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within the early 90s, Novell had here certifications accessible: CNA-licensed Novell Administrator, CNE-licensed Novell Engineer, and the ECNE-business certified Novell Engineer (the MCNE-grasp CNE has in view that replaced the ECNE). The CNA, CNE, and MCNE are nevertheless accessible. moreover, Novell has the CDE-licensed listing Engineer, the CNI-licensed Novell teacher, and the MCNI-master certified Novell instructor. Novell's CIP-certified internet skilled certification has recently merged with Prosoft's CIW. i will be able to focus on the CIW alternate options in an upcoming article. additionally, because this is now not a coach's discussion board, i cannot address the CNI or MCNI. if you have a question concerning the CNI or MCNI, suppose free to drop me an e-mail or put up a remark, and that i can be pleased to reply. I can also be reached at email@example.com. If sufficient interest is expressed, I will be glad to handle lots of the quite a lot of trainer options that exist in the present IT market, together with the CNI and MCNI, in a future essay.
The CNA is the entry-degree Novell certification. The CNA is designed for these constructing workstations, managing clients and organizations, administering a printing ambiance, and automating community access. it is a one-check, one-path certification. counting on the working system that you aid, that you can earn the CNA in NetWare 5, IntraNetWare, and GroupWise 5. The CNA in NetWare three and GroupWise four could be retired on the end of 2001. if you're administering a GroupWise 5.5 atmosphere (GroupWise is Novell's e mail device), you can also earn the CNA.
The CNE is one in all Novell's Premier certifications. reckoning on the CNE song that you simply pursue, you are going to take either six or seven assessments. The CNE is designed for networking experts who are chargeable for retaining their networks up and operating. These are the folks charged with designing a TCP/IP internetwork and designing a directory functions implementation. There are five tracks which are currently provided, two of which may be retired on the end of 2001. These tracks are NetWare 5, GroupWise 5 and IntraNetWare. (The NetWare three and GroupWise four tracks can be retired.) in order to earn the NetWare 5 CNE, you should pass six tests: a) NetWare 5.1 Administration; b) NetWare 5.1 superior Administration; c) NetWare 5.1 Design and Implementation; d) Networking technologies; e) carrier and help; and f) one optionally available. The electives encompass a) desktop administration with ZENworks; b) computer administration with ZENworks for computers three; c) information superhighway protection management with BorderManager; d) network administration the use of ManageWise 2.7; e) community management the use of ManageWise 2.6; f) TCP/IP for Networking specialists; g) Integrating NetWare and home windows NT; or h) GroupWise 5.5 Administration. IntraNetWare and GroupWise 5.5 CNEs have one test to absorb addition to their earlier CNE necessities: either the NetWare 5.1 superior Administration check or the NetWare 4.11 to NetWare 5.1 replace examination. This requirement is as a result of Novell needs all legacy CNEs to improve their core competencies to the NetWare 5.1 platform.
Novell has these days introduced the requirements for the brand new NetWare 6 CNE song. As of this writing, NetWare 6 CNEs could have seven checks to flow: a) eDirectory Administration with NetWare 6; b) CompTIA's network + examination; c) NetWare 6 superior Administration; d) NDS Design and Implementation; e) provider and assist; f) TCP/IP for Networking authorities; and g) computer administration for ZENworks with computers 3. Novell is additionally planning other changes to the CNE certification with the intention to revolve across the conception of skillability Certificates. check Novell's internet web page http://www.novell.com/training/certinfo/ for constructing details.
One question that arises as Novell displays the NetWare 6 CNE requirements is here: when you are already pursuing the NetWare 5 CNE, when you finish it, or for those who wait for the NetWare 6 tune to roll out? according to Novell's historical past, in case you have made an investment of time and funds within the NetWare 5 tune, conclude it. which you could expect that each the NetWare 5 and NetWare 6 tracks will be accessible as certification alternate options once the NetWare 6 tune rolls out for a big length. if you earn the NetWare 5 CNE, Novell's past record has shown that you're going to only should take a single replace examination. I had to take a single update exam when IntranetWare came out with the intention to improve from NetWare 4.1 when NetWare 5.0 came out and when NetWare 5.1 rolled out. here is now not Microsoft, for which you should take an additional seven assessments to upgrade from NT three.fifty one to four.0; then you definately need to take an extra seven tests when you upgrade from NT 4.0 to windows 2000.
The MCNE is designed for these people who are responsible for integrating NDS with the structures of alternative companies. The MCNE music is undergoing a big overhaul. as much as July 31, 2001, Novell had six tracks that ended in the MCNE. These tracks protected management, Connectivity, Messaging, web/Intranet solutions, NetWare and UNIX Integration, and NetWare and windows NT Integration. i used to be in a position to earn the MCNE in administration, Connectivity, Messaging, and NT Integration. valuable April 15, 2001, Novell streamlined the six tracks into a single MCNE tune. To earn the MCNE now, candidates ought to have the NetWare 5 CNE after which must flow four assessments: one core requirement and three electives. The core requirement is TCP/IP for Networking experts. The three electives will also be any three of here: a) GroupWise 6 advanced Administration; b) GroupWise 5 internet entry and Connectivity version 2; c) Integrating NetWare and home windows NT; d) Integrating NDS eDirectory and energetic listing; e) network administration using Managewise 2.7; f) cyber web safety management with BorderManager; g) desktop administration with ZENworks; h) desktop management with ZENworks for pcs 3; or i) Managing NetScape commercial enterprise Server for NetWare. Novell also lately announced extra adjustments to the MCNE track when NetWare 6 rolls out. The adjustments will encompass two CompTIA tests. master CNE candidates may be required to move CompTIA's Server+ and IT assignment+ tests. master CNEs upgrading from NetWare 5 could be required to pass the IT task+ exam as a continuing certification requirement. assess Novell's internet web site http://www.novell.com/schooling/certinfo/ for the latest information.
The CDE, one in every of Novell's most up-to-date certifications, is designed for advanced support persons who should recognize a way to integrate and troubleshoot directory-service concerns. The focus of this certification is the vigor of directory capabilities, even with the father or mother platform: NetWare, UNIX, or W2K. NetWare 5 CNEs can earn the CDE by passing two tests: a) the advanced NDS equipment and Diagnostics test; and b) the directory technologies examine. The advanced NDS tools and Diagnostics examine has a written and functional element. Microsoft MCSEs, Cisco CCIEs and CCNPs, and IBM certified experts can also earn the CDE. They deserve to pass the two up to now mentioned assessments and two extra tests. these checks are: a) NDS Design and Implementation; and b) Microsoft's Designing home windows 2000 directory functions or NetWare 5.1 Administration for Cisco and IBM folks. Microsoft folks can make a choice from Integrating NDS eDirectory and home windows NT or the Microsoft Designing home windows 2000 listing services test. I haven't yet pursued or earned the CDE. Many who have sat in the course of the ILTs and corresponding checks have instructed me that the CDE checks are a real test of your competencies and purposeful knowledge. here's some of the few Novell certifications that I do not currently cling. it's my intent to pursue it someday this 12 months as a result of I believe it will proceed to increase my earning advantage, and it'll continue to validate my present ability set. i will permit you to know how it goes.
January 24, 2000Web posted at: 12:eleven p.m. EST (1711 GMT)
through John Bass and James Robinson, network World look at various Alliance
(IDG) -- it all boils right down to what you are hunting for in a community operating system (NOS).
Do you need it lean and versatile so you can set up it any means you please? in all probability administration bells and administration whistles are what you need so you can installation several hundred servers. Or maybe you want an operating system that is robust ample so that you sleep like a child at nighttime?
The respectable information is that there's a NOS waiting just for you. After the rash of contemporary application revisions, we took an in-depth examine 4 of the primary NOSes available on the market: Microsoft's home windows 2000 superior Server, Novell's NetWare 5.1, red Hat application's Linux 6.1 and The Santa Cruz Operation's (SCO) UnixWare 7.1.1. sun declined our invitation to post Solaris since the enterprise says it's engaged on a new edition.
Microsoft's windows 2000 edges out NetWare for the community World Blue Ribbon Award. windows 2000 tops the box with its administration interface, server monitoring tools, storage administration facilities and protection measures.
although, if it's performance you might be after, no product got here close to Novell's NetWare 5.1's numbers in our exhaustive file service and community benchmarks. With its lightning-speedy engine and Novell's directory-primarily based administration, NetWare presents an outstanding base for an business community.
We discovered the newest release of pink Hat's commercial Linux bundle led the listing for flexibility as a result of its modular design lets you pare down the working device to go well with the assignment at hand. additionally, that you can create scripts out of varied Linux instructions to automate projects across a distributed ambiance.
whereas SCO's UnixWare perceived to lag in the back of the pack in terms of file provider performance and NOS-based administration points, its scalability aspects make it a powerful candidate for operating commercial enterprise applications.The numbers are in
even with the job you saddle your server with, it has to perform well at studying and writing files and sending them across the network. We designed two benchmark suites to measure each and every NOS in these two classes. To replicate the precise world, our benchmark tests accept as true with a big range of server circumstances.
NetWare was the hands-down leader in our efficiency benchmarking, taking first place in two-thirds of the file assessments and earning correct billing within the community assessments.
pink Hat Linux adopted NetWare in file efficiency standard and even outpaced the leader in file checks where the study/write hundreds have been small. despite the fact, Linux did not operate smartly handling giant loads - those exams through which there have been more than 100 users. below heavier person hundreds, Linux had a bent to stop servicing file requests for a brief length and then delivery up once again.
home windows 2000 tested bad write performance across all our file assessments. definitely, we found that its write efficiency turned into about 10% of its study performance. After consulting with both Microsoft and customer/Server options, the author of the Benchmark factory checking out tool we used, we determined that the terrible write performance may well be because of two components. One, which we were unable to verify, can be a possible efficiency difficulty with the SCSI driver for the hardware we used.
greater massive, though, was an issue with our look at various software. Benchmark manufacturing unit sends a write-via flag in each of its write requests that is meant to trigger the server to replace cache, if appropriate, and then force a write to disk. When the write to disk happens, the write name is released and the next request may also be sent.
firstly glance, it regarded as if windows 2000 become the handiest working system to honor this write-via flag as a result of its write performance turned into so negative. hence, we ran a second circular of write assessments with the flag grew to become off.
With the flag grew to become off, NetWare's write efficiency extended with the aid of 30%. This look at various proved that Novell does indeed honor the write-through flag and will write to disk for every write request when that flag is decided. but when the write-via flag is disabled, NetWare writes to disk in a extra effective manner with the aid of batching collectively contiguous blocks of data on the cache and writing all those blocks to disk without delay.
Likewise, crimson Hat Linux's efficiency accelerated by using 10% to 15% when the write-via flag became grew to become off. once we examined the Samba file device code, we discovered that it too honors the write-through flag. The Samba code then finds an top-rated time during the study/write sequence to write to disk.
This 2nd round of file testing proves that home windows 2000 is based on its file device cache to optimize write efficiency. The results of the trying out with the write-through flag off have been lots larger - as a good deal as 20 instances sooner. youngsters, home windows 2000 nonetheless fell at the back of both NetWare and RedHat Linux within the file write exams when the write-via flag turned into off.
SCO honors the write-via flag by using default, on the grounds that its journaling file equipment is constructed to maximise statistics integrity via writing to disk for all write requests. The effects in the write tests with the write-via flag on were very corresponding to the check results with the write-through flag turned off.
For the network benchmark, we developed two checks. Our long TCP transaction look at various measured the bandwidth each and every server can maintain, whereas our brief TCP transaction examine measured every server's means to tackle massive numbers of network periods with small file transactions.
despite a terrible displaying within the file benchmark, home windows 2000 came out on appropriate in the lengthy TCP transaction check. windows 2000 is the only NOS with a multithreaded IP stack, which allows for it to handle community requests with numerous processors. Novell and crimson Hat say they are engaged on integrating this ability into their items.
NetWare and Linux also registered potent long TCP test outcomes, coming in 2nd and third, respectively.
in the short TCP transaction check, NetWare came out the clear winner. Linux earned second place despite its lack of assist for abortive TCP closes, a way by which an working equipment can promptly tear down TCP connections. Our testing utility, Ganymede application's Chariot, makes use of abortive closes in its TCP tests.stepping into administration
As business networks develop to require greater servers and assist greater conclusion clients, NOS administration equipment turn into crucial elements in preserving networks beneath handle. We appeared at the administration interfaces of each product and drilled down into how every dealt with server monitoring, client administration, file and print management, and storage management.
We found home windows 2000 and NetWare deliver equally advantageous management interfaces.
Microsoft administration Console (MMC) is the glue that holds many of the home windows 2000 administration performance collectively. This configurable graphical consumer interface (GUI) means that you can snap in Microsoft and third-birthday party applets that personalize its performance. it be a two-paned interface, an awful lot like home windows Explorer, with a nested listing on the left and selection details on the appropriate. The console is easy to use and lets you configure many native server aspects, together with users, disks, and device settings similar to time and date.
MMC also allows you to enforce management policies for organizations of clients and computer systems using energetic directory, Microsoft's new directory provider. From the active listing management tool inside MMC, which you can configure clients and alter guidelines.
The community configuration equipment are found in a separate utility that opens in the event you click on on the network locations icon on the laptop. each community interface is listed interior this window. you can add and change protocols and configure, allow and disable interfaces from here with out rebooting.
NetWare offers several interfaces for server configuration and administration. These tools offer duplicate functionality, however each and every is valuable based from where you are trying to control the device. The gadget Console offers a few tools for server configuration. one of the vital positive is NWConfig, which means that you can trade start-up files, installation device modules and configure the storage subsystem. NWConfig is elementary, intuitive and predictable.
ConsoleOne is a Java-primarily based interface with a couple of graphical equipment for managing and configuring NetWare. Third-celebration administration equipment can plug into ConsoleOne and permit you to control multiple functions. We believe ConsoleOne's interface is somewhat unsophisticated, however it works neatly satisfactory for those who should have a windows- primarily based supervisor.
Novell also presents a web-accessible management software called NetWare administration Portal, which lets you manipulate NetWare servers remotely from a browser, and NWAdmin32, a relatively fundamental customer-side tool for administering Novell directory functions (NDS) from a home windows 95, ninety eight or NT client.
red Hat's basic methods management interface is referred to as LinuxConf and can run as a graphical or textual content-based mostly application. The graphical interface, which resembles that of MMC, works well but has some design considerations that make it tricky to make use of at times. for example, for those who run a setup utility that takes up loads of the monitor, the system resizes the software higher than the computing device dimension.
nonetheless, which you could manipulate fairly a lot the rest on the server from LinuxConf, and you can use it in the community or remotely over the internet or by the use of telnet. you could configure equipment parameters comparable to network addresses; file system settings and user money owed; and installation add-on features akin to Samba - which is a carrier that lets home windows customers get to data residing on a Linux server - and FTP and internet servers. that you could follow adjustments with out rebooting the system.
universal, red Hat's interface is effective and the underlying equipment are potent and flexible, however LinuxConf lacks the polish of the other vendors' equipment.
SCO Admin is a GUI-based entrance conclusion for roughly 50 SCO UnixWare configuration and management equipment in a single window. in the event you click on a tool, it brings up the application to control that item in a separate window.
some of SCO's equipment are GUI-based whereas others are text-based. The server required a reboot to practice many of the adjustments. On the plus aspect, that you can control dissimilar UnixWare servers from SCOAdmin.
SCO also presents a effective Java-based mostly remote administration tool referred to as WebTop that works out of your browser.a watch on the servers and customers
One important administration project is monitoring the server itself. Microsoft leads the pack in how smartly you can preserve an eye fixed in your server's internals.
The windows 2000 system display screen permits you to view a real-time, running graph of equipment operations, akin to CPU and community utilization, and memory and disk usage. We used these tools noticeably to investigate the impact of our benchmark exams on the operating equipment. an additional tool called community monitor has a fundamental network packet analyzer that permits you to see the styles of packets coming into the server. together, these Microsoft utilities may also be used to examine performance and capacity across multiple home windows 2000 servers.
NetWare's computer screen utility displays processor utilization, reminiscence usage and buffer utilization on a native server. in case you understand what to search for, it will also be a magnificent tool for diagnosing bottlenecks within the device. learning the that means of each and every of the monitored parameters is just a little of a problem, though.
if you need to study performance information across distinct servers, which you can tap into Novell's net management Portal.
crimson Hat presents the ordinary Linux command-line tools for monitoring the server, such as iostat and vmstat. It has no graphical monitoring equipment.
as with any Unix working device, which you could write scripts to automate these equipment throughout Linux servers. youngsters, these tools are customarily cryptic and require a excessive stage of talent to make use of readily. a collection of graphical monitoring equipment could be an outstanding addition to crimson Hat's Linux distribution.
UnixWare also offers a few monitoring equipment. equipment monitor is UnixWare's primary but limited GUI for monitoring processor and memory utilization. The sar and rtpm command-line equipment collectively record true-time device utilization of buffer, CPUs and disks. together, these equipment offer you a superb standard theory of the load on the server.customer administration
together with managing the server, you ought to manage its clients. it's no surprise that the two NOSes that ship with an integrated directory provider topped the field in customer administration equipment.
We had been capable of configure person permissions via Microsoft's active listing and the listing administration device in MMC. that you can group users and computers into organizational units and practice policies to them.
you can control Novell's NDS and NetWare consumers with ConsoleOne, NWAdmin or NetWare management Portal. each and every can create clients, manipulate file house, and set permissions and rights. additionally, NetWare ships with a five-consumer version of Novell's ZENworks device, which offers desktop administration features comparable to hardware and application inventory, software distribution and remote control functions.
purple Hat Linux doesn't present a lot within the way of client administration points. You must handle native users via Unix permission configuration mechanisms.
UnixWare is similar to pink Hat Linux when it comes to client administration, however SCO offers some home windows binaries on the server to remotely set file and directory permissions from a home windows client, as well as create and change clients and their settings. SCO and purple Hat present help for the Unix-based community information carrier (NIS). NIS is a shop for community guidance like logon names, passwords and home directories. This integration helps with client administration.handling the staples: File and print
A NOS is nothing without the ability to share file storage and printers. Novell and Microsoft accumulated correct honors in these areas.
you could with ease add and hold printers in home windows 2000 the use of the print administration wizard, and you can add file shares using energetic directory administration tools. home windows 2000 additionally presents distributed File capabilities, which allow you to combine data on multiple server into a single share.
Novell disbursed Print services (NDPS) let you straight away incorporate printers into the network. When NDPS senses a new printer on the network, it defines a Printer Agent that runs on the printer and communicates with NDS. then you definitely use NDS to outline the policies for the new printer.
You outline NetWare file services through creating and then mounting a disk quantity, which additionally manages quantity policies.
crimson Hat includes Linux's printtool utility for constructing server-linked and networks printers. that you would be able to also use this GUI to create printcap entries to define printer access.
Linux has a set of command-line file equipment configuration tools for mounting and unmounting partitions. Samba ships with the product and gives some integration for home windows purchasers. you could configure Samba simplest via a cryptic configuration ASCII file - a serious downside.
UnixWare gives a versatile GUI-primarily based printer setup tool referred to as Printer SetUp supervisor. For file and quantity management, SCO presents a device called VisionFS for interoperability with windows consumers. We used VisionFS to enable our NT shoppers to access the UnixWare server. This service turned into handy to configure and use.Storage management
home windows 2000 provides the optimum tools for storage management. Its graphical control Disks tool for local disk configuration contains software RAID management; that you could dynamically add disks to a quantity set while not having to reboot the device. moreover, a signature is written to each of the disks in an array in order that they will also be moved to an extra 2000 server without needing to configure the quantity on the brand new server. the brand new server recognizes the drives as individuals of a RAID set and adds the extent to the file equipment dynamically.
NetWare's volume management tool, NWConfig, is convenient to make use of, however will also be a bit difficult to set up a RAID volume. as soon as we knew what we have been doing, we had no problems formatting drives and making a RAID volume. The device looks a little primitive, but we give it high marks for functionality and ease of use.
red Hat Linux offers no graphical RAID configuration equipment, but its command line equipment made RAID configuration easy.
To configure disks on the UnixWare server, we used the Veritas extent manager graphical disk and quantity administration device that ships with UnixWare. We had some problems initially getting the device to admire the drives so that they could be formatted. We managed to work across the disk configuration issue using an assortment of command line equipment, after which quantity manager worked smartly.protection
while we did not probe these NOSes notably to expose any safety weaknesses, we did look at what they offered in safety elements.
Microsoft has made huge strides with home windows 2000 safety. home windows 2000 supports Kerberos public key certificates as its basic authentication mechanism within a site, and allows further authentication with sensible cards. Microsoft offers a protection Configuration tool that integrates with MMC for convenient administration of protection objects in the energetic directory capabilities device, and a new Encrypting File device that permits you to designate volumes on which files are immediately kept the use of encryption.
Novell added guide for a public-key infrastructure into NetWare 5 using a public certificate schema developed by using RSA security that means that you can tap into NDS to generate certificates.
crimson Hat presents a basic Kerberos authentication mechanism. With crimson Hat Linux, as with most Unix working methods, the community features will also be personally controlled to enhance protection. pink Hat offers Pluggable Authentication Modules as a means of allowing you to set authentication guidelines throughout programs working on the server. Passwords are included with a shadow file. red Hat also bundles firewall and VPN services.
UnixWare has a collection of protection tools known as security supervisor that allows you to install various degrees of intrusion protection across your network features, from no restrict to turning all community services off. it be a great administration time saver, although you might manually adjust the capabilities to achieve the identical effect.stability and fault tolerance
the most characteristic-wealthy NOS is of little price if it can't preserve a server up and working. windows 2000 presents utility RAID 0, 1 and 5 configurations to deliver fault tolerance for onboard disk drives, and has a developed-in community load-balancing function that permits a bunch of servers to seem like one server and share the identical community identify and IP address. The group decides which server will service each and every request. This not simplest distributes the network load across a couple of servers, it additionally gives fault tolerance in case a server goes down. On a lesser scale, that you could use Microsoft's Failover Clustering to deliver primary failover features between two servers.
As with NT four.0, windows 2000 gives reminiscence insurance plan, which skill that every procedure runs in its own segment.
There are also backup and repair capabilities bundled with windows 2000.
Novell has an add-on product for NetWare known as Novell Cluster features that means that you can cluster as many as eight servers, all managed from one vicinity the usage of ConsoleOne, NetWare management Portal or NWAdmin32. but Novell presently presents no clustering items to give load balancing for functions or file features. NetWare has an complicated reminiscence protection scheme to segregate the reminiscence used for the kernel and applications, and a Storage administration services module to supply a particularly bendy backup and repair facility. Backups can also be all-inclusive, cowl materials of a quantity or shop a differential photo.
red Hat gives a load-balancing product called piranha with its Linux. This kit gives TCP load balancing between servers in a cluster. There is not any complicated limit to the variety of servers that you can configure in a cluster. red Hat Linux additionally offers application RAID assist through command line equipment, has reminiscence insurance plan capabilities and offers a rudimentary backup facility.
SCO provides an non-compulsory function to cluster a few servers in a load-balancing atmosphere with continuous Clustering for a high level of fault-tolerance. currently, continuous Clustering helps six servers in a cluster. UnixWare gives application RAID assist this is managed using SCO's online records manager characteristic. all the regular RAID stages are supported. laptop buddies' bundled ArcServeIT 6.6 gives backup and repair capabilities. UnixWare has reminiscence insurance plan capabilities.Documentation
as a result of our checking out turned into conducted earlier than windows 2000's normal availability ship date, we have been not capable of evaluate its tough-replica documentation. The online documentation offered on a CD is extensive, effective and well-equipped, besides the fact that children a web interface could be an awful lot less difficult to make use of if it gave more than a few sentences at a time for a particular support theme.
NetWare 5 comes with two manuals: a detailed manual for installing and configuring the NOS with respectable explanations of concepts and contours together with a top level view of a way to configure them, and a small spiral-sure booklet of short delivery cards. Novell's on-line documentation is awfully valuable.
red Hat Linux comes with three manuals - an installing guide, a getting begun guide and a reference guide - all of that are effortless to follow.
regardless of being essentially the most problematic product to installation, UnixWare offers the optimum documentation. It comes with two manuals: a device guide and a getting all started e book. The gadget guide is a reference for conducting the installing of the working equipment. It does a pretty good job of reflecting this painful event. The getting started book is well-written and smartly-prepared. It covers lots of the tools crucial to configure and retain the operating device. SCO's online documentation appears fine and is effortless to observe.Wrapping up
The base line is that these NOSes offer a big range of features and provide enterprise valued clientele with a great deal of alternative involving how each can be utilized in any given corporate community.
in case you desire a very good, ordinary intention NOS that can deliver business-class services with all of the bells and whistles imaginable, then home windows 2000 is the strongest contender. despite the fact, for high performance, enterprise file and print functions, our tests exhibit that Novell leads the pack. if you're inclined to pay an improved expense for scalability and reliability, SCO UnixWare would be a safe wager. but when you need a reasonable choice in order to provide you with naked-bones community features with good efficiency, pink Hat Linux can actually fit the bill.
The option is yours.
Bass is the technical director and Robinson is a senior technical team of workers member at Centennial Networking Labs (CNL) at North Carolina State school in Raleigh. CNL specializes in performance, skill and contours of networking and server applied sciences and equipment.connected reports:
Debate will focal point on Linux vs. LinuxJanuary 20, 2000Some home windows 2000 PCs will soar the gunJanuary 19, 2000IBM throws Linux lovefestJanuary 19, 2000Corel Linux will run home windows appsJanuary 10, 2000Novell's eDirectory spans platformsNovember sixteen, 1999New NetWare embraces internet appsNovember 2, 1999Microsoft units a date for home windows 2000October 28, 1999linked IDG.internet stories:
Fusion's forum: rectangular off with the carriers over who has the foremost NOS(community World Fusion)How we did it: details of the trying out(network World Fusion)discover the tuning parameters(network World Fusion)down load the Config data(community World Fusion)The Shootout effects(community World Fusion)Fusion's NOS supplies(network World Fusion)With windows 2000, NT grows up(network World Fusion)Fireworks expected at NOS showdown(community World Fusion)
be aware: Pages will open in a new browser windowexterior websites aren't counseled through CNN Interactive. connected sites:
Novell, Inc.Microsoft Corp.The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc. (SCO)pink Hat, Inc.
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Nasdaq stocks, usually unstable, led the market better beginning in October, on anticipation that a Clinton Presidency would aid smaller corporations. Utilities, then again, are always havens for retirees in search of earnings from high dividends and for cash managers too scared to dangle the rest more dangerous, however nevertheless expected to retain their funds in stocks. 'A nervous Market'
"it be a anxious market," talked about Lawrence R. Rice, chief market strategist at Josephthal, Lyon & Ross. The Dow industrials don't seem to be pulling the leisure of the market up after them, he noted, and the bond market rally alerts a enterprise slowdown forward.
issues that gained narrowly outnumbered losers on the large Board the day before today, on heavy extent of 329.6 million shares.
other analysts took greater reassurance from the disparate fortunes of the market's sectors, noting that these dumping biotechnology shares had been still retaining their cash in shares. "they may be simply switching," observed David G. Shulman, chief fairness strategist at Salomon Brothers. "The market's nevertheless awash in money."
That money is now forsaking the Nasdaq market. New public choices, pushed out at checklist tempo on Wall street, have left some buyers feeling bloated. The Nasdaq composite, up greater than 25 percent from early October to early February, has fallen well-nigh 8 p.c when you consider that. greater than half of that decline came within the remaining week.
Mary C. Farrell, a small-stock professional at Paine Webber, spoke of traders have been dismayed that President Clinton promised remaining week to aid only the smallest beginning-up groups, which are not the ones present in most portfolios. "Small-cap shares are really too enormous to reap the advantages," she talked about. "It become an issue of expectations." Dashed Hopes in Biotechnology
Biotechnology stocks were the bloodiest victims of dashed hopes, as neatly as the Clinton health-care plans. the day before today, Amgen fell 3 1/2, to forty one 1/2; Chiron 5 1/eight, to 45 5/8; Genzyme three 1/four, to 29 1/4, and Biomet 1 1/4, to 11. Synergen plunged 28 5/8, to 13 1/2, in frantic buying and selling, probably the most active inventory on any change.
different health-care stocks also suffered, whether on Nasdaq or the large Board, with united states of americaHealthcare off 4, to 39 1/2; Mylan Laboratories falling four 5/8, to 25 3/four; Johnson & Johnson off 1 1/2, to 39 1/eight, and Abbott Laboratories down 1, to 23 1/four.
Nasdaq's leading laptop shares, many up sharply considering that autumn, joined within the retreat in that market. Microsoft misplaced three, to seventy six three/four, and Novell declined 1, to 26 1/2.
The greener scenery of the huge Board featured the shares most sensitive to lessen pastime prices. The 6.01-element profit within the Dow utilities, the greatest factor gain due to the fact that hobby rates plunged after the 1987 market crash, came with none of the 15 issues in the general showing a loss. Consolidated Edison, Pacific fuel and electric powered and Philadelphia electric had been among the power corporations gaining a point or more.
The final time the Dow utilities gained extra in percentage phrases changed into on may also 31, 1988, after they rose three.2 % in response to a rally within the credit score market that pushed down bond yields. In regularly occurring, reduce bond yields assist utility stocks, that are primarily bought for their quite excessive dividend profits. mobilephone shares Are Up
among mobilephone stocks, GTE and all the regional Bells but one were also respectable for at the least a degree, and BellSouth was up three/4. investors searching for excessive-yielding stocks and market laggards also alighted on power businesses.
Banks, among the many other beneficiaries of decrease activity charges, superior strongly, with Suntrust up 1 three/four, to forty six. J. P. Morgan won 2 three/four, to 65, as Merrill Lynch issued a buy recommendation.
insurance companies retreated on some downbeat feedback by way of analysts and fears that the scientific industry's woes would unfold to insurers.
The best stock among the 30 Dow industrials to lose greater than half a point become Philip Morris, probably the most energetic huge Board inventory, down three 1/2, to sixty four 1/2, below the carrying on with danger of greater tobacco and alcohol taxes to pay for the Clinton Administration's health-care plans.continue reading the leading story
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Mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), according to a retrospective study published in Hematological Oncology.
Use of anthracycline-based chemotherapy and exposure to radiation therapy, both of which have been associated with an increased risk of CVD, are used in the treatment of some patients with NHL. Previous studies have identified an increased risk of CVD in patients with NHL, as well as a higher rate of CVD-related death in this population, although most of these studies focused on CVD morbidity. Hence, gaps remain regarding the relative risk of CVD mortality in patients with specific subtypes of NHL, such as the more aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and the more indolent subtypes chronic lymphocytic lymphoma/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). In addition, specific risk factors for death from CVD in the patients with these NHL subtypes are unclear.
In this study, 153,983 patients with NHL including those with DLBCL (n=69,329), CLL/SLL (n=48,650) and FL (n=36,004) and corresponding information on race, marital status, cause of death, and prior radiation therapy were identified in the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for the period between January 2000 and November 2013. Data on CVD-related mortality for the general population was obtained from the Wide‐ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) tool from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The primary end point was mortality from CVD.
At a median follow-up of 37 months, the rate of CVD-related mortality was 5.8% in the overall patient cohort, with an age-specific risk that was 14-fold higher than the general population. Within the 3 identified subtypes of NHL, 5.1%, 8.0%, and 4.4% of patients with DLBCL, CLL/SLL, and FL, respectively, died from CVD-related causes. Compared with the general population, the age-specific risks of CVD-related death in patients with CLL/SLL, FL, and DLBCL were 21-fold, 11-fold, and 13-fold higher, respectively.
Following adjustment for confounding factors, specific risk factors for mortality from CVD in patients with all 3 identified subtypes of NHL included older age, male gender, and residing in the southern US states, whereas white race and being married were associated with a lower risk of death from CVD. For patients with FL and DLBCL, another risk factor for CVD-related death was stage IV disease; in patients with these 2 subtypes of NHL, prior radiation therapy was associated with lower mortality from CVD.
Regarding the lower risk of CVD in patients with DLBCL compared with those with CLL/SLL, the study authors speculated that this finding may be related to the lower overall survival of the former group. In addition, they proposed that the association between higher disease stage and increased risk of CVD-related death may be related to an increased likelihood of receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy for patients with more advanced disease. Furthermore, a decreased likelihood of receiving chemotherapy was offered as a possible explanation for the finding of decreased CVD mortality risk in patients with a history of radiation therapy, although the authors stressed caution in the interpretation of those results.
Some of the limitations of this study identified by the study authors included lack of information regarding administration of chemotherapy or known risk factors for CVD, such as smoking history, diabetes, and hypertension, as well as the possibility that mortality due to CVD is over-represented on death certificates.
“Our data suggest that risk assessment and careful cardiac monitoring are recommended for NHL patients, particularly those with the CLL/SLL subtypes,” the study authors concluded.
Reference Abuamsha H, Kadri AN, Hernandez AV. Cardiovascular mortality among patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: differences according to lymphoma subtype [published online March 27, 2019]. Hematol Oncol. doi: 10.1002/hon.2607
- By 2020, over 1.5 million people in the U.S. are likely to have wet AMD, the leading cause of blindness in industrialized countries
- Filing is based on Phase III data from the HAWK and HARRIER trials for brolucizumab
- Novartis used a priority review voucher to expedite review of brolucizumab in the U.S. and, if approved by FDA, anticipates launching by the end of 2019
EAST HANOVER, N.J., April 15, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Novartis announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted the company's Biologics License Application (BLA) for brolucizumab (RTH258) for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), also known as neovascular AMD, or nAMD. Seeking to make brolucizumab available as quickly as possible, Novartis used a priority review voucher to expedite FDA review. If approved by the FDA, Novartis anticipates launching brolucizumab by the end of 2019.
Estimates suggest that by 2020, 1.5 to 1.75 million people in the U.S. will be living with wet AMD, a leading cause of blindness worldwide and a rapidly growing public health concern1. As the disease progresses, patients may experience loss of central vision, resulting in an inability to complete daily tasks. Without treatment, vision can rapidly deteriorate and may lead to blindness2.
"Reaching this milestone is an important step in our efforts to reimagine the treatment journey for people with wet AMD and their caregivers," said Fabrice Chouraqui, President, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. "We are looking forward to the potential of a new option for patients with wet AMD, who often have to navigate considerable physical and emotional difficulties caused by deteriorating vision."
The regulatory application is primarily based on Phase III data from the HAWK and HARRIER trials — prospective, randomized, double-masked multi-center studies3,4. The primary endpoint of these studies was non-inferiority to aflibercept in mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline to week 48 (mean change in BCVA of 6.6 letters for brolucizumab 6 mg versus 6.8 letters for aflibercept in HAWK and 6.9 letters versus 7.6 letters, respectively, in HARRIER). HAWK and HARRIER are the first and only global head-to-head trials in patients with wet AMD that prospectively demonstrated efficacy at week 48 starting with a 12-week dosing regimen.
Additionally, at week 48 in the studies, key secondary endpoint assessments showed significantly fewer brolucizumab patients with disease activity (23.5% of brolucizumab 6 mg patients versus 33.5% of aflibercept patients in HAWK, and 21.9% versus 31.4%, respectively, in HARRIER (P=0.0022 for both) as well as retinal fluid – key markers used by physicians to help guide management of the disease in clinical practice (31% fewer patients on brolucizumab 6 mg had intra-retinal fluid (IRF) and/or sub-retinal fluid (SRF) in HAWK, and 26% fewer in HARRIER, versus aflibercept (P<0.0001 for both)5,6.
"Wet AMD robs people of their precious sight and takes a major toll on the lives of millions of people who face not only vision loss, but also the burden of frequent injections into their eyes," said Dawn Prall George, executive director, The Support Sight Foundation. "We are always excited about potential new treatment options and hopeful they may help people manage this devastating disease."
About brolucizumab (RTH258)Brolucizumab (RTH258) is a humanized single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) and the most clinically advanced, humanized single-chain antibody fragment to reach this stage of development. Single-chain antibody fragments are highly sought after in drug development due to their small size, enhanced tissue penetration, rapid clearance from systemic circulation and drug delivery characteristics7-9.
The proprietary innovative structure results in a small molecule (26 kDa) with potent inhibition of, and high affinity to, all VEGF-A isoforms7,10. In preclinical studies, brolucizumab inhibited activation of VEGF receptors through prevention of the ligand-receptor interaction7,9,10. Increased signaling through the VEGF pathway is associated with pathologic ocular angiogenesis and retinal edema11. Inhibition of the VEGF pathway has been shown to inhibit the growth of neovascular lesions, resolve retinal edema and improve vision in patients with chorioretinal vascular diseases12.
About HAWK and HARRIER study designWith more than 1,800 patients across nearly 400 sites worldwide, HAWK (NCT02307682) and HARRIER (NCT02434328) are the first and only global head-to-head trials in patients with nAMD that prospectively demonstrated efficacy at week 48 using an innovative q12w/q8w regimen, with a majority of patients on q12w immediately following the loading phase3-5. Both studies are 96-week prospective, randomized, double-masked multi-center studies and part of the Phase III clinical development of brolucizumab3,4,6.
The studies were designed to compare the efficacy and safety of intravitreal injections of brolucizumab 6 mg (HAWK and HARRIER) and 3 mg (HAWK only) versus aflibercept 2 mg in patients with nAMD3,4. In both trials, patients were randomized to either brolucizumab or aflibercept3,4. Immediately following the 3-month loading phase, patients in the brolucizumab arms received a q12w dosing interval with an option to adjust to a q8w dosing interval based on masked disease activity assessments at defined visits3,4. Aflibercept was dosed bi-monthly according to its label at the time of study initiation3-6.
Brolucizumab met the primary efficacy objective of non-inferiority versus aflibercept in mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) from baseline to week 48 with high statistical significance5. Additionally, brolucizumab demonstrated superiority in three secondary endpoints considered key parameters of nAMD: central subfield retinal thickness, retinal fluid (intraretinal fluid and/or subretinal fluid) and disease activity5.
At year two, the most frequent ocular adverse events (≥5% of patients in any treatment arm) for brolucizumab 3 mg, 6 mg and aflibercept, respectively, in HAWK were conjunctival hemorrhage (10.9%, 8.1% and 8.9%), reduced visual acuity (9.5%, 6.1% and 8.1%), vitreous floaters (7.3%, 6.1% and 4.4%), eye pain (7.8%, 5.0% and 5.8%), retinal hemorrhage (3.9%, 5.8% and 5.6%), cataract (5.0%, 5.6% and 3.6%), vitreous detachment (6.7%, 5.3% and 5.3%) and dry eye (5.6%, 5.3% and 7.2%)5. The incidences of these events for brolucizumab 6 mg and aflibercept, respectively, in HARRIER were conjunctival hemorrhage (4.6% and 5.1%), reduced visual acuity (8.6% and 7.0%), vitreous floaters (4.1% and 1.4%), eye pain (3.5% and 5.1%), retinal hemorrhage (3.2% and 1.1%), cataract (3.0% and 11.7%), vitreous detachment (2.7% and 2.2%) and dry eye (2.7% and 3.0%)6.
About neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD or wet AMD) nAMD is the leading cause of severe vision loss and legal blindness in people over the age of 65 in North America, Europe, Australia and Asia, impacting an estimated 20 to 25 million people worldwide2,13. nAMD occurs when abnormal blood vessels form underneath the macula, the area of the retina responsible for sharp, central vision. These blood vessels are fragile and leak fluid, disrupting the normal retinal architecture and ultimately causing damage to the macula1,14,15.
Early symptoms of nAMD include distorted vision or metamorphopsia and difficulties seeing objects clearly16. Prompt diagnosis and intervention are essential. As the disease progresses, cell damage increases, further reducing vision quality. This progression can lead to a complete loss of central vision, leaving the patient unable to read, drive or recognize familiar faces14. Without treatment, vision can rapidly deteriorate2.
About Novartis in ophthalmology Novartis Ophthalmology is reimagining the treatment and prevention of visual impairment and blindness. By pushing the boundaries of medicine and technology we're developing life-changing gene therapies, next-generation pharmaceuticals, and transformative technologies for diseases and conditions spanning every area of eye disease, from the front to the back of the eye.
DisclaimerThis press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements can generally be identified by words such as "potential," "can," "will," "plan," "expect," "anticipate," "look forward," "believe," "committed," "investigational," "pipeline," "launch," or similar terms, or by express or implied discussions regarding potential marketing approvals, new indications or labeling for the investigational or approved products described in this press release, or regarding potential future revenues from such products. You should not place undue reliance on these statements. Such forward-looking statements are based on our current beliefs and expectations regarding future events, and are subject to significant known and unknown risks and uncertainties. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those set forth in the forward-looking statements. There can be no guarantee that the investigational or approved products described in this press release will be submitted or approved for sale or for any additional indications or labeling in any market, or at any particular time. Nor can there be any guarantee that such products will be commercially successful in the future. In particular, our expectations regarding such products could be affected by, among other things, the uncertainties inherent in research and development, including clinical trial results and additional analysis of existing clinical data; regulatory actions or delays or government regulation generally; global trends toward health care cost containment, including government, payor and general public pricing and reimbursement pressures and requirements for increased pricing transparency; our ability to obtain or maintain proprietary intellectual property protection; the particular prescribing preferences of physicians and patients; general political and economic conditions; safety, quality or manufacturing issues; potential or actual data security and data privacy breaches, or disruptions of our information technology systems, and other risks and factors referred to in Novartis AG's current Form 20-F on file with the US Securities and Exchange Commission. Novartis is providing the information in this press release as of this date and does not undertake any obligation to update any forward-looking statements contained in this press release as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
About Novartis Novartis is reimagining medicine to improve and extend people's lives. As a leading global medicines company, we use innovative science and digital technologies to create transformative treatments in areas of great medical need. In our quest to find new medicines, we consistently rank among the world's top companies investing in research and development. Novartis products reach more than 750 million people globally, and we are finding innovative ways to expand access to our latest treatments. About 105,000 people of more than 140 nationalities work at Novartis around the world. Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, a US affiliate of Novartis, is located in East Hanover, NJ. Find out more at www.novartis.com.
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Apr 11, 2019 (Heraldkeeper via COMTEX) -- APAC Xanthan Gum Market, dominated by China and India, is predicted to cross $491 million mark by end of 2023 registering CAGR of more than 6.21% during forecast period. Increasing cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry establishments in the region due to growing regional demand along with low production costs can promote industry expansion.
Xanthan Gum Market size was more than 150 kilo tons for 2015 and is predicted to register more than 5.2% CAGR during forecast timeframe. Oil & Gas firms are actively involved in setting up enhanced oil recovery(EOR) methods to improve crude oil & natural gas production from potential exhausting reserves that can propel industry expansion.Rising demand for food & beverages owing to fast growing population and improved customer lifestyle in BRICS nations is predicted to fuel industry growth. Food & beverages segment was evaluated at more than $8.51 trillion for 2004 and crossed $15.1 trillion mark for 2015. New products launched by firms like Kraft foods, Nestle and Udi is predicted to drive industry expansion.
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Increasing significance of cosmetic items like lotions, denture cleaners and shampoos along with growing consciousness about risks associated with synthetic personal care items are predicted to propel xanthan gum market globally. Cosmetic segment was evaluated at $156 billion for 2006 and surpassed $221 billion for 2015 registering CAGR of more than 3.51% CAGR. Expansion of the segment is credited to factors like rise in old age population and climatic changes along with rising concerns about hygiene and personal health in countries like India and China.
Sanction from regulatory authorities like FDA(U.S. Food & Drug Administration) and USDA(U.S. Department of Agriculture)for use of Xanthan gum in drugs & bakery items is predicted to boost xanthan gum market expansion. In addition to this, approval by European commission of its use as thickener, emulsifier, gelling agent and stabilizer in food & beverage segment has further driven the industry growth.
Gaur gum is a good substitute for Xanthan gum as it displays beneficial features like high solubility and viscosity. Growing significance of guar gum applications in food & beverage segment and hydraulic fracturing can hinder the industry demand and adversely affect xanthan gum market price trends.
Global xanthan gum market is segmented into various applications food & beverage applications, oil & gas applications and pharmaceutical applications. Food & beverage segment is predicted to register more than 6.1% CAGR in terms of revenue. The growth of the segment can be credited to growing moisture retaining product ability and its capacity to obstruct staling resulting in enhanced shelf life span of baked products.
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Oil & gas segment was evaluated at more than $301 million for 2015. Extensive utilization of horizontal drilling methods and demand for drilled solids can fuel industry expansion during forecast timeline. Rising global refinery production is predicted to favorably affect industry growth.
Pharmaceutical segment is predicted to cross $55.1 million mark by end of 2023 registering CAGR of more than 5.3% during forecast timeline. These applications act as protective suspension colloids, diluting agents and tablet disintegrants. Further, synthetic item substitution by natural gum is predicted to enhance xanthan gum market share.
The industry is segmented into key geographical regions like North America, APAC, Europe, Latin America and MEA. North America , dominated by U.S Xanthan gum market share, was valued at higher than $220 million for 2015. Rapid recovery of pharmaceutical segment in U.S. due to large scale expenditure on drugs can create favorable effect on product demand.
European industry is predicted to register more than 5.1% CAGR in terms of revenue. Increasing demand for personal care items in UK, Germany, France and Italy can favorably affect demand and growth of industry in the region. Further, growing spending on research & development activities in pharmaceutical segment can fuel demand of the product in Europe.
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Key xanthan gum market players profiled in the report include Deosen Biochemical limited, CP Kelco, Qingdao Unionchem Company Limited, Gum Technology Corporation, Jungbunzlauer, Meihua Holdings Group Company Limited, Cargill, Fufeng Group Company Limited, Hebei Xinhe Biochemical Company Limited, Pfizer Incorporation, DuPont Danisco, Sancho & Lee Company Limited and Solvay Group.
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Global Market Insights, Inc., headquartered in Delaware, U.S., is a global market research and consulting service provider; offering syndicated and custom research reports along with growth consulting services. Our business intelligence and industry research reports offer clients with penetrative insights and actionable market data specially designed and presented to aid strategic decision making. These exhaustive reports are designed via a proprietary research methodology and are available for key industries such as chemicals, advanced materials, technology, renewable energy and biotechnology.
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