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010-100 - Entry Level Linux Essentials Certificate of Achievement - Dump Information

Vendor : LPI
Exam Code : 010-100
Exam Name : Entry Level Linux Essentials Certificate of Achievement
Questions and Answers : 80 Q & A
Updated On : February 19, 2018
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010-100 Questions and Answers


Section 5: Sec Five (67 to 80)

Details: Topic 5, Security and File Permissions


Which command displays the list of groups to which a user belongs?

  1. whoami

  2. lsgroup

  3. who

  4. id

Answer: D


What is the usual absolute path of the personal directory for the user foo?

Answer: /home/foo, /home/foo/


You have a program called /usr/bin/foo. You wish to create a symbolic link,

/home/user/foo, that points to it. Which command will do this task?

  1. ln -sym /home/user/foo /usr/bin/foo

  2. ln -s /usr/bin/foo /home/user/foo

  3. ln /home/user/foo /usr/bin/foo

  4. ln /usr/bin/foo /home/user/foo

  5. ln --symlink /home/user/foo /usr/bin/foo

Answer: B


What are the three sets of permissions for a file?

  1. user, group, others

  2. administrator, group, others

  3. user, standard user, others

  4. administrator, standard user, others

Answer: A


Which of the following is the home folder for the root user?

  1. /user/root

  2. /

  3. /root

  4. /home/root

Answer: C


What is the command to change the password of a user?

  1. wpasswd

  2. gpasswd

  3. epasswd

  4. passwd

  5. password

Answer: D


What command line will create the user falco with home directory assigned to the group users as primary group?

  1. useradd -g users falco

  2. useradd -f users falco

  3. useradd -m -g users falco

  4. add user falco@users

  5. add -user falco -group users

Answer: C


Which statement about users and user groups is correct?

  1. A group can only have one main user.

  2. There can be only one user group on a system.

  3. User do not have to belong to a user group.

  4. Every user belongs to a least one user group.

Answer: D


Which of the following commands can be used to change both the owner AND group settings of a file?

  1. chmod

  2. chage

  3. chuser

  4. chown

  5. chgrp

Answer: D


Which of the following will change the group that is associated with a file?

  1. chmod

  2. chmod -w

  3. chown

  4. ls -g

Answer: C


Which of the following properties of a user account determines whether the user is given administrator privileges?

  1. Its primary group ID is 0 (zero).

  2. It is listed first in /etc/passwd

  3. Its username is root.

  4. Its user ID is 0 (zero).

  5. Its GECOS (name) field is set to "System Administrator"

Answer: D


Which TWO commands can be used to make the file /tmp/foo.txt readable for all users?

  1. chmod 111 /tmp/foo.txt

  2. chmod 444 /tmp/foo.txt

  3. chmod 770 /tmp/foo.txt

  4. chmod 644 /tmp/foo.txt

  5. chmod 640 /tmp/foo.txt

Answer: B, D


Given a directory with the following information: drwxrwxrwxt 12 tu tg 36864 2012-03-15 /home/directory/ Which of the following statements are true?(Choose two)

  1. Everybody can create files in the directory.

  2. Files in the directory are created with read, write and execute permissions for everyone.

  3. The directory is broken.

  4. Everybody can delete only his own files.

  5. The directory is a security risk.

Answer: A, D


When a new user is added, where does his user ID gets stored?

  1. /etc/users

  2. /etc/realm

  3. /etc/pass

  4. /etc/shpasswd

  5. /etc/passwd

Answer: E

LPI 010-100 Exam (Entry Level Linux Essentials Certificate of Achievement) Detailed Information

LPI is the global certification standard and career support organization for open source professionals. With more than 500,000 exams delivered, it's the world’s first and largest vendor-neutral Linux and open source certification body. LPI has certified professionals in 181 countries, delivers exams in 9 languages, and has over 200 training partners.
Recommended for professionals: LPIC-1, LPIC-2 and LPIC-3
For IT professionals who want their Linux and open source skills verified in order to boost their career momentum, why wait? According to the Foote Partners report, ‘IT Skills and Certification Index’, there’s double-digit growth in bonuses paid to LPI certified candidates.
According to CompTIA HR perceptions of IT Training and Certification study:
96% use IT certifications as screening or hiring criteria during recruitment.
90% agree IT certified individuals are more likely to be promoted than those without.
89% think IT certified individuals perform better than non certified individuals in similar job roles.
88% say IT certified employees are rewarded (bonus and pay increase) for obtaining IT certification.
94% expect IT certification to grow in importance over the next two years.
88% believe it’s important to test after training to confirm knowledge gains.
97% value certification enough to provide support for IT employees obtaining certification.
The open source Jobs Report says hiring managers are looking for open source professionals.
34% are willing to aid with the cost of an employee's open source certification
59% are looking to increase open source hiring
74% have a need for developers
58% are seeking DevOps professionals
65% report open source hiring will rise more than hiring in other departments
87% say it's hard to find open source talent
"ManpowerGroup recently found that 36% of employers globally reported talent shortages in 2014—the highest percentage in seven years. In the United States, more than half (54%) of employers currently have open positions for which they can’t find qualified candidates. Unemployment rates for highly skilled workers continue to fall, job openings are on the rise and companies are finding an increased need to focus their attention on finding staff with job-specific skills needed to meet rapidly changing technologies.”
— ITCC, 2016 white paper, ’The trends that will affect the IT certification industry by 2020’
How open source professionals keep their skills up to date:
open source Jobs Report 2016 open source Jobs Report 2016
LPI tops the list of Linux certs by population according to Certification Magazine
1. Linux Professional Institute LPIC-1 37.9%
2. Linux Foundation Certified Systems Administrator (LFCS) 36.0%
3. Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) 24.2%
4. Red Hat Certified Systems Administrator (RHCSA) 22.2%
5. SUSE Certified Linux Administrator (CLA) 20.3%
6. CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI 18.3%
7. Linux Professional Institute LPIC-2 17.0%
8. Novell Certified Linux Professional 15.7%
9. Linux Foundation Certified Engineer 13.7%
10. Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) 8.5%
How we create our certifications
LPI is committed to providing the IT community with exams of the highest quality, relevance, and accuracy. This commitment requires that our exam development process is highly detailed, participatory, consultative and employs many of the proven techniques used by most other IT certification programs.
Exam Development
LPI’s exam development process is detailed, thorough, participatory, collaborative and employs many proven techniques used by the best IT certification programs.
Psychometrics, the study of testing and measuring mental capacity, is used throughout LPI certification development to ensure that our exams reflect the needs of the IT community and industry.
Development Structure
As a part of our ongoing certification development process we continually monitor the needs of the Linux and IT markets to ensure our exams effectively evaluate candidates on the most relevant skills.
When we began this process in the late 1990’s we initially launched a two-tiered certification track that became what is known as LPIC-1 and LPIC-2 today. Over the years we have expanded our offerings to include the third tier to the LPIC professional track with the three enterprise specialties of LPIC-3. We’ve also introduced an entry-level certificate program, Linux Essentials, for those seeking to add some Linux to their credentials.
Job Task Analysis
After development of a program structure and a job description for an exam or series, the next stage is to scientifically determine the skills, tasks and areas of knowledge needed for the job. The challenge: Anyone could come up with a list of tasks they think a Linux professional should be able to do. If you ask 10 Linux professionals what a “junior-level” professional should do, you might get 10 lists.
Which list is correct?
Our solution: We ask a large number of Linux professionals for their lists of necessary job duties, and then compile the responses to find the common and most important tasks. The most important tasks show up on all lists.
This process is called job analysis study or job task analysis. LPI has completed extensive job analysis surveys of Linux professionals to help ensure exams are unbiased and constructed fairly.
How we do it:
First we work with a large pool of subject-matter experts to compile an exhaustive list of all the tasks that they think might be performed by the target audience of the certification.
Job Analysis Survey
Next, the tasks collected during the pre-survey go into a job analysis survey. This survey asks practicing Linux professionals to rate each task in several ways:
Frequency: How often they perform the task.
Importance: How important it is for an administrator to be able to perform the task.
Data analysis
Finally, we conduct statistical analysis of the survey responses. We compute statistics indicating, on average, how critical respondents rated each task. This analysis guides the determination of the final job task list.
Objective Development
The third major stage of development is converting the results from the Job Analysis Study to develop the actual objectives for the exam(s). Objectives express specific things that Linux professionals must be able to do. Each objective is assigned a weighting value indicating its importance relative to other objectives.
Initial Objective Drafting
First, a small group of people with knowledge of both Linux technical issues and psychometric principles drafted an initial set of test objectives, basing them upon the results of the job analysis study.
Objective Review and Revision
After the draft objectives are created, they are placed online in a web based system for public review and comment. This system organizes objectives by exam and content topic, displaying the objectives themselves, along with links to additional documentation about the objectives. Public comments about objectives are collected and then supervisors review the comments and revise the objectives as necessary. The most recent review and revision of the objectives is posted publicly on our LPI Exam Development wiki and we send them to our community and ExamDev mailing list for comments and input.
When the objectives are finalized, we post them to and let our community as well as courseware and training providers know, so that the training materials can be updated to reflect the new exam material.
Item Development
Once the objectives are finalized, we being the process of writing questions, called items, for exams. Security is a major concern in item development. All items are kept as confidential as possible by having those involved in the process sign non-disclosure agreements agreeing not to disclose item content to anyone. LPI also takes other undisclosed security precautions.
Item writing
Historically, the process used to develop the items for most other IT certification exams was to fly a group of subject-matter experts into a location for a week or more, give them training in how to write items, and then have them work intensely to create the questions.
But this technique is expensive and exclusive. At LPI, during our initial exam development phase we leveraged the power of the community through the internet to encouraged everyone who was interested and knowledgeable to help with item writing.
Since then, LPI has developed new items for exam rotation in house by tapping the knowledge of subject matter experts, online volunteers and participants in item writing workshops.
Item Screening
Supervisors screened all submitted exam items, and accepted, rejected or reworded them. They focused on three criteria:
Redundancy: Items that are substantially identical to previously submitted items are rejected.
Phrasing and Clarity: Items phrased in confusing or otherwise inappropriate ways are rejected or reworded. Supervisors pay attention to ensure that questions can be understood by non-native English speakers.
Accuracy: Supervisors rejected or reworded items that are not technically accurate.
Item Technical Review
Next, LPI uses a group of Linux experts to put items through a technical review. Each item is reviewed by multiple experts. Each expert classifies items as approved, rejected or “other” for rewording or review by others.
The primary technical criteria:
Appropriateness of distractors (for multiple-choice items): Reviewers ensure that the distractor answer choices are incorrect but reasonably plausible.
Phrasing and clarity: Reviewers ensure items are worded in appropriate language.
Expected difficulty
Supervisors then collect the reviews to determine if each item was:
Accepted based on consensus
Rejected based on consensus
Accepted after further review: If reviewers did not agree, the supervisor might accept it, perhaps based on the opinion of another reviewer.
Rejected after further review: If reviewers did not agree, the supervisor might reject it, perhaps based on the opinion of another reviewer.
Accepted after revision: In some cases, reviewers might suggest rewording the item and the supervisor might accept the item after rewording it.
Exam Creation
Live Form Creation
The next stage of development involves assembling items into exams for global deployment. Each test has multiple forms. If candidates fails one form and retake the exam, they receive the different form of the exam on retake attempt.
The Pearson VUE test engine randomly orders the questions of each form when someone takes the exam to ensure two candidates taking the same exam are not tested on the same questions in the same order.
Initial Exam Publishing
Once the LPI psychometric staff has determined the composition of forms, the exam must be converted from text-based items into the actual exam file format to deployed globally through LPI’s network of testing centers.
The exam enter a period of initial testing to determine if the questions are in fact measuring skills and competencies. In IT certification, this period is known as the beta testing period.
During the beta period, candidates can register for tests and complete them at local events. They receive credit, but candidates do not receive scores back immediately after the exam. Beta exams often involve extra questions with an extended-time format as well as additional survey and demographic questions. Several simultaneous processes determine the cut score, so that exams may be evaluated and scored.
Obtaining Enough Exams
Before the passing score can be set, LPI had to accumulate an adequate number of exams taken by people who are similar to the target job description. As our support has grown, our target data numbers continue to grow, helping to generate the most accurate results. As part of the beta exam process, demographic data is taken into account by psychometric staff when reviewing the validity of questions.
Reviewing the Questions
As tests results roll in, psychometric staff start to examine the data. Asking questions such as: Are there questions that everyone gets correct? Are there questions that everyone fails? to determine if there anything wrong with the questions. Exam comments collected during the process are reviewed and questions and concerns are addressed.
Modified Angoff Study
While psychometric staff review incoming data, a separate pool of subject-matter experts simultaneously participated in a modified Angoff study. Their goal, to provide the psychometric staff with additional data to validate questions and assist in setting the passing score.
During this process, the experts:
Receive copies of the exam questions on each form.
Look at each question independently and in consultation with each other and make judgments about how likely a minimally qualified person meeting the job requirements described in a specification sheet would be able to answer the question correctly. In other words, the experts consider the question from the perspective of someone who is at the bottom of the competence scale for job performance.
Rate each question with their estimate of what percentage of people will answer correctly, keeping in mind that on multiple choice questions, some people will get it right by virtue of guessing.
Ideally, the results from the Angoff study should parallel the actual results from the exams in the beta period. Beyond validating item performance, the results of the Angoff study are also used in helping to establish the passing score for exams.
Distributing Score Results
After all of the data collection, the analysis and the Angoff study, the psychometric staff set a passing score, and distribute scores to exam takers who participated in the beta.
Exam Republishing
Once the beta has been completed, the passing score has been set, and any bad items have been removed or fixed, the exam is ready to be re-published. This work involves significant review and can take a month or more to complete. Once this final review process is complete, we coordinate with Pearson VUE and our partner network to publish the finalized exams for all test takers worldwide.
Why Written Exams
Written exams are a global standard.
Multiple choice is a common standard for most certification and licensure exams. Whether you want to be a doctor, lawyer, or chartered accountant, most professions require that you pass a multiple-choice exam. The procedures for producing high-quality multiple choice exams are firmly established. No such standard exists for hands-on exams. Therefore they tend to be ad hoc and rarely include pilot testing, item analysis, formal standard setting, and equating.
Written exams are valid.
Written job knowledge exams have approximately the same levels of predictive validity as job simulations (Roth et al., 2005)
Written exams are more efficient.
Written exams with individual questions are more efficient than exams with more complex item types. For example, Jodoin (2003) examined innovative item types on an IT certification exam that required examinees to construct answers (e.g. draw a network diagram). He found that these constructed response items provided more information but also took additional time. As a result, he concluded that, “multiple-choice items provide more information per unit time.”
Written exams cover all objectives.
Certification exams (like LPI’s) cover a broad range of knowledge areas. Using individual items, written exams can easily ensure adequate coverage of all objectives. Because of practical constraints, hands-on testing must either sample narrowly from these objectives or cover a much smaller body of knowledge.
Written exams are more valuable.
Hands-on testing is typically more expensive in all phases, including item development, pilot testing, administration, and scoring. If hands-on testing is more expensive but not more reliable or valid, then it offers less value.
Written exams are more reliable and objective.
Scoring practices for open-ended exams vary considerably, but the literature on scoring constructed responses suggests that subjective scoring is often less reliable than the scoring of traditional items. The literature on job performance suggests that objective measures of performance are also unreliable.

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  • 010 100 facets water is a liquid at room temperature

    010 10.0 facets Water is a liquid at room temperature whereas methane is a gas. Which remark compares the intermolecular forces in these molecules correctly? 1. There isn't enough suggestions to com- pare these forces. 2. each water and methane have the same intermolecular forces. 3. The intermolecular forces in methane are improved than those in water. 4. The intermolecular forces in water are more desirable than these in methane. correct explanation: 011 15.0 features accept as true with the supplies MgF 2 , O 2 , I 2 , PF three , and HF . The order of increasing melting aspects of those elements is 1. MgF 2 , HF, PF 3 , I 2 , and O 2 . 2. MgF 2 , O 2 , I 2 , PF 3 , and HF.

    version 016 – TTh examination four – shear – (50125) four three. I 2 , O 2 , PF three , HF, and MgF 2 . 4. HF, O 2 , MgF 2 , PF 3 , and i 2 . 5. O 2 , I 2 , HF, PF three , and MgF 2 . 6. I 2 , PF 3 , MgF 2 , O 2 , and HF. 7. O 2 , I 2 , PF three , HF, and MgF 2 . relevant explanation: Melting points are regarding bonding as follows: ionic > hydrogen bonding > dipole > big molecules > small molecules. 012 15.0 points Carbon can exist in two forms, graphite and diamond. The heats of combustion at 25 ◦ C and one atm pressure for these two varieties were measured and located to be C(graphite) + O 2 (g) → CO 2 (g) Δ H = - 393.5 kJ/mol C(diamond) + O 2 (g) → CO 2 (g) Δ H = - 395.four kJ/mol From this assistance, calculate Δ H at 25 ◦ C and 1 atm pressure for the response C(graphite) → C(diamond) . 1. absolutely irrelevant 2. +788.9 kJ/mol 3. +1.9 kJ/mol suitable four. - 788.9 kJ/mol 5. - 1.9 kJ/mol clarification: The preferred response C(graphite) → C(diamond) is the sum of C(graphite) + O 2 (g) → CO 2 (g) Δ H = - 393.5 kJ/mol AND the reverse of the different response CO 2 (g) → C(diamond) + O 2 (g) Δ H = +395.4 kJ/mol note that the signal changes as a result of we’ve re- versed the reaction. O 2 (g) and CO 2 (g) cancel out, after which you can sum the Δ H s for each and every reaction. C(graphite) → C(diamond) Δ H = +1.9 kJ/mol 013 10.0 facets Which of the statements beneath concerning thermodynamic signal conference isn't actual: 1. w is wonderful when work is executed by means of the gadget. suitable 2. Δ H is terrible when warmth is launched to the surroundings. three. Δ S is effective when there's expanding ailment. 4. Work is carried out on the system when Δ V is poor. 5. Δ G is negative when a reaction is spon- taneous. explanation: w is high-quality simplest when work is performed ON the equipment, not via the equipment. When the system does work, volume increases or the number of moles raises (Δ V > 0, Δ n > 0). w = - P Δ V = - Δ nRT and may hence be poor when Δ V or Δ n is fantastic. 014 10.0 elements For liquid mercury in a capillary tube, 1. the meniscus is convex and the cohesive forces are improved than the adhesive forces. correct 2. None of these 3. the meniscus is concave and the adhesive forces are more desirable than the cohesive forces.

    Linux necessities certification assessments 010-a hundred and 010-150in the Pearson VUE certification tests, they list 2 checks for Linux essentials, 010-a hundred (Linux necessities Certification exam 1.0) and 010-one hundred fifty (Linux necessities Certification examination 1.5).

    i'm confused about what substances I should examine to your practicing lessons that line up with these 2 certificate exams.

    can you please make clear?

    Counting and probabilityCounting and probability 6.1#9Counting and probability


    In issue 5 we focus on tossing a coin three times. every toss can have one among two results. Letting 0 = tails and 1 = heads we now have the pattern space in table 1 under. The experience the precisely one toss results in a head is 001 010 100, P(E) = three/8 = .375. The experience that as a minimum two tosses outcome in a head is 011 one zero one 110 111, P(E) = four/8 = .5. The experience that no head is acquired is 000, P(E) = 1/eight = .a hundred twenty five.

    In difficulty 6 we focus on a household with three infants. each infant is both a boy (0) or a woman (1). we've the pattern house in table 1 beneath. The adventure the precisely one infant is a lady is 001 010 a hundred, P(E) = three/eight = .375. The adventure that as a minimum two children are ladies is 011 a hundred and one 110 111, P(E) = four/8 = .5. The adventure that no newborn is a girl is 000, P(E) = 1/eight = .125.

    In issue 7 we focus on a true(1)/false(0) examination with three questions. The probability that exactly one is suitable with random guessing is .375, that as a minimum one is suitable is .5, and that no reply is correct is .125 or 12.5%.

    In difficulty eight we focus on publicity to disease with a 50-50 probability of catching the disease. The outcomes are the equal, only the names have changed.

    table 1000001010011100101110111

    theme 4 computer mathematics and good judgment IB desktop Science.

    1 subject 4 laptop mathematics and good judgment IB laptop Science

    2 A reminder of how we count number… here is how we signify the number we have a thousands column, a 100s column, and many others. all the columns are powers of 10. We count the variety of enormous quantities, 100s, 10s, and so forth, and sum them up. 9  a thousand=  one hundred=200 four  10=40 6  1=6 3  0.1=0.three 5  0.01=0.05 complete=

    three that you can do the identical with powers of Or powers of Or any base you like… n3n3 n2n2 n1n1 n0n0 n -1 n -2

    4 We most effective count in base 10 as a result of we now have ten fingers The Simpsons count in base eight.

    5 In computing We regularly count in: base 2 (binary) base eight (octal) base sixteen (hexadecimal) You deserve to be aware of: binary hexadecimal F00

    6 Counting in other bases Counting in base 10 9 is the largest quantity Then we exchange columns and many others and so forth Counting in base 2 1 is the largest number Then we alternate columns

    7 Counting in other bases Counting in base 10 9 is the largest quantity Then we trade columns and many others and so forth Counting in base 2 1 is the biggest quantity Then we alternate columns

    8 Counting in hex A B C D E F 1 0 Counting in base 16 skill that 15 is the greatest quantity we get to before we exchange columns Counting in base sixteen presents an issue as a result of we do not need fifteen different digits to make our numbers out of! So we use letters, as proven… don't forget that 10 doesn't suggest "ten" if we are counting in hex. It skill "one within the sixteens column and nothing within the instruments column".

    9 converting between decimal and binary Convert 45 dec to binary what's the greatest vigor of two in forty five? answer 32, so your first 1 represents 1 x 32, giving 1 next, go down the powers of two and add on what you need to make 45. will we need any 16s? No, as a result of we have alread 010-100y got a 32 and sixteen would provide us forty eight, so our subsequent quantity is 0, which represents 0 x sixteen, giving 10 can we need any 8s? sure, because is barely 40, so our subsequent number is 1, which represents 1 x eight, giving one zero one can we want any 4s? yes, as a result of is barely forty four, so our subsequent quantity is 1, which represents 1 x four, giving 1011 will we need any 2s? No, because adding 2 to our 44 would give us 46, so our next quantity is 0, which represents 0 x 2, giving do we want any 1s? sure, as a result of we currently have 44 and we want 1 extra to provide us 45. So our ultimate number is 1, representing 1 x 1 and giving So forty five dec in binary is we are able to determine this outcome on the subsequent page.

    10 investigate investigate: 1  32= 0  sixteen=0 1  eight=8 1  four=4 0  2=0 1  1=1 total=45 45 dec in binary is

    eleven Convert the following to binary three dec 7 dec 12 dec 16 dec 20 dec 31 dec fifty three dec sixty four dec 127 dec

    12 Convert the following to decimal 10 bin one zero one bin 1101 bin bin bin bin bin bin bin

    13 changing between decimal and hex Convert eighty one dec to hex Hex powers go 1, 16, 256, 4096, and so on. They get large somewhat without delay. what's the biggest power of 16 in eighty one dec ? answer sixteen. how many sixteens are there in 81 dec ? answer 5, with one left over. So our reply is fifty one, ie 5 sixteens, plus 1 unit. we are able to assess this effect on the next web page.

    14 determine examine: 5  sixteen=eighty 1  1=1 complete=81 eighty one dec in hex is fifty one

    15 Convert the following to hex 4 dec eleven dec 14 dec 23 dec 31 dec forty five dec sixty six dec 240 dec 301 dec four B E 17 1F 2C 42 F0 11D

    16 Convert the following to decimal 5 C A 32 FF a hundred 1AC

    17 The respectable information… converting directly between binary and hex is less difficult than between binary and decimal, or hex and decimal. You simply need to be in a position to re-create this table in your head. BinHex A 1011B 1100C 1101D 1110E 1111F

    18 F So 34F hex = bin 38B5 Convert A4F hex to binary Convert bin to hex So bin is 38B5 hex notice padding with zeroes enables use of conversion desk on outdated slide. be aware main zeroes in answer are not required, but you might not lose marks in case you leave them in.

    19 Convert to binary 9 D 13 A1 7CD

    20 what number of values can n bits characterize? think about you've got 8 bits to play with the bottom cost is The highest price is That’s 0 as much as 255, ie 256 distinct values 256 is 2 eight In accepted, n bits can signify 2 n distinctive values

    21 terrible numbers All numbers in the laptop are represented in binary, but how are bad numbers represented? (We have no "minus signal" in laptop reminiscence!) answer: both’s complement conference: everything is as standard, but the most huge bit (MSB) is taken to be poor

    22 apply with two’s complement here we are the use of 8-bit two’s complement assess you keep in mind: = 2 0 = = 2 6 = = = = = -2 7 = = = =

    23 range of values what is the highest cost that may also be expressed in 8-bit two’s complement? well, you need the entire positive values, ie , which is = 127 what's the bottom value that can also be expressed in eight-bit two’s complement? well, you need the terrible bit, and not one of the high quality bits, ie , which is -2 7 = -128 what is the optimum price that may also be expressed in n-bit two’s complement? 2 n-1 -1 what's the bottom value that can also be expressed in n-bit two’s complement? -2 n-1

    24 range of values bitsno diff valueshighestlowest n2n2n 2 n n-1

    25 Expressing fractions 1: fastened-element Binary

    26 fixed element binary observe Convert to binary: 1.5 dec 2.5 dec 4.25 dec dec answers: Convert to decimal: 1.01 bin bin bin bin solutions:

    27 Combining fixed aspect and Two's Complement Convert to binary: dec answer: ( ) Convert to decimal: bin answer: ( ) what is the highest price that can also be expressed in this layout? what is the bottom values? solutions: = and = -8

    28 Floating aspect remember scientific notation in maths? turns into x 10 2 correct? The identical happens in binary. e.g may also be written as x 2 2 here's called floating aspect representation, because the decimal element strikes. check your understanding. Convert to right here to floating element illustration: answers: 1.01 x x x 2 -four

    29 Storing floating point numbers There are two more issues to think about: How will we store the exponent? (We can not shop a 3 in binary) How can we characterize poor numbers? We truly shop both the mantissa and the exponent in two's complement kind. notice the position of the bicimal aspect x 2 3 mantissa exponent

    30 Floating factor instance: high quality mantissa fantastic mantissas are particularly easy: Convert to decimal the floating-aspect binary number , if 6 bits are allocated to the mantissa and four bits to the exponent. [2 marks] bear in mind that bicimal factor is after the primary little bit of the mantissa (ie ) Now calculate the exponent is (advantageous) 4, so we shift the bicimal element four locations to the right, giving = ½ so the closing reply is 9.5 (With a bad exponent, you might simply should shift the bicimal element to the left in its place.)

    31 Floating element illustration: negative mantissa take into account that we use two's complement as a result of we have no minus sign in the computer's reminiscence. neatly, should you are dealing with a negative mantissa, it is lots more convenient to think about that you've got bought a minus signal. for instance, when you are using 6-bit two's complement, that you can trust a mantissa of (-1 + ½ = -½) as (-½) To without difficulty convert from two's complement to our cheating minus sign structure is easy: 1.Flip the entire bits 2.Add 1 to the least significant bit three.Put a minus sign up front to convert back you simply do the same component again and remove the minus signal – it really works each techniques

    32 practice complementing what is (5-bit two's complement) in our cheating minus sign layout? 1.Flip the bits, giving Add one to the least tremendous bit (the right-most) giving: Put a minus register entrance: investigate: (two's complement) is = is –( ) = investigate that the equal manner takes you again to both's complement structure.

    33 bad mantissa revisited or not it's important to grasp how to complement the mantissa because it makes relocating the bicimal aspect a good deal less demanding. Convert to decimal the floating-factor binary quantity , if 6 bits are allotted to the mantissa and 4 bits to the exponent. [2 marks] First locate the dishonest layout of the mantissa:   (Now or not it's similar to with a favorable mantissa a couple of slides lower back) discover the exponent: 0011 = 3 flow the bicimal point 3 to the right, giving Convert to decimal. answer -2.5

    34 changing from decimal to floating factor this is identical to converting to scientific notation: Convert to scientific notation. move decimal aspect two to the left  Add an exponent to compensate x 10 2 Convert 5.75 to normalized floating factor binary if the mantissa is 6 bits and the exponent is four bits: Convert to mounted factor binary: move bicimal factor 3 to the left: (have to have a zero backyard the bicimal element when you've got a terrible mantissa and you should complement – see next illustration) Set the four-bit exponent to 3 to compensate: 0011 Full answer:

    35 more examples

    36 critical points college students often locate this hard. there will likely be extraordinarily few marks dedicated to the advanced aspects of this within the examination. don't spend a disproportionate period of time on it. in case you do not like my rationalization, try this guy's:

    37 viable mistakes Truncation error: Some numbers require infinite-size mantissas, e.g. one third is … if you are attempting to shop this in a pc then one of the most digits get "chopped off" (truncated), with an linked loss of precision. Overflow error: if in case you have 3 bits, you cannot do the sum since the reply is one thousand, which bigger than the biggest quantity that you may represent. Underflow error: if you have four-bit two's complement then the smallest number which you can signify is 1000 (or -eight). therefore you can not so the sum , because the reply is (or - 9) which is smaller than the smallest number that you would be able to represent. be trained the definitions plus an instance for each and every

    38 reality tables ABA nand B ABA + B AA AB A  B NAND OR XOR no longer ABA nor B NOR AB A  B AND

    39 Boolean algebra into phrases and vice versa (A) Jessica will go to the party (B) Fred will go to the birthday celebration (C) Chen may be chuffed construct an expression using Boolean algebra for the sentence "either of Jessica or Fred will go to the celebration, and Chen could be sad." (A  B)  C (A xor B) and not C You deserve to know the symbols:  AND + OR  XOR [overbar] no longer

    40 good judgment circuits you could assemble good judgment circuits out of boolean algebra and vice versa. A B C output inputs This circuit corresponds with the statement on the ultimate slide. it'll handiest produce an output of actual if (A xor B) and not C. Nand is comparable to AND followed by means of no longer (the AND reality desk with the entire bits flipped) and so has the sense of "anything apart from each". nor is akin to OR adopted by not (the OR fact table with all of the bits flipped) and so has the experience of "neither one nor the other".

    forty one make sure to… Be able to convert between boolean algebra (phrases or symbols) and common sense circuits (maximum of three inputs) show that a common sense circuit and a boolean algebraic expression are such as each and every different via evaluating their actuality tables

    42 (no longer A And B) Or (not(no longer A Or (now not A Or B))) (no longer A And B) Or (no longer(now not A Or now not A Or B)) (not A And B) Or (now not(now not A Or B)) (now not A And B) Or (A and never B)) A xor B Karnaugh maps sum of items

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