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050-695 exam Dumps Source : Novell eDirectory Design and Implementation :eDirectory 8.8
Test Code : 050-695
Test Name : Novell eDirectory Design and Implementation :eDirectory 8.8
Vendor Name : Novell
Q&A : 70 Real Questions
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David Clarke covers eDirectory checking out goals for Novell course 3001: Foundations of Novell Networking.This chapter is from the book
This chapter covers here trying out ambitions for Novell route 3001: Foundations of Novell Networking:
determine simple directory provider initiatives.
determine usual listing service makes use of.
Describe how a directory is structured.
establish the position and benefits of eDirectory.
determine how eDirectory eight.6 works.
establish and describe the composition of eDirectory.
determine and describe eDirectory object classes.
establish the circulation and design of the eDirectory tree.
NetWare 6 introduces eDirectory 8.6, the best version to date of Novell's world-classification directory carrier.
eDirectory is the world's leading directory provider. It gives a unifying, pass-platform infrastructure for managing, securing, gaining access to, and setting up all foremost components of your network. eDirectory scales to the biggest network environments, together with the information superhighway. since it is in keeping with the X.500 average, eDirectory supports light-weight directory entry Protocol (LDAP), Hypertext transfer Protocol (HTTP), and the Java programming environment.
eDirectory can keep and control tens of millions of objects in a seamless ballet of communications. It also gives the groundwork community provider for all NetWare servers and community resources. truly, after network communications, it is the most basic network carrier provided by using NetWare 6.
With all this in mind, i am bound you may agree that eDirectory management is one of your key duties as a Novell CNA (licensed network Administrator). in this chapter, you'll explore 4 vital lessons regarding eDirectory management:
Introduction to listing capabilities—you will begin with a brief introduction to the fundamentals of listing features, including some typical makes use of and how a listing is structured.
figuring out eDirectory eight.6—then you definately'll discover the architecture of Novell eDirectory edition 8.6 and evaluate it to its predecessor, Novell listing functions (NDS).
the use of eDirectory Objects—you'll dig into the fundamentals at the back of eDirectory's three sorts of objects: the Tree object, container objects, and leaf objects.
enforcing eDirectory 8.6 Naming—eventually, you are going to find out about naming conventions utilized in eDirectory, including naming context rules and inheritance.
As that you can see, there is plenty to be taught in this chapter and when it's all completed, you're going to be an achieved eDirectory administrator. So, let's get started!
examine targets coated:
establish simple listing carrier projects.
identify normal directory provider uses.
Describe how a listing is structured.
identify the position and merits of eDirectory.
The listing provider is without doubt one of the most basic network capabilities provided by all NetWare 6 servers. truly, it represents the communications hub for administrative connectivity between all servers in a large NetWare 6 community. As such, listing provider administration is one in all your key tasks as the network administrator.
As its name implies, the directory provider provides entry to a database, referred to as eDirectory, that incorporates all resources for the whole community. This object-oriented database is prepared into a hierarchical structure called the tree. eDirectory offers the basic foundation for the listing provider, including capabilities for replication and distribution. listing is capitalized in this case to distinguish it from the directory (or folder) in the file system. basically, these two "directories" outline the two predominant roles of a NetWare 6 CNA: File equipment Administrator (directories and information) and eDirectory Administrator (The directory).
The directory provider is your pal. it might probably seem to be a little intimidating at the beginning, however in case you get to know the directory carrier (and eDirectory, for that depend), or not it's in fact fun. truly.How directory features Work
A directory service classifies all network elements into a finite variety of objects. These objects can also be equipped through characteristic, area, dimension, type, or colour—it doesn't be counted. The point is, a directory service organizes community resources independently from their actual places. for instance, servers are prepared according to function. Then users are positioned in the applicable containers to simplify connectivity. This raises productiveness as a result of clients are near the materials they need. When a user logs in to the network, the person can access any object in the Tree, despite its location. This offers a slick skill for managing no longer most effective clients, but also all their hardware and functions. Of path, within the eDirectory tree (as in lifestyles), it is most efficient to location user objects and their materials (Printers, Servers, and Volumes) in shut proximity to each and every other.
A listing carrier performs several fundamental tasks, together with the following:
Connecting disparate techniques—A directory provider integrates and organizes heterogeneous systems to permit them to share common administration. In modern enterprise world, such systems are required not simplest to communicate with every different, but additionally to share advice and use regular capabilities to satisfy the aims of the company.
pleasing the needs of the person, corporation, and business—The network have to be flexible adequate to provide a collection of pleasing functions based on particular person needs.
Emulating all business relationships—The community need to be capable of making certain that trusted relationships are developed and maintained between people, enterprise, the business's intranet, and the worldwide web.
Coordinating tips stream—information may also emanate either from the business (procedural) or from the community (technical). A listing service coordinates tips movement, no be counted what the source or type of guidance.
guaranteeing assistance availability—A directory service provides a means for making all network tips accessible to users, contraptions, purposes, or other resources.
A listing and a Relational Database administration system (RDBMS) are two separate entities with diverse capabilities. even if a listing is a set of tips, it doesn't change the natural RDBMS. Directories and databases complement one an additional, however they serve different purposes.
usually, a directory provider could be used in the following methods:
Organizing data—A directory provider organizes information or suggestions for the network. In NetWare 6, eDirectory retailers all consumer, server, printer, and other network machine assistance.
getting access to counsel easily—corresponding to the file-and-folder equipment used on a computer, a listing provider makes guidance about network elements purchasable to clients, gadgets, and functions. A directory carrier gives employees with world entry to community components. groups and organizations also use listing functions to supply person authentication and authorization for the use of these community resources and features. For corporations with massive numbers of cellular users, eDirectory gives a way for storing person information required by way of some purposes. (Such functions are described as directory-enabled.) From the consumer's point of view, a directory service provides a world view of all community materials, equivalent to clients, functions, features, gadget substances, and instruments.
providing protection—A listing service uniquely identifies network resources, locates community objects when required, supports robust safety features, and controls the consumer entry to network supplies.
presenting capabilities to purchasers—For groups taking abilities of the points of electronic business transactions, directory capabilities can help arrange varied databases whereas assisting to mesh disparate network techniques. This provides superior management of tactics between consumers, employees, and supply-chain companions. The resulting benefits are as follows: reduced prices for administration and hardware, sooner entry to data and information, and at ease network entry with advanced fault tolerance.
From a widely wide-spread point of view, directory functions can additionally give digital provisioning, better security, client profiling, digital wallets, automatic notification programs, custom-made web interfaces, and digital private networks (VPNs).
A digital inner most community (VPN) frequently is used to transfer delicate enterprise tips throughout an untrusted network (such as the information superhighway) in a cozy fashion (typically via encapsulating and encrypting information).
So, what do you think? Is a listing provider for you? Who is aware of—you may even adore it.directory structure
As you recall, the listing carrier gives entry to the eDirectory database, which includes all resources for the complete community. What precisely does eDirectory look like? From the outdoor, it looks like a large cloud hovering over your community. On the internal, youngsters, it follows a hierarchical tree structure corresponding to the cyber web domain equipment. it truly is, beginning at the WWW Root and expanding to ".com" domains and at last to servers. In NetWare 6, this design is observed because the directory assistance Tree, which is shortened to the "tree" for purposes of our discussion.
think of the tree as truly being inverted. As in nature, the eDirectory tree starts with the Tree object (referred to as the Tree Root) and builds from there. next, it sprouts container objects, which might be branches accomplishing towards the sky. ultimately, leaf objects give community functionality to clients, servers, and the file device. As you can see in figure 3.1, the tree analogy is alive and well.
determine three.1 The figurative directory services tree.
The true eDirectory tree is made of logical community objects. eDirectory objects define logical or actual entities that deliver organizational or technical feature to the community. As you will see later during this chapter, they are available in three flavors:
The Tree Root is the very appropriate of the eDirectory tree. since it represents the opening porthole to the eDirectory world, its icon is as it should be a picture of a tree. Container objects outline the organizational boundaries of the eDirectory tree and house different container objects and/or leaf objects. When a container object includes other objects, it's called a guardian object.
ultimately, leaf objects are the physical or logical community elements that give technical capabilities and network performance. Leaf objects outline the lowest degree of the eDirectory constitution. you will study in regards to the most interesting leaf objects later in this chapter.
The constitution of the listing is ruled by way of a collection of suggestions at the same time well-known as the directory schema. These suggestions outline the classification of records, the syntax of that statistics, and the objects the listing can include. Schema guidelines fall into two vast categories:
Object classification definitions—These define the classification of objects and the attributes of those objects.
Attribute definitions—These define the constitution (syntax and constraints) of an attribute. simply stated, the attribute price is the actual content or facts.
be aware when I told you that eDirectory become based on the X.500 general? earlier than you go tree mountain climbing and explore the dynamics of eDirectory, take a quick study that commonplace to look what that all ability. I consider you will spot some wonderful similarities between X.500 and what you could have simply discovered about listing functions.knowing X.500
X.500 is a world regular for naming services. a whole lot of industry standards, corresponding to DNA (Digital network structure), use X.500 with their personal naming functions to provide tackle-to-identify decision and listing features. This enables these distributed machines to exist in a huge hierarchical management system.
X.500 organizes network materials (such as users and servers) right into a globally obtainable directory. The X.500 specification establishes instructions for representing, accessing, and using information stored in a directory database. basically, eDirectory is Novell's implementation of here X.500 elements:
Scalability—large databases can be subdivided into smaller directory device brokers (DSAs). A DSA can characterize either a single organization or assorted agencies, and its contents may be allotted across numerous listing servers. eDirectory calls them partitions.
Replication—This characteristic makes it possible for the directory database, or parts thereof, to be replicated on backup directory servers located throughout the network.
Synchronization—as a result of X.500 should manipulate a loosely coupled, disbursed database, each and every server have to be able to synchronize its database contents with different servers. directory database updates may well be made either on the customary grasp database (master-shadow arrangement) or at any writable reproduction (peer-to-peer mechanism). In either case, X.500 propagates directory database alternate suggestions to all servers conserving replicas of the database or a DSA.
The X.500 directory is represented with the aid of a listing counsel Tree (DIT) and directory counsel Base (DIB). as a minimum one of those should still sound regular. The DIB carries objects (or nodes) and their associated residences and values. Intermediate objects act as containers that aid in organizing the DIT. Leaf objects symbolize particular person network entities, reminiscent of servers, printers, and the like. consult with figure three.2 for an illustration of the X.500 directory structure.
The suggestions that determine the type of assistance that may well be saved within the DIB are held in the directory's schema. (Now this may still be sounding in fact common.) every object in an X.500 DIT has a special identify it's called its distinguished identify, or DN, (it truly is, comprehensive identify). every object may additionally also be talked about by using a relative unusual identify, or RDN, (it truly is, partial name).
directory database entry is managed by way of a DSA working on a native server. clients entry the database through a listing user Agent (DUA). DUAs can be found in command-line, varieties-primarily based, and browser-vogue interfaces. DSAs and DUAs talk with every different the use of the listing entry Protocol (DAP). in addition, DSAs can also speak with one yet another the usage of the listing device Protocol (DSP), listing counsel Shadowing Protocol (DISP), or the listing Operational Binding management Protocol (DOP).
figure three.2 X.500 listing architecture.
Now that you just know where listing features got here from and usually how they work in NetWare 6, it's time to do some tree climbing! feels like that fun I promised you, would not it?
The IT certification merry-go-round has all the time moved at a dizzying tempo, and people who wish to reap or maintain Novell certifications will deserve to jump on to satisfy Novell's new requirements. right here is a detailed appear at the alterations.constant alternate has all the time been part of the IT certification video game, and Novell has these days thrown an extra curveball by way of announcing new changes to its accepted certifications. if you are pursuing the NetWare 6 certification or deserve to comprehensive a constant certification requirement to maintain your Novell designation, read on. this text will come up with a top level view of the brand new necessities for Novell’s CNA, CNE, and MCNE certifications, as neatly as the continuing requirements for presently licensed specialists.
New CNA requirementsThe first step in Novell certification is fitting a certified Novell Administrator (CNA). To attain this certification for NetWare 6, you ought to circulate Novell examination 050-677, Foundations of Novell Networking. This examination covers subject matters equivalent to directory features, security, web features, LAN/WAN applied sciences, and client/server management. To prepare for this exam, that you could attend Novell path 3001.
although passing a single examine to earn CNA certification has not changed, the guidance it really is covered in the exam has. as an instance, LAN/WAN expertise is now covered in the CNA examination, whereas earlier than it changed into lined in a separate Networking applied sciences exam. These alterations are being made to provide certified specialists with a extra generalized historical past as a substitute of testing most effective on certain Novell counsel for the CNA exam.
To give you the requisite heritage and experience, Novell recommends that you grasp each the CompTIA A+ and community+ certifications earlier than attempting exam 050-677.
changes to the CNE programThe greatest exchange in Novell certification is in the certified Novell Engineer (CNE) music. firstly, the Networking technologies examination has been eliminated. Novell has partnered with CompTIA and now requires that you pass the network+ examination as a part of the CNE certification. The advice in both tests become in reality the equal anyway, so this makes a lot of sense.
an additional exchange to the CNE certification software is that there are not any greater electives. All exams are actually considered to be core checks, making the application the equal for all CNE candidates. I feel that this additionally makes sense, on account that all CNEs will now have the identical regular physique of abilities. in case you wish to specialize in a subject that previously became regarded an optionally available, reminiscent of BorderManager or GroupWise, which you can take particular person courses and tests and earn "professional Certificates" for distinct items and applied sciences.
if you are pursuing the CNE certification, be organized as a result of becoming a CNE nonetheless takes loads of tough work. You have to first dangle the CNA and community+ certifications. Then, you ought to circulate four core exams:
necessities for MCNE certificationAfter obtaining their CNE certification, many experts make a decision to achieve the master CNE (MCNE) certification. this is the most excellent stage of Novell certification and suggests that you're an authority in Novell networking.
previously, you could reap MCNE certification by way of that specialize in several areas of expertise, corresponding to ZENworks, BorderManager, or GroupWise. Novell has scrapped these specialization areas and now requires all MCNE candidates to pass the identical three tests. To achieve this certification, you ought to first be a CNE. you are then faced with the challenge of passing three greater tests:
continuing certification requirementsLike most vendors, Novell requires its certified authorities to update their certifications on every occasion a new edition of its working gadget is launched. This ensures that you've competencies of Novell’s latest products and keeps the certification useful to employers.
in case you at present dangle the CNE certification, that you may take Novell exam 50-676, Upgrading to NetWare 6, to satisfy the continuing certification requirement. To prepare for this exam, that you may take Novell class 3000. Novell has no longer set a mandatory date for recertification, but it should be introduced soon.
CNEs are not the best ones required to update their certifications. The MCNE carrying on with certification requirement states that MCNEs have to pass the NetWare 6 continuing certification requirement and move the IT venture+ exam. You could have unless Jan. 3, 2003, to satisfy these necessities.
Wrap upNovell become the primary dealer to bounce-delivery the IT certification craze and has at all times taken satisfaction in preserving its classes and exams up to date and crucial to the trade. The changes outlined listed here are a continuation of its efforts to provide a fantastic certification program to trade gurus and employers. I consider that these adjustments are effective and should deliver IT professionals licensed by way of Novell with a powerful overview of critical IT themes, in addition to Novell items, making the certification more relevant to what IT professionals see in the office day by day.
EUC with HCI: Why It concerns
you're responsible for managing 15,000 consumer debts and 20,000 computer systems on your enterprise. it is 9 a.m. on Monday. do you know the place your users' computer systems are? if you are working for a customary enterprise, basically definitely you do not. "British Telecom lately audited their IT assets and found that that they had 20,000 more computer systems than they concept," says Dave Bingham, Consulting Director, Fujitsu Consulting UK. Now it really is a significant systems administration problem!
Many companies are sinking under the burden of their existing legacy network identification, access manage, and provisioning techniques. one of the crucial warning indications that you may have a problem:
What do Novell, identity administration and LDAP (lightweight directory entry Protocol) need to do with any of this? is that this the same moribund business typical for the mature NetWare, NDS (Novell directory carrier), and GroupWise product strains? sure, a revitalized Novell is aggressively pursuing the community identification management and listing services market with a brand new era of LDAP-based mostly products and applied sciences. via constructing on Novell's usual strengths in directory management and de-coupling these items from their flagship NDS NOS product, it is hoping to compete directly with iPlanet, Oblix, crucial path, Microsoft, and different identification administration providers. The following couple of years may be a battleground for network identity companies and consultants as they fight to set up themselves during this new marketplace. let us take a extra in depth look at Novell's LDAP implementation and listing provider items to look why you should definitely be critically considering that them in order for you an business scale LDAP system.
Why Novell and LDAP?Novell realized it essential an open typical for its front-end utility application. LDAP was the obvious option as a result of Novell had historically based mostly both the NetWare and NDS systems on the X.500 protocol and LDAP changed into at first designed as the X.500 front end. In March 1999, Novell launched a duplicate of open source LDAP as part of its SDK (utility developer's package) indicating its full guide for the LDAP regular. on the time Kurt Zeilenga, chief architect of the OpenLDAP project, cited, "world adoption of technologies requires that builders have access to open and reusable code. we're glad that Novell has chosen to make use of OpenLDAP software and has made its changes attainable to the neighborhood so all may advantage. We look forward to working with Novell in furthering open supply LDAP application." It obviously had the total aid of the developer neighborhood.
despite the fact LDAP has been around as a common protocol seeing that 1995 until lately it has been a strictly again-office enterprise community service. in the past, the handiest open normal for directories became X.500, delivered in 1988. seeing that X.500 became OSI model based, LDAP turned into designed to serve as a translation protocol between the TCP/IP and OSI models. since it is probably the most open and flexible of the entire community functions protocols, the network identification administration community has embraced it as the core expertise to join person and desktop identification counsel collectively into one seamless whole. it's now the de facto standard for most important identity management capabilities applications. Openwave and iPlanet both use LDAP because the underlying tackle directory expertise for business email functions items. LDAP is an established, potent, scalable open listing normal -- an exceptionally attractive answer.
Novell NDS and LDAPHow has that modified Novell's items? First, allow us to appear at the details of how the NDS equipment has fully integrated LDAP. NDS eight gives potent LDAP help by means of permitting entry without delay to a NDS statistics shop. This affords the best of both worlds -- open specifications for directory access while leveraging Novell's security strengths corresponding to strong authentication and server-server replication. This enhanced guide comprises:
eDirectory - Novell's listing provider ProducteDirectory, which evolved from NDS, is a directory provider that is scalable, extensible, and high efficiency. really, Novell has publicly proven that eDirectory can manage more than a thousand million objects in a single tree. This skill a long way exceeds what most business networks or e-corporations will ever require. a few of eDirectory's principal components like global printing features are included into NetWare 6.
FeaturesSome of eDirectory's new or more desirable features blanketed in edition 8.7 - codenamed "Falcon" are:
listing StructureHere is a brief overview of the Novell directory structure from desirable to backside. Novell calls its directories "container objects."
DirXMLDir XML gives bi-directional and Meta-listing capabilities between e-directory and other business and legacy systems. The programs communicate with the aid of directly processing XML files. DirXML runs on lots of platforms -- Linux, NetWare, Solaris, and windows NT/2000, however requires eDirectory eight.5 or later. at the moment accessible DirXML drivers consist of:
DirXML ComponentsBetween eDirectory/DirXML there are two various kinds of facts flows.
Developer ServicesAdditional capabilities and items Novell presents particularly designed to support builders consist of:
Some CautionsNovell is moving the appropriate path through porting the equipment to assorted systems, but when you really need to have a fully built-in equipment, be sure you nevertheless be the usage of the other Novell items together with eDirectory. although eDirectory has some incredible points that make it simpler to improve business scaled directory capabilities based mostly functions, it remains at heart an NDS based product. it'll likely work most beneficial for you in case you have already got a NetWare installing and some familiarity with the Novell approach to network primarily based business services. Tony Neal, IT supervisor at Marriott foreign Inc. views Novell LDAP help as "an extra piece of the protocol puzzle with a view to tie every little thing collectively, with NDS because the actual engine beneath". It isn't clear when speakme to Novell what number of of their eDirectory installations are really new valued clientele and not just extra earnings to the latest Novell customer base.
a couple of years again Novell took a significant misstep after they proposed a brand new accurate-level .dir area for the cyber web. The proposed .dir domain changed into a so-referred to as chartered area and would have required .dir applicants to be absolutely compliant with LDAP 2000, an LDAP conformance look at various subsidized via DIF. Novell claimed that organising the .dir area become essential because it would assure the category of websites that would use it. The proposed domain automatically met with group resistance and became instantly withdrawn. "Why is everyone seeking to ICANN to rubber-stamp their business models?" noted Rick Wesson, CEO of Alice's Registry, in Santa Cruz, Calif., a consultancy for ICANN-permitted registrars. "Novell desires to create a LDAP (light-weight listing entry Protocol) root, but it would not want a TLD to try this. it could possibly build the equal infrastructure under the current DNS domains."
Is Novell all for LDAP?Novell has been active with two rising IETF requirements organizations. These efforts will little doubt turn out to be in future Novell net, working device, and directory products.
Novell builders are working on the next unencumber of Netware code named "Nakoma." it's going to include greater DirXML guide for tighter integration between NetWare, Novell Portal features, and legacy company directories that require listing-based mostly id and access services. existing projected availability is summer time 2003.
Some enhancements which are a part of "project fate" the universal Novell eDirectory and directory enhancement effort consist of:
In conclusion, Novell has been working hard to place itself in the forefront of the LDAP construction group. Novell has leveraged its advantage with X.500 and NDS to create an impressive set of equipment using LDAP and the NDS structure. if you're interested by enormous-scale identification administration purposes and also you have already got some familiarity with the Novell atmosphere, eDirectory might possibly be simply the toolkit you need to construct your utility.
extra substancesBeth Cohen is president of Luth computer specialists, Inc., a consulting follow focusing on IT infrastructure for smaller organizations. She has been within the trenches aiding business IT infrastructure for over twenty years in a number of different fields including architecture, development, engineering, software, telecommunications, and analysis. She is at present writing a ebook about IT for the small business and pursuing an counsel Age MBA from Bentley school.
Hallett German is an IT advisor who is experienced in enforcing good IT infrastructures with an emphasis on digital messaging and directories. he's the founder of the Northeast SAS clients neighborhood and former President of the REXX Language affiliation. he's the writer of three books on scripting languages.
» See All Articles through Columnist Beth Cohen
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This chapter covers the following testing objectives for Novell Course 3001: Foundations of Novell Networking:
Identify basic Directory Service tasks.
Identify common Directory Service uses.
Describe how a Directory is structured.
Identify the role and benefits of eDirectory.
Identify how eDirectory 8.6 works.
Identify and describe the composition of eDirectory.
Identify and describe eDirectory object classes.
Identify the flow and design of the eDirectory tree.
NetWare 6 introduces eDirectory 8.6, the greatest version to date of Novell's world-class directory service.
eDirectory is the world's leading Directory service. It provides a unifying, cross-platform infrastructure for managing, securing, accessing, and developing all major components of your network. eDirectory scales to the largest network environments, including the Internet. Because it is based on the X.500 standard, eDirectory supports Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and the Java programming environment.
eDirectory can store and manage millions of objects in a seamless ballet of communications. It also provides the foundation network service for all NetWare servers and network resources. In fact, after network communications, it is the most fundamental network service offered by NetWare 6.
With all this in mind, I'm sure you would agree that eDirectory management is one of your key responsibilities as a Novell CNA (Certified Network Administrator). In this chapter, you will explore four important lessons regarding eDirectory management:
Introduction to Directory Services—You'll begin with a brief introduction to the basics of Directory services, including some common uses and how a Directory is structured.
Understanding eDirectory 8.6—Then you'll explore the architecture of Novell eDirectory version 8.6 and compare it to its predecessor, Novell Directory Services (NDS).
Using eDirectory Objects—You'll dig into the basics behind eDirectory's three types of objects: the Tree object, container objects, and leaf objects.
Implementing eDirectory 8.6 Naming—Finally, you'll learn about naming conventions used in eDirectory, including naming context rules and inheritance.
As you can see, there's a lot to learn in this chapter and when it's all done, you'll be an accomplished eDirectory administrator. So, let's get started!
Test Objectives Covered:
Identify basic Directory Service tasks.
Identify common Directory Service uses.
Describe how a Directory is structured.
Identify the role and benefits of eDirectory.
The Directory Service is one of the most fundamental network services provided by all NetWare 6 servers. In fact, it represents the communications hub for administrative connectivity between all servers in a large NetWare 6 network. As such, Directory Service management is one of your key responsibilities as the network administrator.
As its name implies, the Directory service provides access to a database, called eDirectory, that contains all resources for the entire network. This object-oriented database is organized into a hierarchical structure called the tree. eDirectory provides the basic foundation for the Directory service, including capabilities for replication and distribution. Directory is capitalized in this case to differentiate it from the directory (or folder) in the file system. In fact, these two "directories" define the two major roles of a NetWare 6 CNA: File System Administrator (directories and files) and eDirectory Administrator (The Directory).
The Directory service is your friend. It may seem a little intimidating at first, but when you get to know the Directory service (and eDirectory, for that matter), it's actually fun. Really.How Directory Services Work
A Directory service classifies all network resources into a finite number of objects. These objects can be organized by function, location, size, type, or color—it doesn't matter. The point is, a Directory service organizes network resources independently from their physical locations. For example, servers are organized according to function. Then users are placed in the appropriate containers to simplify connectivity. This increases productivity because users are near the resources they need. When a user logs in to the network, the user can access any object in the Tree, regardless of its location. This provides a slick means for managing not only users, but also all their hardware and applications. Of course, in the eDirectory tree (as in life), it is best to place User objects and their resources (Printers, Servers, and Volumes) in close proximity to each other.
A Directory service performs several basic tasks, including the following:
Connecting disparate systems—A Directory service integrates and organizes heterogeneous systems to allow them to share common management. In today's business world, such systems are required not only to communicate with each other, but also to share information and use common services to meet the objectives of the organization.
Satisfying the needs of the user, organization, and business—The network must be flexible enough to provide a set of unique services based on individual needs.
Emulating all business relationships—The network must be capable of ensuring that trusted relationships are built and maintained between people, business, the company's intranet, and the World Wide Web.
Coordinating information flow—Information may emanate either from the business (procedural) or from the network (technical). A Directory service coordinates information flow, no matter what the source or type of information.
Ensuring information availability—A Directory service provides a means for making all network information available to users, devices, applications, or other resources.
A Directory and a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) are two separate entities with different functions. Even though a Directory is a collection of information, it does not replace the traditional RDBMS. Directories and databases complement one another, even though they serve different purposes.
Typically, a Directory service may be used in the following ways:
Organizing data—A Directory service organizes data or information for the network. In NetWare 6, eDirectory stores all user, server, printer, and other network device information.
Accessing information easily—Similar to the file-and-folder system used on a computer, a Directory service makes information about network resources available to users, devices, and applications. A Directory service provides employees with global access to network resources. Businesses and organizations also use Directory services to provide user authentication and authorization for using these network resources and services. For organizations with large numbers of mobile users, eDirectory provides a means for storing user information required by some applications. (Such applications are described as Directory-enabled.) From the user's point of view, a Directory service provides a global view of all network resources, such as users, applications, services, system resources, and devices.
Providing security—A Directory service uniquely identifies network resources, locates network objects when required, supports robust security features, and controls the user access to network resources.
Providing services to customers—For organizations taking advantage of the features of electronic business transactions, Directory services can help organize multiple databases while helping to mesh disparate network systems. This provides better management of processes between customers, employees, and supply-chain partners. The resulting benefits are as follows: reduced costs for administration and hardware, faster access to data and information, and secure network access with superior fault tolerance.
From a general perspective, Directory services can also provide electronic provisioning, enhanced security, customer profiling, electronic wallets, automated notification systems, customized Web interfaces, and virtual private networks (VPNs).
A virtual private network (VPN) often is used to transfer sensitive company information across an untrusted network (such as the Internet) in a secure fashion (typically by encapsulating and encrypting data).
So, what do you think? Is a Directory service for you? Who knows—you might even like it.Directory Architecture
As you recall, the Directory service provides access to the eDirectory database, which contains all resources for the entire network. What exactly does eDirectory look like? From the outside, it looks like a big cloud hovering over your network. On the inside, however, it follows a hierarchical tree structure similar to the Internet domain system. That is, starting at the WWW Root and expanding to ".com" domains and eventually to servers. In NetWare 6, this design is referred to as the Directory Information Tree, which is shortened to the "tree" for purposes of our discussion.
Think of the tree as actually being inverted. As in nature, the eDirectory tree starts with the Tree object (called the Tree Root) and builds from there. Next, it sprouts container objects, which are branches reaching toward the sky. Finally, leaf objects provide network functionality to users, servers, and the file system. As you can see in Figure 3.1, the tree analogy is alive and well.
Figure 3.1 The figurative Directory services tree.
The real eDirectory tree is made up of logical network objects. eDirectory objects define logical or physical entities that provide organizational or technical function to the network. As you will see later in this chapter, they come in three flavors:
The Tree Root is the very top of the eDirectory tree. Because it represents the opening porthole to the eDirectory world, its icon is appropriately a picture of a tree. Container objects define the organizational boundaries of the eDirectory tree and house other container objects and/or leaf objects. When a container object contains other objects, it is called a parent object.
Finally, leaf objects are the physical or logical network resources that provide technical services and network functionality. Leaf objects define the lowest level of the eDirectory structure. You'll learn about the most interesting leaf objects later in this chapter.
The structure of the Directory is governed by a set of rules collectively known as the Directory schema. These rules define the type of data, the syntax of that data, and the objects the Directory can contain. Schema rules fall into two broad categories:
Object class definitions—These define the type of objects and the attributes of those objects.
Attribute definitions—These define the structure (syntax and constraints) of an attribute. Simply stated, the attribute value is the actual content or data.
Remember when I told you that eDirectory was based on the X.500 standard? Before you go tree climbing and explore the dynamics of eDirectory, take a quick look at that standard to see what that all means. I think you'll spot some amazing similarities between X.500 and what you've just learned about Directory services.Understanding X.500
X.500 is an international standard for naming services. A variety of industry standards, such as DNA (Digital Network Architecture), use X.500 with their own naming services to provide address-to-name resolution and directory services. This enables these distributed machines to exist in a large hierarchical management system.
X.500 organizes network resources (such as users and servers) into a globally accessible Directory. The X.500 specification establishes guidelines for representing, accessing, and using information stored in a directory database. In fact, eDirectory is Novell's implementation of the following X.500 features:
Scalability—Large databases can be subdivided into smaller Directory System Agents (DSAs). A DSA can represent either a single organization or multiple organizations, and its contents may be distributed across multiple Directory servers. eDirectory calls them partitions.
Replication—This feature allows the Directory database, or portions thereof, to be replicated on backup Directory servers located throughout the network.
Synchronization—Because X.500 must manage a loosely coupled, distributed database, each server must be able to synchronize its database contents with other servers. Directory database updates may be made either at the original master database (master-shadow arrangement) or at any writable replica (peer-to-peer mechanism). In either case, X.500 propagates Directory database change information to all servers holding replicas of the database or a DSA.
The X.500 Directory is represented by a Directory Information Tree (DIT) and Directory Information Base (DIB). At least one of those should sound familiar. The DIB consists of objects (or nodes) and their associated properties and values. Intermediate objects act as containers that aid in organizing the DIT. Leaf objects represent individual network entities, such as servers, printers, and so on. Refer to Figure 3.2 for an illustration of the X.500 Directory architecture.
The rules that determine the type of information that may be stored in the DIB are held in the Directory's schema. (Now this should be sounding really familiar.) Each object in an X.500 DIT has a unique name that is referred to as its distinguished name, or DN, (that is, complete name). Each object may also be referred to by a relative distinguished name, or RDN, (that is, partial name).
Directory database access is managed by a DSA running on a local server. Users access the database through a Directory User Agent (DUA). DUAs are available in command-line, forms-based, and browser-style interfaces. DSAs and DUAs communicate with each other using the Directory Access Protocol (DAP). Furthermore, DSAs may communicate with one another using the Directory System Protocol (DSP), Directory Information Shadowing Protocol (DISP), or the Directory Operational Binding Management Protocol (DOP).
Figure 3.2 X.500 Directory architecture.
Now that you know where Directory services came from and generally how they work in NetWare 6, it's time to do some tree climbing! Sounds like that fun I promised you, doesn't it?
A large food and general merchandise wholesaler in the United States had a strategic vision based on strengthening its relationships with the market’s largest retailers, and increasing its vertical penetration through the acquisition of niche channel wholesalers.
The company was relying upon the added business flexibility provided by their SAP implementation and extending their existing investment in legacy technology to support this vision. Integration of the legacy technology, however, had become a barrier to their success, due to its security management inefficiencies and administration risk.
The company was struggling with maintaining a secure IT architecture compliant with government laws and corporate business control objectives. Their existing security architecture was based on the coordination and integration of disparate application-based security systems. Each of the applications was designed with its own user identity, authentication and authorization capabilities that resulted in their security management becoming overly complex, labor-intensive and error-prone.
The company was seeking to transition to a shared-service identity management architecture, consisting of directory and security services that make identity, security and policy management reusable resources across all applications. At the center of this vision was their desire to extend their investment in their SAP R/3 Human Resources module and use it as the authoritative source for their identity management solution.
The company had two key objectives.
The short-term objective was to implement a security solution whereby authorization for access to the warehouse management system would be centrally defined, managed and controlled, based on predefined job roles. The solution had to automatically add, change or delete a user’s access in all warehouse systems within the company’s numerous distribution centers located throughout the United States.
The long-term goal was to design an identity management solution that would create an efficient and reliable process for ultimately administering all user access needs for all level-one applications (to include TCI, Manugistics, SAP, MS Exchange, and WebSphere MQ) and operating systems (to include OS/390, AS/400, NT and AIX) at the company. The company also was introducing a new internet architecture and looking to increase their web commerce capabilities. The identity management solution had to incorporate a web single sign-on solution (using IBM Tivoli Access Manager) that will establish a common web authentication, identity control and authorization structure.
Creating the solution
A four-week strategy session produced requirements and an implementation plan to achieve the short- and long-term objectives. The high level design consisted of utilizing SAP R/3 HR as the authoritative source for the company’s employee identities. Events (hire, change, termination) would be provisioned from SAP to an identity repository consisting of Novell eDirectory.
A ‘role based access controls (RBAC)’ model would be developed based upon employee attributes available within SAP R/3 HR (job codes and positions), and utilized to provision employee actions (add, change, disable) to downstream applications. The provisioning of employee information from SAP R/3 HR to the identity repository and down to a warehouse management application would be enabled using Novell DirXML software/technology.
The final component of the solution would be establishing IBM’s Tivoli Access Manager as the single control point for web based authentication to secure all internet and intranet-based traffic/access. Tivoli Access Manager would be configured to use the identity repository as the authentication source for web-based applications and users.
A 90-day implementation plan was developed that broke the project down into four steps:
The first deliverable in this step was an ‘identity model.’ The process used to develop this model consisted of an analysis of the SAP HR environment and business processes, as well as the applications to be provisioned downstream and protected by the web single sign-on solution. This analysis required not only a review of the technical needs of the applications but also of the underlying business processes supporting the technology (HR and downstream applications). This was done to ensure that any data quality demands placed on the model could be supported.
The next step was to enable the clients SAP R/3 Human Resource module to share information between SAP and Novell eDirectory. SAP requires the use of application link enabling (ALE) functionality and an SAP-validated interface method (IDOC processing) to share information. ALE uses SAP intermediate document (IDOC) capabilities to pass information across systems.
Synchronizing between systems
It was determined that the identity repository would require a flat tree structure. The initial scope of the identity management project was to synchronize ’employee identity’ attributes from the SAP R/3 HR module to an identity repository ‘Company_IM tree.’ This was achieved utilizing a technology solution from Novell called DirXML. DirXML is an event-driven utility that provides flexible synchronization between disparate systems so that enterprise data can be kept up to date with minimal maintenance costs. DirXML was used to synchronize employee identity information between SAP R/3 HR, eDirectory and the warehouse management application.
Since the applications had different ways of representing data elements, DirXML was used to match the ‘object classes’ (accounts or records) and ‘attributes’ (fields) between the different applications. By doing this ‘schema mapping,’ the underlying applications did not need to be modified to match eDirectory. Each application was enabled with a DirXML driver that mapped their object classes and attributes to allow the DirXML configuration to be based on eDirectory attributes.
Additionally, some applications required fields to be filled in before a user account could be created. By identifying these required attributes, DirXML was used to enforce the business processes by ‘vetoing’ the creation of an account until all required attributes had values. Applications also had existing employee accounts where a method to match objects between the systems had to be created. We achieved this through a process known as ‘object mapping’ that allowed existing objects to be matched to existing or newly created eDirectory objects as long as unique matching criteria could be determined.
Finally, different applications did not represent data in the same format or method. This was overcome through the use of data transformation techniques that can manipulate data from one system to the next into the proper format. This can be as simple as translating a full name into three attributes (given name, middle initial, last name) or as complex as applying an external process to a series of attributes.
DirXML was also used to provision the necessary accounts to the warehouse management application. This was achieved by the execution of a data mapping exercise that identified all the necessary fields required by the warehouse management application. Each field was then reviewed to determine if it would be populated directly from an identity repository attribute, derived from an identity repository attribute or created by the DirXML functionality based upon predefined rules.
Implementing web single sign-on
The first step of this phase was to analyze the usage patterns. This proved difficult in that all usage was estimated while there was little or no current activity. We developed a number of architectural assumptions for this portion of the project.
IBM Tivoli Access Manager includes a high performance, multi-threaded web reverse proxy that applies fine-grained security policy to the protected web object space. In this configuration, IBM Tivoli Access Manager delivered single sign-on to the company’s IBM Websphere portal and underlying web applications. Out of the box however, the Tivoli Access Manager did not provide for native integration with eDirectory for user authentication (although the latest version 4.1 does provide out-of-the-box integration for Novell eDirectory).
To achieve this we utilized the cross domain authentication service (CDAS) functionality of Tivoli Access Manager, a tool for federating authentication requests to directories and user repositories. In this configuration, users were authenticated in Tivoli Access Manager to the Novell eDirectory IM tree. Required attributes are returned from eDirectory to the CDAS API that then returns these attributes to Tivoli Access Manager where access decisions are made.
The project from start to finish lasted eight months and established a new internet-enabled security architecture based upon the existence of identity driven enterprise roles. These roles enabled a consistent definition of a user’s business purpose for access to company resources and more timely and efficient administration. The cost savings goal that is now being targeted is to reduce their helpdesk support calls by completing the standardization of user IDs and passwords across the architecture. The company estimates a 90 percent reduction from their historical 5,000-a-year password reset call population.
The project itself reinforced to management the need to identify key stakeholders early in the project. Achieving this level of integration across a security architecture is disruptive; frequent and meaningful communication with business process owners was crucial to identifying and resolving process/technology conflicts throughout the project.
Additionally, management realized that implementing an identity-based security architecture requires extensive enterprise requirement definitions and sufficient full-time resources to ensure sustainability.
The solution provided the company with key value statements, which focused on corporate goal and initiatives:
Creating an identity-based security architecture allowed the company to easily migrate from a decentralized security architecture to a centralized architecture based on business processes. The end result was a robust and flexible security architecture to handle acquisitions and the migration towards a pure web-based application architecture.
Jim Burns is a principal with Deloitte & Touche (www.deloitte.com).
Casselberry, FL (PRWEB) May 23, 2012
Zvetco Biometrics, a leader in fingerprint identity and authentication solutions, today announced that the City of Apopka has deployed the company’s P4500 biometric fingerprint reader and the Authasas® enterprise grade biometric software, to achieve compliance with CJIS mandates at state and federal levels. The City of Apopka selected Zvetco and Viable Solutions, Inc. to provide and install a turn-key solution to secure mobile access to information, reduce helpdesk costs and simplify compliance with the FBI’s Criminal Justice Information System (CJIS) mandate. With this installation, the City of Apopka delivers extremely high security and convenience through fingerprint scanning.
Within the new mandates, agencies must enforce unique IDs, strong passwords, and comply with the CJIS Advanced Authentication requirement by 2013. However, Advanced Authentication is required for any system upgrade performed after 2005. This means that instead of a 2013 deadline, the mandates must be met at the time of the upgrade. Agencies that are audited and don’t comply with the CJIS policy could be denied access to CJIS systems or face penalties.
The City of Apopka has chosen Zvetco Biometrics and their VAR, Viable Solutions, Inc. to deliver much needed biometric tools to achieve tight integration within a Novell eDirectory environment. In addition to their all-metal biometric readers, Zvetco provided Authasas®, advanced authentication software that enabled the first of its kind connectivity with Novell eDirectory.
City of Apopka’s IT Supervisor, Robert Hippler, says, "Zvetco scanners are a cost effective product that easily connects to our VDI and Physical workstations. With those in place we are able to deliver the new Authasas® Biometric Authentication to desktops, meeting and even exceeding the CJIS requirements."
"Zvetco’s Verifi fingerprint readers deliver on the promise to provide simple yet secure access to organizations’ networks and applications," said Zavi Cohen, CEO at Zvetco Biometrics. "It’s gratifying to see Zvetco solutions supporting government agencies’ needs for security and efficiency in their daily operations. He added, “The Zvetco solution can be utilized in a Novell environment as well as Windows Active Directory. By deploying Zvetco’s Enterprise grade fingerprint readers the City of Apopka achieved noteworthy cost benefits when compared with traditional AFIS type readers”.
Eliot Lloyd Lanes, CEO, and CTO of Viable Solutions, Inc. states, “We have supported the City of Apopka for decades, and we have worked with Zvetco Biometrics for many years. The City’s IT Director, Donald Kahrs was aware that Viable Solutions, Inc. has helped with pioneering efforts in the field of Biometrics integration. So, when they needed to meet the CJIS requirements, they turned to us. We then looked to Zvetco Biometrics, who presented Authasas. During the project we built close ties with Authasas and together we have now delivered a solution that will fit any current Novell and/or Microsoft environment with ease and cost effectiveness.”
About Zvetco Biometrics
Zvetco Biometrics is a manufacturer of best-in-class identity authentication hardware and provider of identity management solutions. Founded in 1999, Zvetco provides its customers in corporate enterprise, government, financial services, healthcare, gaming, food services and point-of-sale with cost-effective network security tools that prevent identity theft, increase accountability and eliminate the cost and inconvenience of password-based access. Zvetco Biometrics' Verifi™ line of biometric products incorporates precision fingerprint-sensing technology into ergonomic computer peripherals that deliver unparalleled performance, reliability and convenience.
Verifi™ is a trademark of Zvetco Biometrics. Authasas® is a trademark of Authasas, a provider of advanced authentication software. All other trademarks, registered trademarks and service marks are the property of their respective owners.
Media Contact: Christy Elliott, Zvetco Media DirectorPhone: (407) 681-0111 Extension: 804Web site: http://www.zvetcobiometrics.com
About Viable Solutions, Inc.
Viable Solutions, Inc. is a world leader in networking and collaboration design, implementation, and support. They also provide a secure, robust, and reliable private corporate cloud. Founded in 1986, Viable Solutions, Inc. provides its customers in all manner of industry cost-effective design, implementation, and support tools and services (on premise or cloud baased) to meet and exceed their business process needs. Information about Viable Solutions, Inc. and its products and services by calling (407) 249-9600 option 2.
Media Contact: Mark Grebinger, Sales ManagerPhone: (407) 249-9600 Extension: 502Web site: http://www.viable-solutions.com
Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2012/5/prweb9529543.htm
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Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [43 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
CyberArk [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [22 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [128 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [14 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [752 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1533 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [65 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [68 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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