up to now I haven’t outlined object-oriented programming at all. That’s because the idea of enforcing abstractions is typical to all types of designs and architectures; it’s not particular to OOP.
In object-oriented programming, the place an implementation is probably going to be represented as an object distinct via a category, it’s usual for an abstraction to be unique via an summary class or an interface. but this does not suggest that abstract courses and interfaces are simplest for specifying abstractions, and conversely, it doesn’t suggest that all abstractions are targeted by using abstract classes and interfaces.
as an example, the famous Design Patterns (the singleton pattern, the manufacturing facility components pattern, and so on.) are all abstractions that aren't explicitly special in code; fairly, we have separate (unrelated) pieces of code for the quite a few implementations of those abstractions, and the abstraction basically resides within the programmer’s head (and in design documentation, and in the names of courses and variables etc).
The abstraction is for consumers (clients) of the category. There has to be an implementation, of direction; however, as an example, code that accepts a list<String> doesn’t should be anxious about no matter if the passed-in example is an ArrayList or a LinkedList , because they both put in force the necessary abstraction.building complex gadget by using splitting the complexity stage with the aid of level:
Abstraction in Object Oriented Programming helps to cover the inappropriate details of an object.
Abstraction is isolating the feature and homes that logically can be separated to a separate entity which the leading type depends upon.
This variety of Abstraction helps in separating the members that exchange often.
Abstraction is without doubt one of the key ideas of the OOAD(Object oriented analysis and Design).
applying Abstraction right through the design and area modelling, helps an awful lot in design the a equipment which is flexible and maintainable.
Abstraction may also be finished by Composition.
Abstraction example: A automobile has Engine, wheels and a lot of different elements. after we write all of the residences of the vehicle, Engine, and wheel in a single classification, it could seem this fashion:public category automobile int cost; String identify; String color; int engineCapacity; int engineHorsePower; String wheelName; int wheelPrice; void circulation() //stream ahead void rotate() //Wheels formulation void internalCombustion() //Engine method
in the above illustration, the attributes of wheel and engine are introduced to the vehicle category. As per the programming, this can now not create any sort of considerations. but when it involves renovation of the software, this turns into extra complicated.
Abstraction has three advantages: 1. through the use of abstraction, we can separate the things that can also be grouped to a further type.
2. commonly changing residences and techniques will also be grouped to a separate type in order that the main classification need not beneath go changes. This provides power to the GOAD precept -”Code should still be open for Extension but closed for amendment”.
3. Simplifies the illustration of the domain models.
making use of the abstraction with composition, the above example can also be modified as given beneath:public type car Engine engine = new Engine(); Wheel wheel = new Wheel(); int cost; String identify; String colour; void circulation() //flow forward
public class Engine int engineCapacity; int engineHorsePower;
void internalCombustion() //Engine methodpublic class Wheel String wheelName; int wheelPrice;
void rotate() //Wheels formula
which you can see that the attributes and techniques concerning the Engine and Wheel are moved to the respective classes.Engine and Wheel are referred from the car class. When ever an example of automobile is created, both Engine and Wheel may be attainable for the car and when there are changes to these kinds(Engine and Wheel), changes will simplest be restrained to those classes and should no longer affect the car classification.
abstract: Abstraction is without doubt one of the fundamental ideas of Object Oriented Programming languages. It helps to in the reduction of the complexity and also improves the maintainability of the gadget. When mixed with the ideas of the Encapsulation and Polymorphism, Abstraction offers greater energy to the article oriented programming languages.Abstraction is of 2 types:
Programming languages present handle abstraction as one of the leading applications of their use. computing device machines be aware operations at the very low stage similar to relocating some bits from one vicinity of the reminiscence to yet another location and producing the sum of two sequences of bits. Programming languages allow this to be achieved in the higher degree. as an instance, accept as true with this commentary written in a Pascal-like vogue:a := (1 + 2) * 5
To a human, this appears a reasonably standard and evident calculation (“one plus two is three, times 5 is fifteen”). youngsters, the low-level steps integral to perform this assessment, and return the price “15”, after which assign that cost to the variable “a”, are basically reasonably delicate and complicated. The values should be transformed to binary representation (often a tons more complex task than one would feel) and the calculations decomposed (via the compiler or interpreter) into meeting guidance (once again, which can be a good deal much less intuitive to the programmer: operations equivalent to transferring a binary register left, or including the binary complement of the contents of 1 register to yet another, are simply now not how humans consider concerning the abstract arithmetical operations of addition or multiplication). finally, assigning the resulting value of “15” to the variable labeled “a”, so that “a” will also be used later, comprises further ‘in the back of-the-scenes’ steps of looking up a variable’s label and the ensuing location in actual or virtual memory, storing the binary illustration of “15” to that memory place, etc.
without control abstraction, a programmer would should specify the entire register/binary-degree steps each time they with no trouble desired to add or multiply a couple of numbers and assign the outcome to a variable. Such duplication of effort has two critical terrible penalties:
Abstraction of facts constructions. statistics abstraction refers to defining the behaviour of the data structure. data may well be internally represented in alternative ways in concrete implementations.
facts abstraction is how to create complicated facts kinds and exposing most effective meaningful operations to interact with facts type, where as hiding all of the implementation particulars from backyard works.
advantage of this method comprises capacity of enhancing the implementation over time e.g. fixing performance considerations is any. The theory is that such adjustments don't seem to be supposed to have any have an effect on on customer code, considering the fact that they contain no difference within the summary behaviour.
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Analysis emphasizes an investigation of the problem and requirements, rather than a solution. For example, if a new online trading system is desired, how will it be used? What are its functions?
"Analysis" is a broad term, best qualified, as in requirements analysis (an investigation of the requirements) or object-oriented analysis (an investigation of the domain objects).
Design emphasizes a conceptual solution (in software and hardware) that fulfills the requirements, rather than its implementation. For example, a description of a database schema and software objects. Design ideas often exclude low-level or "obvious" details—obvious to the intended consumers. Ultimately, designs can be implemented, and the implementation (such as code) expresses the true and complete realized design.
As with analysis, the term is best qualified, as in object-oriented design or database design.
Useful analysis and design have been summarized in the phrase do the right thing (analysis), and do the thing right (design).
Object-orientation is what’s referred to as a programming paradigm. It’s not a language itself but a set of concepts that is supported by many languages.
If you aren’t familiar with the concepts of object-orientation, you may take a look at The Story of Object-Oriented Programming.
If everything we do in these languages is object-oriented, it means, we are oriented or focused around objects.
Now in an object-oriented language, this one large program will instead be split apart into self contained objects, almost like having several mini-programs, each object representing a different part of the application.
And each object contains its own data and its own logic, and they communicate between themselves.
These objects aren’t random. They represent the way you talk and think about the problem you are trying to solve in your real life.
They represent things like employees, images, bank accounts, spaceships, asteroids, video segment, audio files, or whatever exists in your program.Object-Oriented Analysis And Design (OOAD)
It’s a structured method for analyzing, designing a system by applying the object-orientated concepts, and develop a set of graphical system models during the development life cycle of the software.OOAD In The SDLC
The software life cycle is typically divided up into stages going from abstract descriptions of the problem to designs then to code and testing and finally to deployment.
The earliest stages of this process are analysis (requirements) and design.
The distinction between analysis and design is often described as “what Vs how”.
In analysis developers work with users and domain experts to define what the system is supposed to do. Implementation details are supposed to be mostly or totally ignored at this phase.
The goal of the analysis phase is to create a model of the system regardless of constraints such as appropriate technology. This is typically done via use cases and abstract definition of the most important objects using conceptual model.
The design phase refines the analysis model and applies the needed technology and other implementation constrains.
It focuses on describing the objects, their attributes, behavior, and interactions. The design model should have all the details required so that programmers can implement the design in code.
They’re best conducted in an iterative and incremental software methodologies. So, the activities of OOAD and the developed models aren’t done once, we will revisit and refine these steps continually.Object-Oriented Analysis
In the object-oriented analysis, we …
We’re not going to cover the first two activities, just the last one. These are already explained in detail in Requirements Engineering.Object-Oriented Design
The analysis phase identifies the objects, their relationship, and behavior using the conceptual model (an abstract definition for the objects).
While in design phase, we describe these objects (by creating class diagram from conceptual diagram — usually mapping conceptual model to class diagram), their attributes, behavior, and interactions.
In addition to applying the software design principles and patterns which will be covered in later tutorials.
The input for object-oriented design is provided by the output of object-oriented analysis. But, analysis and design may occur in parallel, and the results of one activity can be used by the other.
In the object-oriented design, we …
A class diagram gives a visual representation of the classes you need. And here is where you get to be really specific about object-oriented principles like inheritance and polymorphism.
Describing the interactions between those objects lets you better understand the responsibilities of the different objects, the behaviors they need to have.— Other diagrams
There are many other diagrams we can use to model the system from different perspectives; interactions between objects, structure of the system, or the behavior of the system and how it responds to events.
It’s always about selecting the right diagram for the right need. You should realize which diagrams will be useful when thinking about or discussing a situation that isn’t clear.
System modeling and the different models we can use will be discussed next.System Modeling
System modeling is the process of developing models of the system, with each model representing a different perspectives of that system.
The most important aspect about a system model is that it leaves out detail; It’s an abstract representation of the system.
The models are usually based on graphical notation, which is almost always based on the notations in the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Other models of the system like mathematical model; a detailed system description.
Models are used during the analysis process to help to elicit the requirements, during the design process to describe the system to engineers, and after implementation to document the system structure and operation.Different Perspectives
We may develop a model to represent the system from different perspectives.
The unified modeling language become the standard modeling language for object-oriented modeling. It has many diagrams, however, the most diagrams that are commonly used are:
You can do diagramming work on paper or on a whiteboard, at least in the initial stages of a project. But there are some diagramming tools that will help you to draw these UML diagrams.
Last updated: November 13, 2002 Recent updates are often in red.Contacting Eric Braude changed if this is red Materials changed if this is red Forums changed if this is red Overview changed if this is red Grading changed if this is red Project Organization changed if this is red Homework and Due Dates changed if this is red Phase 3 Required Background changed if this is red Learning Objectives changed if this is red Syllabus and Dates for Classes changed if this is red Overview
A major engineering problem today is the predictable development of reliable software-intensive systems. The object-oriented paradigm is an important part of such development.
Object-oriented methods can be divided into languages, distribution, and analysis and design. There change in the language category, particularly Java and C#. Distribution includes the use of vendor libraries of classes and also distributed objects as specified by the Object Management Group etc. Basic to the entire enterprise, however, are analysis and design, which has remained remarkable stable for years. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design includes the overall goals of the object paradigm, the selection of classes, the relationships among them, and their utilization to implement systems.Required Background
A knowledge of C++ or Java (MET CS 565) and software engineering methods (MET CS 673) are required. It is preferable to have taken Design Patterns (MET CS 665).Materials and references
The recommended textbook is “Applying UML and Patterns: An Introduction to Object-Oriented Analysis and Design, and the Unified Process ” by Larman (Prentice Hall) 2nd edition, Published July 2001, 627 pages, ISBN 0130925691. This is the first time that this instructor has used this book, and it is not clear how much the book will be used.
The instructor will provide notes for all classes.
Students will be able to …
The course will consist of homework and a project, weighted as follows:
1. Homework: 30%
2. Project: 70%
There are three phases for the project, graded as follows:
Parts are evaluated equally unless otherwise stated.
Late homework is not accepted unless there is a reason why it was impossible for you. If there is such an impossibility, the work will be graded on a pass/fail basis.Project Organization
You will be required to submit an analyzed, designed and implemented project according to the deadlines shown in the schedule. Detailed requirements will follow.
With the instructor’s permission, it may be possible to substitute all or part of the project with an investigation of tools for OOA&D such as Rational Rose or Together. This will require a detailed evaluation and an investigation of how these tools are being used extensively in a particular company.
Teams two are permitted, and will be evaluated at a higher standard. All members must know all parts.
You will be required to give a presentation on at least two of the phases in your project.Syllabus:
This syllabus is subject to about 15% modification.
The order of topics will be driven by the notes, which the instructor will hand out, not by the textbook. The textbook will serve as background and reference.Wk. Date Topic Text
Times are approximate. See “date homework due” section for final dates1 9/3
Assign phase 24 9/24
Larman 106 10/8 Notes 14 part 1 Assign phase 3 7 10/22 To be determined Presentations; Phase 2 due; 8 10/29
Phase 3 due11 11/19 Presentations on detailed designs 12 11/26
Dates Homework is dueNum-ber Name Due date Project phase 1 9/24 1 “Design Issues” 9/17 1 3.4 (Pass Fail) 9/17 Project phase 2: (10/2/2002
1.Attach first a copy of your phase 1. Respond specifically to whatever comments I may have made on your phase 1. You can write these directly on the copy.
Show the sequence diagrams for at least the two use cases you have introduced. Key them to the use case steps, which you should number.3.List requirements by “domain class” paragraphs, including
— The testable functionality that the application will definitely accomplish
–What you would like to have the application accomplish if time permits
Criterion: a. Requirements clearly written. (A = very clear description of application’s goals; no detail omitted)
4.Provide a class diagram for your project consisting of all of the domain classes as well as the domain packages that you will use.
b. Clarity and completeness Sufficiency of key classes for committed requirements and use cases (A = very clear class meanings; no domain class missing no other domain classes required)
g. Economy (A = no redundancy at all in the class model)
Here are some typical improvements.
Most room for improvement
1. Make your domain names specific to your application; e.g., PetStoreTransaction, FootballGame, FootballTeam rather than Transaction or Game or Team.
2. Use the “entities” section correctly. This applies when there are specific entities that the application is required to have. It does not include entities that will be created at runtime that you can’t specify entirely at requirements time.
3. Many internal classes have corresponding GUI classes. For example, PetStoreAccount entities may get their data from a PetStoreAccountGUI entity. Specify the latter in its own category rather than under PetStoreAccount.
4. In your requirements, distinguish between the initiator and the substance of functionality.
For example, under “Courses” a functionality might be “12.1.5 The application shall be able to display the catalog description of each course in the following format …” (Corresponds to class Course). Under the “Course GUI” paragraph an event might be “When the display course button is pressed, the functionality described in section 12.1.5 is initated.” Under the “Student GUI” paragraph an event might be “When the show course button is pressed, the functionality described in section 12.1.5 is initated.” Etc.
Do not say “12.1.5 When the display course button is pressed on the Course GUI, the application can display the catalog description of each course in the following format …” Otherwise you will have a maintenance nightmare and a poor mapping to the design and implementation.
Room for improvement
objects are not sensitive to events unless they are GUI objects. Buttons are examples. Many objects have functionality that may be invoked as a result of an event on an
other object. For example, a customer’s information may be displayed when the button is clicked. But “display” is a function of Customer: Any one of clients can invoke it, some event-sensitive and others not. The object with (direct) event reaction is the button, not the customer.
2. In your requirements document, don’t say “The customer shall include a name …” (which is strange English). Instead: “The application shall maintain the name of customers ….”
3. Distinguish between objects and object aggregates. For example, you could have a “Customers” requirements paragraph with functionality such as “App shall be able to send a customer profile to the central database.” This will correspond to a class Customer. You could also have a “Customer List” paragraph with functionality such as “It shall be possible to add new customers …” This will correspond to a class such as CustomerList.
4. Don’t waste words. In particular, give a sentence or two under each paragraph that adds value.
This section describes the requirements for customers.
The application shall track the customers of the video store as follows. …
1.10/22 3 Clown problem 10/9/02
Draw a class model for an application for drawing human figures. The picture shown is a typical product of the application. The figures are always neck-upward; mouths are always lines, necks always rectangles, etc. – the shapes that appear in the figure. Assume that the business will never change — but we want to be able to easily upgrade the shop’s capability within these constraints (e.g., draw necks with various colors, new kinds of border lines). The class model should make figure drawing convenient (e.g., allowing the retrieval of previously constructed figure parts). Show attributes or operations whenever they clarify your solution. Include useful abstractions (but to extend the current business).
There is no requirement to take into account the GUI for the application (icons, menu’s etc.)
Here is a scenario:
The user … pulls onto the monitor “abeLincolnFace14” (which excludes the ears and neck)
… adds “ear123” on the left by dragging to its vicinity and releasing
The application places ear123 in a correct position
The user invokes the “complete with suitable parts” command.
… completes the figure with a neck and hat that it considers most suitable.
… creates an ear on the right, complete with matching position, interior texture and color, and styles of border lines
Criteria: a. completeness relative to requirements (A = sufficient classes for requirements, including appropriate generalizations)
b. economy of classes (A = no more than necessary for requirements)10/29 4 14.1 – 14.6 11/5 see more below see below
Project Phase 3: Due 11/12
1. Attach a copy of your phase 2 as graded by me, with specific responses to whatever comments I may have made on your phase 2.
2. Provide a class diagram for your project, showing inheritance and aggregation. Show key methods, key dependencies, and inheritance and aggregation. Use your packages and Facades to avoid a single overwhelming figure.
3. Show at least one additional model that completes your design.
a. Clarity of the model (A = very clear class meanings; very clear organization; no unnecessary details)
b. Adequacy of class model for effecting the requirements. (A= detailed enough to clearly allow an implementation that satisfies the requirements.)
g. Completeness **** of models to specify the entire design. (A=right models selected; clearly no gaps in description)
Most room for improvement
1. If you use a data flow diagram, indicate the data types that flow.
2. If you use a data flow diagram, indicate the functionality at each processing node.
3. In the interest of clarity, show the relationships among the packages. You can employ <<uses>> relationships. Omit the classes from such a figure.
Room for improvement
1. In this course we did not give meaning to solid lines with arrows. Explain what you mean by them, or don’t use them.
2. Be specific about associations: Do you mean two-way aggregations?
3. You have introduced a class whose name does not indicate a clear purpose and which is not a domain class. Explain it’s purpose.
A Little room for improvement
Project Phase 4: Due 12/10
Section 1 Attach Phases 2 and 3. Response to my comments on phase 3. ( not graded, but required)
Section 2 Show representative input and output.
Section 3 Explain the application of all of the steps covered in the notes — explain if they did not apply.
(criterion: a. Clarity and completeness — A = all relevant steps thoroughly implemented where applicable and explained where not)
Section 4 Provide a complete class diagram and other appropriate model(s), building on the models you submitted for phase 3.
(criterion: b. clarity and completeness — A = very clearly chosen and arranged models)
Section 5 Account of the degree to which you accomplished your requirements as given in phase 2. Please refer to them by number (e.g., 11.3.5).
(criterion: g. degree of accomplishment. A = excellent functional capabilities for a graduate course)
Section 6. Source code.
(d. criterion: clarity — A = extremely clear layout & code; each part easily traceable to the corresponding design element)
note that your class diagrams and code must be consistent;
indicate all differences with prior design decisions;
indicate all sections using numbered tabs (e.g., Post-it notes)
Forums — past and present
Fall 2002 email to the group is: 770F02@yahoogroups.com
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