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00M-513 exam Dumps Source : Power Systems with AIX Technical Sales Professional - v2
Test Code : 00M-513
Test Name : Power Systems with AIX Technical Sales Professional - v2
Vendor Name : IBM
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February 6, 2019 Alex Woodie
It’s a new yr, which means a new crop of champions has emerged from IBM. greater than 600 souls can name themselves IBM Champions this 12 months, however only sixty four establish as IBM Champions for vigour methods. We whittled away the AIX and Linux experts to depart you with the individuals who will lead the IBM i cost in 2019.
IBM doesn't have a selected class for IBM i Champions. massive Blue breaks out its device z leaders, together with champion categories for information & Analytics, Cloud, Collaboration solutions, Storage, Watson IoT, Blockchain, and protection.
For the Champion software, IBM lumps the IBM i folks in with their Linux and AIX brethren who share the power systems platform. because the IBM i platform is entertaining and the IBM i group is, in colossal part, become independent from AIX and Linux, IT Jungle works to determine which of the IBM Champions for vigour methods are there on account of their work on IBM i.
here are the 12 new IBM Champions for energy techniques who are involved with the IBM i server and the IBM i community:Larry Bolhuis
Bolhuis holds the title of Chief i-entist at Frankeni expertise Consulting in Middleville, Michigan. Bolhuis has been engaged on the IBM midrange platform given that the early Nineteen Eighties, starting with S/34.Bastien Boudot de la Motte
Boudot de la Motte is a company unit supervisor for hybrid IT solutions at SCC France. He works with loads of operating programs on vigor, together with IBM i and AIX.Nathanaël Bonnet
Bonnet is an IBM i skilled at Gaia, an IT consultancy primarily based in France. Bonnet is also the president of commonplace France.Steve Bradshaw
Bradshaw is the founder of at Rowton IT solutions, an IBM business accomplice within the UK that provides IBM i software and features. Bradshaw also writes a daily feature for PowerWire.ecu.David Brault
Brault is a product marketing manager with LANSA, the Chicago, Illinois IBM i construction tool maker that became just purchased by means of Idera. Brault has been at LANSA more than 20 years.Charles Guarino
Guarino is the president of important Park facts, an IBM i consultancy in big apple city. Guarino is an authority on Rational Developer for IBM i (RDi) and a sought-after speaker on the IBM i speaking circuit.Josh corridor
corridor is a specialist with Seiden community and a 2018 “clean Faces” member. The South Dakota resident additionally launched a user neighborhood known as HUGi.Michael Karasienski
Michael Karasienski is an IBM i supervisor at Carhartt, a $600-million apparel enterprise primarily based in Dearborn, Michigan. Karasienski was featured in an October 2017 story in IBM systems journal about Carhartt’s server migration.Niels Liisberg
Liisberg is a main application architect at equipment and system, an IBM company companion primarily based in Hørsholm, Denmark, that works greatly with the IBM i platform.Jesper Hemmet Omer
Omer is an IT supervisor with HT Bendix A/S, a Danish wholesaler of furnishings and kitchen materials. He’s additionally the president of the country wide IBM i-concentrated consumer group regular Denmark.Stephanie Rabbani
Rabbani is a senior consultant with Seiden community, an IBM i consulting group based near long island metropolis. Rabbani turned into named some of the “sparkling Faces” for IBM i in 2017.Robin Tatam
Tatam is the director of security applied sciences for help methods, the IBM i software supplier primarily based in Eden Prairie, Minnesota. Tatam is an IBM licensed advisor and has more than two decades of event with the IBM i and predecessor platforms.
These new IBM Champions for energy methods be part of a in shape returning classification. listed below are the 24 IBM Champions for energy techniques from 2018 who work basically in the IBM i box and are IBM Champions as soon as again in 2019:
Liam Allan, open source RPG developer by the use of Works of Barry and an long-established “fresh Faces” member from 2017
Torbjörn Appehl, founding father of IBM i Competence in Stockholm, Sweden
Jim Buck, the founding father of Impower applied sciences in Kenosha, Wisconsin
Koen Decorte, proprietor of IBM i consultancy CD make investments based mostly in Belgium
Roberto De Pedrini, is an IBM i coach at FAQ400, an IBM i practising business based mostly in Italy.
Shrirang “Ranga” Deshpande of general Europe in Belgium
Kim Greene, an IBM i Lotus Domino knowledgeable and principal at Kim Greene Consulting
Susan Gantner, a founding father of PARTNER400 in Mississauga, Canada
Bartlomiej Grabowski, the IBM power essential aid expert at DHL IT services in Prague, Czech Republic
Midori Hosomi, a supervisor at iGUAZU, an IBM company accomplice based in Japan
Tom Huntington, vice president of technical options for help systems
Scott Klement, a expert with Profound common sense who’s based mostly in Wisconsin
Richie Palma, IBM power methods answer consultant with iTech solutions neighborhood
Christian Massé, a teacher with VOLUBIS, an IBM business partner primarily based in France
Peter Massiello, the founding father of iTech solutions group in Danbury, Connecticut
Jon Paris, a founding father of PARTNER400
Michael Pavlak, a solutions architect with Fresche options who’s based in Illinois.
Trevor Perry, chief strategist at Fresche options
Steven Pitcher, programs engineer at iTech options neighborhood who’s based in Nova Scotia, Canada
Kody Robinson, a developer at Arkansas Electrical Cooperative service provider and an common member of the 2017 “clean Faces”
Alan Seiden, important of Seiden community
Paul Tuohy, writer of the ordinary “iTalk with Tuohy” feature on IBM techniques magazine
Laura Ubelhor, the main at Consultech features in Detroit, Michigan
Carol Woodbury, vice chairman of global security features at HelpSystems
Congratulations to all 36 IBM i Champions (technically, the IBM Champions for vigour methods, with a forte in IBM i). that you can examine more about this 12 months’s class of champions right here.linked studies
Massiello Named First Lifetime Champion for vigor
IBM vigor Champions: displaying passion For The Platform
A youth movement For IBM i Champions
big Blue hopes to crimson-gentle Intel's march into its information center server territory.
in accordance with sources, IBM will add two improved servers to its power systems lineup later this month that are designed to be enormously extra reliable and relaxed for cloud environments and promise to in the reduction of linked hardware and application maintenance fees by using more than 80% during their life span.
The Power9-based mostly fashions 950 and 980 -- the latter, higher-conclusion mannequin may also be stuffed with as much as 192 processors and 64 TB of reminiscence -- contain a couple of hardware applied sciences to enrich security and server uptime. These consist of 24 crypto-engines, which is twice as many as Power8-primarily based techniques; intelligent storage controllers; regulated vigor components; and dispensed device clocks that kick in when the leading device clock fails. Working together, these hardware technologies underpin IBM's pledge of 99.9996% uptime over three years.
"[That guarantee] is set as good as you get with any IBM equipment, together with mainframes," talked about one consultant who declined to be recognized. "This improvement in reliability and safety is what helps pressure down the hardware and software protection expenses over the lifestyles span of the gadget."
The extended number of crypto-engines in the equipment, apart from their elevated pace and efficiency, should still appeal to IT retail outlets that desire extra safety of their cloud environments, referred to an analyst additionally commonplace with the company's plans.
"within the z14 [IBM mainframe], they brought pervasive encryption, which has turned into a vital selling factor for that device," the analyst stated. "I think most bigger enterprise users will welcome this added layer of safety."
IBM hopes the brand new machines' enormous reminiscence bump will appeal to clients that put into effect in-memory databases and speed up analytics application, sources pointed out.
IBM executives challenge charge savings on protection over three years could be round $200,000 for the lower-end model 950 and as high as $600,000 on the model 980. The business is so confident about these discount rates, it will bundle within the renovation expenses of the mannequin 950 and enormously in the reduction of the upkeep charges on the high-end model from about $620,000 to $79,000 over 5 years, sources observed.
"Backed with the ninety nine.9996 uptime number, IBM is attempting to bring the message that these items, together with your cloud, aren't going down," the advisor mentioned.
anyway reliability and safety, both IBM Power9 techniques are optimized to operate more effectively in cloud environments, as well as give tools to build clouds greater quite simply. These encompass the business's PowerVM virtualization providing, which includes the virtual I/O Server that may also be used to virtualize I/O substances for AIX, IBM I and Linux client partitions. IBM additionally will bundle VMware's vRealize administration and orchestration application, as well as IBM Cloud inner most development equipment and IBM Cloud PowerVC supervisor to provision workloads and control digital photographs.
IBM will permit AIX users to switch their licenses to the brand new systems, in keeping with sources.A protective stance
at the beginning, these IBM power programs servers are meant to compete towards Intel as a defensive move, as opposed to an offensive one. during the last a number of years, as cloud computing demand soared, IBM's energy series lost market share to Intel's less high priced server offerings with regularly better aspects and performance. Over the brief term, the business desires to make certain its current users upgrade their IBM power servers and stop Intel from additional consuming into its customer base, the analyst said.
"in the event that they can accomplish that, then they can focus on selling all these other capabilities to go after new customers," he spoke of.
searching ahead, IBM plans to bring servers according to its Power9 processors in the course of the conclusion of 2019 and liberate techniques containing the Power10 chip in 2020, sources noted. IBM declined to complicated on what new facets could be in Power10, sources mentioned.
LONDON (Reuters) - IBM Corp. has developed know-how to predict and computer screen when and the place bushes and vegetation threaten vigor traces which could help increase power deliver operations and cut back outages, it observed on Wednesday.
Vegetation can cause disruption for power groups, often transforming into over or obstructing vigour transmission strains. energy suppliers continually deal with this with the aid of conducting ordinary inspections and trimming.
IBM's system uses data gathered by using satellites, drones, aerial flights, sensors and climate fashions to aid corporations computer screen the state and maintenance of hundreds of miles of transmission and distribution lines.
in addition to picking and predicting outage threats, the equipment can also help with grid reliability, wildfire prevention, storm administration and assessment, the company spoke of.
"every enterprise is affected by weather. but for power corporations and their clients, it could actually mean the difference between no matter if they could preserve the lights on and heat their homes," observed Cameron Clayton, IBM's popular supervisor of Watson Media and weather.
"The ability to layer weather information with satellite tv for pc and sensor records gives utility organizations potent new insights to support them enhance operations and minimize impact on their valued clientele," he brought.
(Reporting by Nina Chestney; modifying by means of Emelia Sithole-Matarise)
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The end of the '80s brought an end to big hair, shoulder pads — and $20,000 mainframe CAD software. Fortunately for all of us, today's hairstyles and CAD prices are more down to earth. Whether your CAD budget is $7,500, zero, or anywhere in between, you won't pull your hair out finding viable professional options.
CAD options in the lower end of the price range are particularly interesting. Many, in fact, offer features and functionality that seem to rival that of Autodesk's AutoCAD for thousands of dollars less. The question is, Can these products go the distance in a professional environment? Can they support workflows that involve clients and partners that use AutoCAD? Are they sophisticated enough to be easy to learn and use productively? We at Cadalyst Labs decided to find out by evaluating five options in the $500 price range.
The Low-Cost CAD Market
Before we get to the product evaluation, let's take a higher-level look at the low-cost CAD market. At least 50 products are available worldwide that range in price from free to approximately $2,000 — easily rivaling the number of CAD-specific products that exist in the higher price range.
Bob Mayer, COO at IMSI/Design, developer of the popular line of TurboCAD software, said the retail market for low-cost CAD hasn't changed fundamentally in recent years. Long Nguyen, U.S. distributor, said, "The market has started to accept more low-cost CAD solutions recently. As low-cost CAD becomes more ubiquitous, companies will specialize and innovate in different fields. As a result, we will see CAD solutions which are specific to many different realms of manufacturing, architecture, motion simulation, and engineering."
Franco Folini has a unique perspective on the range of CAD software available today, from the most affordable to the most complex and expensive options. He is president and cofounder of Novedge, the largest online reseller of CAD, 3D, and graphics software — more than 6,000 products, to be specific. "I believe there are plenty of professional situations where $500 software will solve your problems," he said. "We get calls from people who want to design a swimming pool, a wedding ring, furniture. ... Entry-level software is perfect for professionals working with basic geometry."
Free CAD tools are becoming increasingly common; however, if this trend is affecting the low-cost CAD market, the developers who spoke with Cadalyst haven't see it yet. Mayer said, "We know that Dassualt Systèmes claims millions of downloads of its [free] 2D DraftSight product; however, our 2D CAD sales continue to increase year over year."
Nguyen added, "There has always been a dividing line between free CAD software and commercial software. If free CAD tools were equally reliable, compatible, and fully featured, they would easily overtake the market. That is not the case, though. Users still rely on the quality of commercial software."
Who Uses Low-Cost CAD?
"We think that [users of CAD in the $500 range] fall into two groups: hobbyists and 'prosumers,'" said Bob Mayer, COO at IMSI/Design, developer of the TurboCAD software line. "By prosumers, we mean professional users of CAD who are looking for real value in the product. TurboCAD LTE Pro is a perfect example of this. The prosumer buyer of this product is someone who is familiar with the AutoCAD or AutoCAD LT product and wants to stick with that familiar [user interface] and functionality, but get it (and more) for a real value price. The majority are not first-time CAD users. Hobbyists, however, will tend to be first-timers in the world of CAD."
For GstarCAD, said Nguyen, "Most of our users have had experience with CAD, and more specifically AutoCAD. Our most advanced CAD users are independent consultants who require the best software. Other customers include small manufacturing shops and independent designers with limited budgets. We also have users in the architectural and tool-and-die industries. Outside of the U.S.A., large corporations have adopted GstarCAD as the standard CAD software."
At Novedge, an online reseller of more than 6,000 CAD, 3D, and graphics software products, the reality differs. President and cofounder Franco Folini said, "Entry-level software tends to be adopted by professionals and companies new to CAD." Because of that inexperience, he explained, those customers tend to request more technical support than do Novedge customers who purchase more complex and expensive products. "What we notice is that people buying entry-level products have big expectations for tech support and having a relationship with the vendor. They need more hand-holding in terms of installation and use. ... Higher-level customers are in a more structured working environment. They have CAD experience, in-house resources, and training." Folini said that low-cost CAD accounts for approximately 5% of revenue for Novedge.
Although Mayer and Nguyen do observe customers moving from AutoCAD to their lower-cost options, Folini does not. "In our experience at Novedge, we are not seeing people downgrade from AutoCAD LT to $500 products."
Return on Investment
Should you opt to spend slightly more money — say, $1,000 to $1,500 — what could you expect for the extra investment? In addition to the obvious answer of more robust features, Folini said you'll generally find a better user experience.
"My personal opinion is that sometimes it's just the experience with the product, the user interface, that sets it apart. If you compared features lists and matched them up one-by-one, you probably get a 70% to 80% match. But what I've seen is that the user interface in the entry-level system might not be so good. Ten years ago, the UIs in low- vs. mid-range products were very similar, but now the mid-level product UIs are noticeably better."
Less-sophisticated UIs can make some low-priced products more difficult to learn, Folini continued, but they have plenty of features for the professional user. "Unless you are working with complex geometry, they work pretty well. As far as software interoperability and DWG support, they are OK for most people," — especially the IntelliCAD-based products, he said. "These products are pretty good at producing DWG and DXF files, and you can go anywhere with those, transfer drawings to anyone."
Folini has watched as the IntelliCAD Consortium has run into financial trouble and scaled back efforts to create a reliable alternative to AutoCAD. Price wars have sprung up, prices have fallen, and products have become less competitive, he said. "As a result, the entry-level market is not generating the resources and seeing the level of competition necessary to keep it growing and progressing." He concluded by saying he hopes the consortium can renew its efforts and restore the competition necessary to keep the market growing and progressing.
Eyeing the future of the low-cost CAD market, Mayer said, "I anticipate a time when low-cost CAD will be primarily available on a subscription basis directly from the developers." "The reseller channel for CAD — both brick and mortar, as well as online — will continue to shrink, and more and more of the business will simply be direct to the user." And, he added, "There's a whole new group of CAD applications coming that will be optimized for the unique attributes of mobile computing devices such as tablets like the iPad."
Low-Cost CAD: Five Options
For this roundup of low-cost CAD solutions, Cadalyst editors selected five products to evaluate. We narrowed down a long list of budget-friendly options to those in the $400–$600 range that had potential to replace AutoCAD in a professional office.
Evaluation criteria. In an effort to experience each of these tools from installation through new-user orientation just as a typical user would, the process involved no vendor briefings or special tutoring sessions. Except where noted, installations went smoothly on a Windows 7–based machine.
Evaluation was based on creating new files, opening a series of existing sample drawings, and working with geometry, all the way through plotting — all while contrasting the tool with AutoCAD. We gauged overall functionality including customization and programming as well as overall experience from the perspective of an AutoCAD user. We placed particular emphasis on evaluating the user interface (UI) to measure ease of use and the learning curve for each product.
Our goal in this evaluation process was not to declare a winner, but rather to provide a basis for determining whether each tool might be a viable choice for your office to consider as an AutoCAD replacement. If yours is an AutoCAD LT or Bentley Systems MicroStation office, this evaluation should serve you well also.
Given that all these tools are roughly the same cost as an annual AutoCAD subscription and that each comes with a learning curve, we're not convinced that any would merit switching from AutoCAD. However, if you're looking to purchase new CAD seats, these tools deserve consideration. A free trial version is available for each option to get you started. For further details about each product, see the table, "Low-Cost CAD: Five Professional Options."
Bricscad v12 Pro
Pros: Very similar look and feel to AutoCAD 2012, minus the ribbon. Customization and AutoLISP support are excellent and very similar to that of AutoCAD. Handles irregular viewports, xrefs, and file attachments without a glitch. Includes 2D parametric functionality.
Cons: Reading 3D geometry using proxy conversion is clunky at best, and at times problematic. Bricscad v12 Pro can't read AutoCAD 2012 viewports with Model Documentation–generated views.
Bricscad v12 Pro from Bricsys integrates 3D direct modeling with the familiar 2D feature set of native DWG. It supports hundreds of third-party applications, according to the developer. It sells for $505.
New Bricscad files are created using AutoCAD standard DWT files and saved in AutoCAD DWG/DXF formats from the 2010 version back. We opened a variety of AutoCAD sample files all the way through the 2012 format and found the results to be generally fine, with a few exceptions. (See "Cons" in the accompanying summary box.)
Bricscad's user interface looks much like that of recent AutoCAD releases, focused on user-arranged toolbars and palettes (although a ribbon menu is not used) wrapped around the top and sides of the drawing area, with the Command prompt at the bottom. Creating and working with geometry in Bricscad feels very much like using AutoCAD. Geometry editing, including grip editing, functions much as it does in AutoCAD, but double-click editing varies by entity type — hatching, most notably — and isn't always AutoCAD-like.
As a bonus, parametric-style constraints very similar to those in AutoCAD 2012 (minus the AutoConstraints) let you make 2D parametric drawings. Zooming, panning, mouse-wheel support, and keyed-in commands all function as an AutoCAD user would expect, although right-clicking when no object is selected defaults to an Enter key, as was the case in older versions of AutoCAD.
Printing is conducted via an interface that looks very similar to AutoCAD 2012's Plot dialog box but, curiously, keying in Plot invokes the Command line instead of a dialog box. You create plotter definitions and plot styles very much like you would in AutoCAD. Bricscad now supports STB plot style table files.
Finally, you can set up your own shortcuts, palettes, toolbars, and other interface components using a unified CUI (Customize User Interface) command that saves settings to a PGP file (not interchangeable with an AutoCAD PGP file). AutoLISP routines can be loaded via AppLoad (just like AutoCAD), so CAD managers and power users can tweak Bricscad most any way they like.
In Summary. Bricscad is an AutoCAD-compliant tool that can create and work with DWG data with a nonribbon-based interface that most users of recent AutoCAD versions will learn quickly. If your workflows involve complex layout views or details generated with detail/section views, you can expect problems when files are shared between Bricscad and AutoCAD users. CAD managers familiar with AutoCAD customization can get right to work customizing Bricscad. For companies that need to create parametrically controlled drawings, the constraint functionality is another bonus.
A sample DWG file as it appears in Bricscad v12 Pro.
GStarCAD Professional 2012
Pros: GstarCAD operates almost exactly like AutoCAD 2012. It runs AutoLISP routines and handles irregular viewports, xrefs, and file attachments without a glitch. Block libraries and the EasyArch add-on for drawing 2D architectural elements make GstarCAD a great value.
Cons: The software has problems reading 3D geometry using proxy conversion. Can't read AutoCAD 2012 viewports with Model Documentation–generated views.
Based on IntelliCAD technology, GStarCAD Professional is a 2D/3D CAD solution from Suzhou Gstarsoft touted for its AutoCAD compatibility and openness for CAD application development. Available for $520, GStarCAD is more ribbon compliant and generally more "visual" in its interface than the other IntelliCAD-based software we looked at.
This program creates new files using AutoCAD standard DWT files, and files are saved in AutoCAD DWG/DXF formats from the 2010 version back; curiously enough, the 2004 file version is the default. We opened a variety of AutoCAD sample files all the way through the 2012 format and found the results excellent, with a few notable exceptions (described in "Cons" in the summary box included here).
GStarCAD's UI looks very much like AutoCAD 2012's ribbon-based interface, with an additional bar across the top of the drawing window to facilitate fast switching between opened drawings — something like Quick View drawings in AutoCAD. The ribbon tabs are arranged in a way that's very similar to AutoCAD, albeit with some tabs and functions missing. Creating and working with geometry in GStarCAD feels very much like AutoCAD as well as other IntelliCAD-based programs. Editing geometry, including grip editing, functions like AutoCAD; however, given that it offers a ribbon-based interface, the absence of ribbon-based double-click editing (available in AutoCAD) surprised me. Zooming, panning, mouse-wheel support, keyed-in commands (including AutoCAD 2012–like AutoComplete), and right-click functionalities function as an AutoCAD user would expect.
Printing is conducted via an interface that looks and feels exactly like AutoCAD 2012, all the way down to the PlotterManager command and plot styles, but the STB file format is not supported. Finally, the ability to set up your own shortcuts, palettes, toolbars, and other interface components via a clone of the AutoCAD CUI command, and to load AutoLISP routines using AppLoad (again, just like AutoCAD) mean customizers familiar with recent AutoCAD releases can get right to work.
In Summary. GStarCAD is an AutoCAD-compliant tool that can create and work with DWG data in an interface that will make AutoCAD 2011/2012 users feel right at home — probably requiring the least training of any of the programs evaluated. Companies that use complex layout views with viewport-specific visualization features will find GStarCAD directly compliant with AutoCAD files. Customization capabilities and LISP support are the best of all the programs evaluated for this article — and the most like AutoCAD — so CAD managers familiar with AutoCAD customization should have no problem adapting to GStarCAD.
A sample DWG file as it appears in GStarCAD Professional 2012.
IronCAD DRAFT 2012
Pros: Parametrically driven mechanical symbols are thorough and valuable for mechanical drafters. IronCAD DRAFT can read projected 3D geometry from AutoCAD 2012.
Cons: Least similar to AutoCAD, making cross-training more difficult. Couldn't read complex AutoCAD viewports generated from AutoCAD 2012's Model Documentation feature. No LISP or VBA support.
IronCAD DRAFT is an AutoCAD-compatible 2D mechanical drafting tool that enables users to work in 2D but also to view, leverage, analyze, render, and reference 3D model data created by suppliers, customers, and colleagues. At $595, it is the most expensive of the five products in this roundup.
Creating new design files in IronCAD DRAFT is facilitated via a variety of template (TPL) files in ANSI, GB, or ISO unit systems and typical drawing borders. Files are opened and saved by default in the IronCAD DRAFT EXB file format, but may also be saved in TPL (template), AutoCAD 2010 (or earlier) DWG or DXF, or IGES file formats. We opened a variety of AutoCAD and DGN sample files and found generally good results, although some AutoCAD 2012 viewport formatting caused problems. (See "Cons" in the summary box included here.)
You can switch IronCAD DRAFT's UI between the default, minimalist ribbon-style interface and a pull-down/toolbar interface that reminds me of AutoCAD Release 14. It's easy to switch between the two UIs, but AutoCAD users likely will end up using the pull-down/toolbar interface more than the ribbon option. Either way, the interface is otherwise sparse, lacking a system tray and displaying only minimal toggles. Of the programs evaluated, IronCAD Draft has the most minimalist feel, which may make it the easiest for non-AutoCAD users to learn.
Creating geometry is largely a matter of using ribbon options or toolbar buttons to initiate commands, although some keyed-in shortcuts, such as L for Line, are available. Any Command line prompting appears in the lower band of the screen — very different from AutoCAD. You can turn on a Command Line Panel if you'd rather it look like AutoCAD. Coordinates can be entered in the floating cursor box using the keyboard; via dynamic input (if toggled on); or by locking onto existing geometric features using object snaps. IronCAD's object snaps can snap within blocks and other annotation types. This is very much like AutoCAD functionality, but implemented differently enough that it takes some getting used to. Geometry-editing commands such as Move, Mirror, and Trim work in a similar select/input mode as they do in AutoCAD, but with additional options presented at the Command line; grip editing follows the same logic as it does in AutoCAD; and double-click editing entities invokes a properties-editing palette in most cases (text editing being an exception). You can zoom and pan via icons, an F3 shortcut is predefined for Zoom All, and the mouse wheel supports zoom/pan just as in AutoCAD.
Printing uses your operating system print drives and proprietary configuration files that use the object line width you set during entity creation to drive plotted line weights — unless you specify a line weight–to-color relationship that overrides entity types. This behavior is much more similar to MicroStation than to AutoCAD. For users accustomed to AutoCAD plotting, IronCAD DRAFT printing will be a major adjustment.
In Summary. IronCAD DRAFT is a functional CAD tool that can work with DWG data, but the most dissimilar to AutoCAD in all respects. If AutoCAD emulation isn't critical and mechanical drafting is your main mission, IronCAD DRAFT is a good choice. Conversely, if AutoCAD work methodology is desired to minimize training time, IronCAD DRAFT could be problematic. Companies that interact heavily with users generating data with recent releases of AutoCAD will likely experience compatibility problems with complex layouts.
A sample DWG file as it appears in IronCAD DRAFT 2012.
ProgeCAD 2011 Professional
Pros: Very similar to AutoCAD. ProgeCAD Pro can run basic AutoLISP routines and handle irregular viewports, xrefs, and file attachments without a glitch. Included block libraries and the EasyArch add-on for drawing architectural elements provide extra value.
Cons: Clunky-to-problematic reading of 3D geometry using proxy conversion. Couldn't read AutoCAD 2012 viewports with Model Documentation–generated views.
ProgeCAD 2011 Professional from progeCAD USA is a general-purpose 2D/3D CAD solution, powered by IntelliCAD, that works with AutoCAD DWG files from v2.5 through 2012. ProgeCAD is more like older versions of AutoCAD, where keying in commands and using toolbars is the default mode of input, than the other IntelliCAD-based program we looked at here. At $399, it is the least-expensive product included in this roundup.
Creating new design files in progeCAD Professional is based on AutoCAD standard DWT files — two of which are provided and more of which can be created on your own, just as in AutoCAD. The program saves files in AutoCAD 2010 DWG format by default, or in earlier DWG or DXF file formats if specified. When opening existing drawings, the same file types are supported. We opened a variety of AutoCAD 2012 and earlier sample files and found the results excellent, with a few notable exceptions (explained under "Cons" in the summary box).
The progeCAD UI looks very much like the UI of recent AutoCAD releases, without the ribbon. Because progeCAD is based on technology from IntelliCAD (which has had the goal all along to deliver AutoCAD-compatible CAD tools), creating and working with geometry felt almost exactly like AutoCAD, all the way to the Etrack and Esnap tools (which emulate AutoCAD's OTrack and Osnap). Editing geometry emulates AutoCAD functionality, including grip editing, to a T. Throughout the process, all zooming, panning, mouse-wheel functions, keyed-in commands — and even using the spacebar to repeat the last command — flowed exactly as they do in AutoCAD, making this a very easy tool for AutoCAD users to learn.
Printing uses operating system print drivers and reads/writes AutoCAD CTB/PCP configuration files (with the STB file format being notably absent), but the interface is multitabbed and requires some navigation to understand what's going on. Finally, the ability to set up your own shortcuts, palettes, toolbars, and other interface components via the MenuLoad command and the ability to load basic AutoLISP files (minus Visual LISP) will make those with legacy custom code very happy.
In Summary. ProgeCAD 2011 Professional is an AutoCAD-compliant tool that can create and work with DWG data and has an interface that AutoCAD users can learn quickly. Companies that use complex layout views with viewport-specific visualization features will find progeCAD directly compliant with AutoCAD files. Customization and LISP support mean that CAD managers can tailor the software to fit their users, although existing routines may not run if they contain certain Visual LISP functions.
A sample DWG file as it appears in progeCAD 2011 Professional.
TurboCAD LTE Pro v4
Pros: TurboCAD LTE Pro is comfortable and easy to learn for AutoCAD users and includes a variety of powerful tools for 2D drafting.
Cons: Didn't read complex AutoCAD viewports generated from AutoCAD 2012's Model Documentation feature. Had trouble representing AutoCAD DWG files saved with visual styles. Developed as an AutoCAD LT replacement, it offers no LISP support.
TurboCAD products from IMSI/Design have long been popular with Cadalyst readers. TurboCAD LTE Pro, the second most affordable option in the line, is described as a professional 2.5D drafting and detailing solution. Although it is designed to compete with AutoCAD LT, we chose it for this roundup due to its $500 price.
Installation of TurboCAD LTE Pro went fine, but the included graphics driver had to disable the Aero visual theme in Windows 7 in order to run. Once the basic Windows theme was applied, TurboCAD fired right up.
Users create new design files in TurboCAD LTE Pro via a variety of template files in ISO and ANSI standard unit notation with typical drawing border sizes. Files are saved by default in the TurboCAD TCW file format, but may also be saved as AutoCAD 2010 (or earlier) DWG or DXF, or Intergraph DGN vector formats, as well as a variety of other CAD and image formats. The same file types are supported when opening existing drawings. We opened a variety of AutoCAD and DGN sample files with generally good results.
TurboCAD LTE Pro's UI encompasses pull-down menus and toolbars along the top of the screen, with toolbars and palettes to the left and right and a Command prompt/history area along the bottom. One thing the UI doesn't have is a ribbon menu. Creating geometry feels very much like drawing with AutoCAD; coordinate input, directional input, and intelligent snap locators appear to be modeled after the AutoCAD UI. Editing commands such as Move, Mirror, and Trim all work in conjunction with snap locations, much like they do in AutoCAD, but selecting objects for editing (such as AutoCAD grip editing) felt very different, as multiple objects may be stretched or modified in an extent-style editing frame. Zoom/pan and wheel mouse viewing also functioned just as one would expect in AutoCAD. As fans of keyboard entry, we were happy to find that favorite command shortcuts (L for line, E for erase, etc.) worked exactly as they would in AutoCAD. Finally, a unified CUI command means you can set up your own shortcuts, palettes, toolbars, and other interface components just the way you want.
Printing uses your operating system print drivers, with a print style utility mapping colors to print characteristics such as pen widths (much like an AutoCAD CTB file).
In Summary. TurboCAD LTE Pro is a functional CAD tool that can create and work with DWG and DGN data, with an interface look and feel that will be familiar to AutoCAD users. Companies that use complex layout views with viewport-specific visualization features can expect to have compatibility issues when interacting with AutoCAD users.
A sample DWG file as it appears in TurboCAD LTE Pro v4.
Could a low-cost CAD solution go the distance for your company? We hope this roundup has provided enough insight to help you begin answering that question. Ultimately, you'll know best if a product is a viable option if you put it to the test. Fortunately, the five products featured in this roundup — and most others in the low-cost category — are available as free trials. Download those that pique your interest and see what they can do to boost your workflow — and your bottom line.
Sidebar: A Note About SketchUp
For years, SketchUp has been a very popular 3D modeling tool — primarily among architects — even as its ownership has passed from @Last Software to Google and, as announced in late April, to Trimble. SketchUp Pro (the version for commercial use, $495) includes Layout 3, a companion product for creating professional design documents, dimensioned drawings, and presentations from SketchUp 3D models.
SketchUp is a great tool for quickly developing visually rich 3D models from scratch or based on raw DWG geometry. But it can't directly edit DWG or DGN files and it lacks an annotative feature set, which are essential to any drafting/detailing department — and, therefore, we didn't include it in this product roundup.
In its current state, SketchUp can't serve as the centerpiece of a drafting department, but for conceptual 3D modeling, it's a great tool at a good price.
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Mr. Chairman, let me start by describing Microsoft and our perspective on our contribution to the computer industry and the U.S. economy generally and our position in the global marketplace. From the very beginning of Microsoft 23 years ago, our goal has been to create software that improves the quality of people's lives. Along the way we have listened to our customers, taken account of their views, and worked very hard to provide them with new and useful technologies they want and need. Most significantly, we have provided such new and improved products at the same or often lower prices than products previously available. I know of no other industry in which consumers have benefited from greater price/performance gains over the past two decades than in the personal computer industry. Today, the personal computer has become a powerful and easy-to-use fixture in most offices and is becoming more common in our schools and in our homes. Prices for personal computers continue to fall, even as PCs become more powerful and offer greater features than ever before. As recently as 1990, for example, a typical personal computer with an Intel 386 chip, 2Mb of RAM and a 60 Mb hard drive cost about $3,000. Today, for half the price you can buy a multimedia personal computer with an Intel Pentium chip that is 8 times faster, has 16 times more RAM, 65 times more storage capacity, a CD-ROM drive and, of course, a vastly improved operating system. Just two weeks ago, The Washington Post touted an upsurge in sales of $1,000 PCs and predicted that prices would fall even lower. (A Hewlett-Packard representative was quoted as predicting $599 PCs by Christmas.) As prices continue to spiral downward while performance improves at an accelerating rate, soon every business, school and household will be able to take advantage of the enormous benefits from what was once thought of as a luxury or as an expensive toy. Personal computers will become as commonplace in American households as a television or a telephone. The increasing popularity of personal computers is in part attributable to their use as information appliances. One manifestation of this phenomenon is the explosive growth of the Internet, which permits unlimited access to truly amazing amounts of information on any subject from sources around the world. The Internet holds more promise than anything else that has happened in the computer industry in recent memory. Increased access to the Internet through low cost PCs and other devices will provide millions of workers with the tools to do their jobs better, empower students to become lifelong learners, and enable consumers to enjoy exciting new forms of information, communication, commerce and entertainment. In fact, the Internet promises to promote openness and competition more than any other invention of the last 100 years. Microsoft has not watched from the sidelines as these exciting changes have swept the computer industry. Instead, Microsoft has been an active participant in providing the incredible price/performance gains that distinguish the computer industry. First, Microsoft has contributed a user-friendly PC operating system that we are constantly improving and that we make available to consumers at a small fraction of the cost of competing operating systems such as UNIX. By listening to our customers, we developed and continue to work tirelessly to improve Windows, making it possible for even a computer novice to enjoy the many benefits provided by the PC. (This year alone we will spend $1 billion on R&D related solely to improving future versions of Windows.) Moreover, through our licensing agreements with PC manufacturers, Windows comes preinstalled on PCs for less than 3% of the overall cost of the average machine, truly a good deal for consumers. Just as significant, however, is Microsoft's development and widespread licensing of Windows as a common and open platform that tens of thousands of software developers, hardware vendors and solution providers use to innovate freely with their own products. At Microsoft we chose a different approach from traditional computer vendors, such as IBM and Digital, and even Apple Computer and Sun Microsystems today, who develop and market integrated computer systems - microprocessor, hardware and software all included from one vendor. Their business model certainly provides real benefits, most notably the ability to ensure that all components of a computer system are optimized to work together. But in Microsoft's view, these benefits are greatly outweighed by the inability of such integrated computer systems to work well - or at all - with computer systems from other vendors. The great thing about Windows is that it works with an extremely broad range of hardware and enables literally tens of thousands of different software products to work together. By promoting compatibility this way, Windows has fostered the development of a thriving and highly competitive PC hardware and software industry which affords consumers a wide range of choices at very competitive prices. In short, Mr. Chairman, at Microsoft our business is writing great software that enables consumers to be more productive and efficient at work, at school and in our homes. We hire smart men and women and encourage them to be as creative as possible in making personal computing easier and more valuable. We stay in constant touch with our customers to make sure that our products are meeting their needs. We invest for the long term in new technologies that will enable people to do things with computers that are difficult to imagine today. We collaborate with and support thousands of companies in America and around the world that strive to deliver high-quality products to consumers at reasonable prices. We provide responsible leadership to guide the PC industry in innovating for the benefit of the consuming public. I am enormously proud of the success of our products and the thousands of dedicated Microsoft employees who have contributed to that success. Competition in the Software Industry
Mr. Chairman, the computer software industry is one of the healthiest, most competitive and most innovative sectors of the U.S. economy. I believe that no segment of the U.S. economy is growing faster, creating more jobs - high paying, high technology jobs - or creating more opportunities for small businesses than the computer software industry. Between 1990 and 1996, the industry grew at a rate of 12.5 percent, nearly two-and-a-half times faster than the rate of the U.S. economy overall. Over 2 million employees are at work in the U.S. economy as a result of the software industry. By 2005, that number is projected to increase to well over 3.4 million jobs, representing nearly 3 percent of the entire U.S. workforce. More than 44,000 U.S. software companies earned over $100 billion in revenues in 1996. These, Mr. Chairman, are the vital signs of a healthy and thriving industry. Innovation and ingenuity are the hallmarks of the computer software industry. No segment of the world economy is more dynamic than the computer software industry, which is based here in the U.S. and has strongly contributed to our reemergence as the world's technology leader. As Alan Greenspan recently remarked:"The dramatic improvements in computing power and communication and information technology appear to have been a major force behind [increasing productivity]. Those innovations, together with fierce competitive pressures in our high-tech industries, to make them available to as many homes, offices, stores and shop floors as possible, have produced double-digit annual reductions in prices of capital goods embodying new technologies. Indeed, many products considered to be at the cutting edge of technology as recently as two to three years ago have become so standardized and inexpensive that they have achieved near-commodity status, a development that has allowed businesses to accelerate their accumulation of more and better capital." Testimony of Alan Greenspan Before the Subcommittee on Domestic and International Monetary Policy of the House Banking and Financial Services Committee (February 24, 1998). In the computer software industry, product life cycles are short - just twelve to eighteen months typically - as software publishers race to introduce new products at an ever faster pace. The rate of innovation continues to accelerate as microprocessors become more powerful and new software products are developed to take advantage of that increased power. Microsoft and other vendors are offering innovative products in categories that did not even exist two or three years ago and every product on the market today will likely be obsolete in the same amount of time. The only question for Microsoft is whether we will be the ones to replace those products, or whether some other company will do a better job. All of us at Microsoft understand that if we don't continually innovate and create products that respond to our customers' ever increasing demands, we will quickly become irrelevant. To keep up with the rapid pace of innovation and because our competitors are always investing heavily to develop technology to displace Windows, Microsoft has made an unprecedented commitment to research and development. Our investment in R&D has grown from about $350 million in 1992 to more than $2 billion last year, and expenditures are projected to be in the neighborhood of $2.6 billion this year. Microsoft far outpaces other companies in the computer industry in R&D spending relative to its size: Last year Microsoft devoted about 16% of revenues to R&D, while other leading companies, such as Intel, Oracle and Sun Microsystems devoted only about 8% of their revenues to R&D, and IBM devoted just 6%. Mr. Chairman, in the computer software industry, rapid and unpredictable changes constantly create new market opportunities and threaten the position of existing competitors. The position of a product - no matter how popular - is never secure because it is impossible to know when the next new idea will come along that could render that entire product category less important or even obsolete. Few industries face this kind of intense competitive pressure, even those in other parts of the high technology sector. The computer industry is littered with examples of companies that enjoyed great success for a short time, only to be overtaken by new technologies that better served consumers' needs. For instance, as inexpensive microprocessors became available in the 1970s, Wang, IBM and others developed computers dedicated to a single task: word processing. Demand for electronic typewriters soon declined sharply, and sales of dedicated devices from Wang and IBM rose sharply. (At one time Wang was nearly synonymous with word processing.) In the 1980s, however, demand for these single-task devices declined dramatically as personal computers became available that could perform a wide range of functions in addition to word processing. In the space of just a few years, Wang went from market leader to bankruptcy. What occurred immediately after the transition from dedicated word processors to personal computers also illustrates the precarious hold that software products have on consumer preferences. As consumers began using personal computers to perform word processing, a software product called WordStar quickly emerged as the market leader. It did not stay in that position for long. By the mid-1980's, WordPerfect had displaced WordStar with a superior product that contained a variety of new features demanded by users. Today, Microsoft Word is the world's most popular word processing software because we have worked hard to make it the best product available. It too will fall by the wayside if Microsoft does not meet customer needs by continually adding new features and pricing the product competitively. The advent of the PC industry itself is perhaps the best example of rapid and unpredictable technological change taking established market leaders by surprise. In the 1960s and 1970s, IBM and a few other large vendors such as Sperry Rand, Honeywell, Burroughs, Control Data and NCR were the titans of the computer industry. IBM in particular was thought by many - including many antitrust lawyers - to be invincible. (As you know, the Department of Justice filed a broad monopolization case against IBM in 1969, and pursued the case vigorously for thirteen years before ultimately dropping it.) Yet the computer industry was revolutionized in the space of a few years by hobbyists working in their garages who developed the concept of a "personal computer." The PC was derided by many manufacturers of "big iron" mainframe computers as a "toy" (which it was, at first). IBM and others were slow to appreciate the potential of distributing computing power to individuals. IBM is still a very powerful force in the computer industry. But none of the traditional mainframe or minicomputer manufacturers fully embraced personal computers in a timely way, and many faltered as a result. Today, the computer industry is populated by many high volume manufacturers that did not even exist twenty-five years ago, such as Compaq, Dell, Gateway 2000 and Micron Technologies. The era of hobbyists working in garage operations that nobody ever heard of and developing the next new product to take the industry by storm is not simply a legend from days gone by, it's a story we hear all the time in this industry. Take Scott Cook of Intuit, for example. Scott developed the enormously popular Quicken personal finance software sitting at his kitchen table. And the precursor of Netscape Navigator was designed by undergraduate students at the University of Illinois in Champaign-Urbana who worked for the National Center for Supercomputing Applications. Amazon.com, which markets books on the Internet, is yet another example of one great idea that blossomed into a thriving company; Amazon.com opened its doors on the Internet in July 1995 and last year had revenues of $148 million. There are innumerable other examples of small entrepreneurs who have experienced great success by pursuing their good ideas, and such opportunities will continue to expand as personal computers become more ubiquitous. The rapid rise of Netscape and the popularity of Sun Microsystems' Java programming language provide further examples of the rapid change that characterizes the computer software industry. I am pleased that both companies are represented here this morning. Netscape was formed in April 1994 and released its first product, the Navigator web browser, a few months later. Within a year of that Netscape went public. On the day of its initial stock offering - just fifteen months from the day the company was formed - Netscape had a market capitalization of $2.2 billion. The creation of such vast wealth in such a short period of time is virtually unheard of in any industry other than computer software. Similarly, Sun's Java programming language emerged from nowhere to become one of the most highly-touted products in the history of the computer software industry. In fact, Java has become something of an overnight sensation. Sun introduced the new language in May 1995, and just seven months later was portraying Java as "the de facto standard" for writing applications for the Internet. While Microsoft does not share all of Sun's ambitions for Java, we agree that it is a very valuable tool for software developers, and we have devoted substantial time and energy to creating what we believe are the best Java tools available in the market-place. Microsoft's implementation of Java has consistently won the reviews in the technical press and Microsoft actually delivers Java on more operating systems than Sun. If the computer software industry was not as dynamic as it is, a new product like Java could never have emerged to challenge established programming languages. The Rise of the Internet and Its Promise of Boundless Opportunities
Microsoft's acute awareness that today's success story could easily become tomorrow's has-been is reflected in the company's stark rallying cry: "Innovate or Die!" Nowhere is that attitude more evident than in Microsoft's response to the emergence of the Internet as a powerful new force in computing. Microsoft has always recognized that there would be a very large network developed to interconnect computers around the world, i.e., the network commonly referred to as the Information Superhighway, but it is no secret that we did not immediately recognize that the Internet would become that network. I am proud to say, however, that as a result of a truly outstanding effort by our employees, the company has transformed its product line in a very short span of time to take best advantage of the possibilities the Internet provides. It is the ability to reinvent itself in response to rapidly changing consumer demand that makes Microsoft the successful company it is. Of course, Microsoft's competitors have also seen opportunities in the dramatic increase in the popularity of the Internet. Since 1995, a number of Microsoft's most formidable competitors have banded together to promote a variety of new Internet technologies that they believe will greatly diminish the value of Windows and other Microsoft products. Indeed, some have suggested that the entire concept of a "personal computer" will soon be rendered obsolete by a new breed of "network computers" or "information appliances" that do not run any Microsoft software. Microsoft welcomes this competitive challenge and has responded by focusing its creative energies on developing technologies that it believes will best serve the needs of consumers in an era of Internet computing. The swiftness with which people around the world have taken to the Internet is simply amazing and is powerful evidence that no company in the computer software industry can afford complacency. Microsoft is working hard to identify and pursue the many long-term opportunities that the Internet affords. Virtually everything we do these days at Microsoft reflects our conviction that the Internet is going to continue to grow. I believe that almost everyone in the developed world and huge numbers of people in the developing world will be using the Internet within the foreseeable future. Access to these technologies and the benefits they offer promises to have far-reaching effects on the way we live and work and learn, many of which we cannot even imagine today. The Internet and the boundless opportunities it provides fits squarely within Microsoft's original vision of "a personal computer on every desk and in every home." It also will contribute to our "information at your fingertips" vision. One of the greatest benefits provided by the Internet is its use as an educational tool. Students are using it to send e-mail messages around the world, learning about different cultures while making new friends. With the price of PCs dropping to all time lows, students attending schools in poor areas or remote locations will be able to use the Internet to gain access to the same library resources as students attending a school in McLean. The possibilities of improving educational opportunities for all children are endless and exciting. Microsoft's focus on the Internet has not met with universal acclaim, however. There are those detractors who allege that Microsoft will use its Windows operating system to gain a chokehold on the Internet and thereby extract a royalty for every Internet-related transaction. Mr. Chairman, I can say without hesitation that it is not, nor has it ever been, the intention of my company to turn the Information Superhighway into a toll road. Microsoft has always supported open access to the Internet, and this philosophy is clearly demonstrated by Internet Explorer 4.0. The IE 4.0 technologies in Windows 95 provide unfettered access to any of the hundreds of thousands of Web sites around the world. There is absolutely nothing in IE 4.0 that prevents consumers from taking full advantage of the Internet, and any attempt to do so would run counter to the very thing that makes the Internet so appealing - the ability of individuals to decide for themselves what information they will see. If IE 4.0 did not enable such open access to the wealth of information on the Internet, it would quickly be replaced by other software that did provide the open access that consumers demand. In any case, it is preposterous to think that any one company could ever control access to the Internet. The openness of the Internet is inherent in its architecture. The information on the Internet is distributed across thousands of computers around the world, and there are an essentially infinite number of access points to that information. As a result, the Internet is the antithesis of the giant computers sometimes portrayed in science fiction that contain all of the world's information and are subject to the control of governments or private parties. Any developer of web browsing software foolish enough to attempt to restrict access to the Internet or charge a "toll" for such access, without adding real value to the transaction, would find itself out of business literally overnight. Customers would quickly flee to competitors who did not seek to impose such charges. Within the past two years, Microsoft has revamped all of its major products to reflect the company's intense focus on the Internet, and many more technology initiatives are underway. From the outset, Microsoft planned to include Internet related technologies in Windows 95, and such technologies were included in the very first version of the operating system released to computer manufacturers in July 1995. (Windows 95 was code-named "Chicago" during its development, and the Internet-related technologies - now called "Internet Explorer" - were code-named "O'Hare," i.e., a point of embarkation to distant places from Chicago.) It is this decision to include Internet-related technologies in Windows 95 that is the subject of the pending litigation with the U.S. Department of Justice. Government Intervention Threatens the Industry's Ability to Continually Innovate and Remain CompetitiveTo remain competitive and to continue to provide consumers with high quality, low cost, innovative products, Microsoft and other U.S. software companies must retain the ability to design their products free from government interference. The current case is a good example: the DOJ is attempting to require Microsoft to offer Windows without important Internet-related aspects of the operating system, depriving consumers and software developers of the benefits of compatibility provided by a common platform like Windows. If the DOJ succeeds with its efforts to limit Microsoft's ability to improve Windows, software developers will be less likely to create innovative new products that take full advantage of Windows and consumers will be unsure whether applications will work properly with the version of Windows installed on their PC. For more than seventeen years, we have consistently built new features into our operating systems, just as our competitors have enhanced theirs. This has included improvements like the graphical user interface, memory management, true type fonts, disk compression and networking. Every one of these was available first as a separate offering, but eventually was integrated into the operating system to meet the needs of customers who want the simplicity and comfort of knowing that all parts of Windows will work together seamlessly. The additional capabilities built into the operating system, especially browsing technology, are also important to thousands of software developers that take advantage of those capabilities in building their own new products. Providing the ability to access information stored on the Internet is a logical next step in the development of an operating systems like Windows. A core function of any operating system is to allow computer users to access information storage devices wherever they may be located, i.e., whether those information stores are local - such as hard disk drives, floppy disk drives, tape backup drives or CD-ROM drives - or remote - such as servers on local and wide area networks. As I noted previously, the Internet itself is a very large information store that resides on a global public network. As a result, it makes perfect sense for Windows to provide access to the Internet so that the wealth of information on the Internet is available to all applications running on top the operating system. This explains why virtually all modern operating systems include a variety of Internet-related technologies, including Web browsing capabilities, with their products. Indeed Mr. Chairman, just last month your constituent, Novell, announced that the latest version of its popular operating system, recently renamed IntranetWare, which is due to be released later this year will incorporate Netscape web browsing technology as an integrated part of the operating system. And Sun has recently announced that beginning in March, its Solaris operating system will come with Netscape Communicator preinstalled along with its own HotJava browser. My point is not that the DOJ should challenge what Novell and Sun are doing. My point is instead that the inclusion of Internet-related technologies in modern operating systems is the norm, and reflects a recognition that such technologies are necessary to meet consumer expectations. The government should not stand in the way of logical and useful technological progress, any more than the government should have blocked earlier efforts to improve operating systems by including support for other types of networking. In short, while I certainly agree that the government should work to ensure that competition is not stifled by collusion or other plainly illegal activities, I think that the government should be extremely wary of interceding in an industry like computer software that is working so well on its own. As I hope my testimony today has made clear, the computer software industry is not broken, and there is no need to fix it. It is a thriving and vibrant sector of the U.S. economy and the envy of the rest of the world. Microsoft's Size and Place in the Computer Software IndustryFinally, Mr. Chairman, given the subject of today's hearing and the recent media attention on various challenges to Microsoft, I am compelled to say a word about Microsoft's size and place in the computer software industry. Mr. Chairman, Microsoft is often referred to as a "software giant." The facts, however, tell a different story. While Microsoft is clearly a leader in the computer software industry, our revenues account for less than 5% of total worldwide software revenues of $253 billion and only 1% of the information technology industry's collective revenues of $1 trillion. More than a dozen companies, including industry leaders such as IBM, Hitachi, Computer Associates, Oracle, Digital Equipment, Novell, Sybase and Sun Microsystems have more than $1 billion in annual software revenues alone. IBM's software revenues of $13 billion in 1997, are about the same as Microsoft's. And revenues for many of these companies have soared in recent years. (For example, Oracle's revenues rose from $1.2 billion in 1993 to $5.7 billion in 1997; over the same period, Sun's revenues rose from $4.3 billion to $8.6 billion.) As is suggested by Microsoft's relatively small revenue share, the computer software industry is highly fragmented. There are more than 44,000 software companies in the United States alone, and thousands more overseas. The top twenty independent software publishers (a group that includes Microsoft) account for just 42% of total revenues from packaged software. By the standards of antitrust analysis, the computer software industry is thus highly unconcentrated. The industry is also largely based in this country: nine of the top ten software companies in the world are American. Microsoft is perhaps best known for developing and marketing operating systems, such as its Windows family of products. Here again, however, we face intense competition from many sources. Dozens of operating systems are available for a variety of computers, ranging from new generations of so-called "information appliances" (such as handheld personal computers or "smartphones") to powerful mainframe computers. IBM alone offers a range of operating systems that include PC-DOS and OS/2 (for personal computers), AIX (for mainframes, servers, workstations and personal computers), OS/400 (for minicomputers), and OS/390 and other mainframe operating systems. Other major operating system vendors include Apple (Macintosh), Novell (IntranetWare), Sun Microsystems (Solaris and JavaOS), Hewlett Packard (HP/UX), Digital Equipment (VMS and Digital UNIX), Lucent (Inferno), Santa Cruz Operation (OpenServer and UnixWare). Overall, Microsoft accounts for just 13% of all operating system-level software revenues (a product category that includes operating systems and related software such as utilities). Mr. Chairman, let me be very clear on this point -- Microsoft does not have monopoly power in the business of developing and licensing computer operating systems. As you know, a monopolist, by definition, is a company that has the ability to restrict entry by new firms and unilaterally control prices. Microsoft can do neither. Software exhibits none of the barriers to entry that characterize traditional industries like mining or manufacturing. A new competitor needs little in the way of physical infrastructure. Distribution costs are low (software can be transmitted around the world nearly instantaneously). The principal assets required to create excellent software are human intelligence, creativity, and a willingness to assume entrepreneurial risk, all of which are in abundant supply in this country. A software product is the copyrighted expression in lines of code of ideas. No one can monopolize new ideas that can be implemented in software. With regard to pricing, the market pressures we face compel Microsoft to price Windows competitively. In fact, the price of Windows has remained virtually unchanged over the years, while its performance and features have increased dramatically. Today Microsoft Windows is one of the central technologies contained in most new PCs, yet it accounts for less than 3% of the cost of a typical PC. If Microsoft truly had monopoly power, it would be free to increase the prices for its operating systems with no need to innovate. A monopolist is lazy, charging prices above competitive levels for products that are rarely improved because no one else can offer alternative products to consumers. In contrast, Microsoft spends ever larger sums each year on research and development to deliver better operating system technology at affordable prices. ConclusionMr. Chairman, I have been tremendously fortunate to be a part of an incredible industry like computer software during such an exciting period, but I firmly believe that we have only just scratched the surface; the greatest advances in the computer industry are yet to come. And Microsoft is working hard to unleash the power of personal computing to the benefit of everyone. Already we are working on operating systems that will enable personal computers to recognize users when they enter a room, respond accurately to voice and handwritten commands, and serve as highly efficient communication, productivity and entertainment devices. And, of course, we are devoting significant resources to developing the technology that will enable users of the Internet to realize its full potential. There is much more we can and will do to make the Internet more accessible and to give consumers good reasons to want to use it more. As we push to develop these innovative technologies, we also will continue to contribute to the community in ways other than developing excellent products. For instance, we intend to broaden and expand our many education initiatives, including our Access to Technology program, through which we donated $80 million in software to schools and libraries across the country last year alone. I have a personal commitment which is shared by others at Microsoft to help ensure that every child in this country has access to the information and technology they need to learn. I have always been concerned about education. I was blessed to have had many good teachers while I was growing up, but now that I am a father, I am even more concerned about how children can benefit from the huge quantities of information that are now so readily available. I've seen from personal experience how giving kids the right tools enhances their ability to learn and sparks their interest in and enthusiasm for learning. That is why I am proud of the contributions we have made through our Access to Technology program, and I have great hopes for its future success. I am also proud of the many educational products we have developed at Microsoft, including Encarta, an interactive encyclopedia that makes it fun and easy to learn about the world. We will continue to develop such products and invest resources to create even better learning tools in the future. We will also continue to respond to parents' demands for the necessary software products to enable them to protect their children from unwanted and unwholesome material from the Internet. And we will certainly continue to work with persons with disabilities to make our products accessible to these individuals who truly depend on computers in their personal and professional lives. Mr. Chairman, Microsoft will continue to compete vigorously in the computer software industry, listen to our customers, and work hard to create new and innovative products at low prices. If Microsoft fails to keep pace with technological change and is outstripped by its competi-tors, let it be because we failed to innovate fast enough, not because we were hobbled by government intervention in our efforts to develop new products that meet the needs of consumers.
In a recent round of Ask The Expert, we invited you to submit suspension-related questions for our friends at KW to answer. The response was huge, and while every question couldn’t be addressed in this follow-up (some may have been already answered in last year’s Q&A with KW though), Michael Grassl – on behalf of KW Suspension – has been kind enough to lend his expertise to a large proportion of them.
Let’s get into it…
Is it more challenging making coilover kits for cars with McPherson strut type front suspension as opposed to say, a double-wishbone layout? Do you prefer a particular suspension architecture?
Michael Grassl: In terms of reliability the McPherson design is more challenging. Just to explain a little, McPherson doesn’t mean ‘spring around shock’, but Mr. McPherson designed the wheel guided suspension layout. This means the shock is influenced by camber/castor/steering etc. which requires stiffness and solid design of the unit. For racing purposes, KW uses an upside down solution with linear bearings inside their 2A (optional) and 3A competition units in order to reduce friction and offer the best possible adjustment range. In addition to that, the standard street and racing units with 16-25mm piston rods are equipped with long life plain bearing rod guidings to deal with the loads.
McLaren has decided to axe the sway bars on its current lineup of super/hyper cars and instead achieves roll control through fluid management within the four dampers. Is this tech something that could potentially be offered from the aftermarket, or is the required integration too deep within the vehicle’s systems to make it feasible?
MG: Well, guiding a certain amount of oil through a hole with a certain diameter is the basic idea of damping that’s been used in cars for a very long time. For racing, I would add the phrase – the less number of, and most simplistic parts you use – the smaller the risk of part to failure. For street cars, we have to think different. You can use your rear mirror, but a rear view camera might be even better at achieving more or less the same target. If an electronic/fluid controlled unit works better, then that’s the way of evolution resulting in a good R&D job. For an aftermarket manufacturer it’s not that easy as they have to deal with given presets, but thinking about DDC/DLC and some nice technologies being introduced in the future, I think KW also has a good product line.
How do you pick the best spring rates for a car starting from scratch? How do you choose spring rates for your different ranges V1, V2, V3, Clubsport, etc. for a brand new car? Does KW make custom applications (pending money and necessary info)?
MG: The engineers at KW have a lot of experience in terms of developing kits for new cars. They look at the OEM parts, do test rides, sum up the pros and cons and finally design a package which suits the model’s main purposes. The result always gets tested on the in-house seven-post rig in order to receive facts and figures, beside the impression given on test rides. You certainly can order custom solutions for any car – almost everything is possible!
How dangerous are cut springs for use on the road/track?
MG: Why would you do that? Cutting, grinding, drilling etc. is always the worst solution. Sure, it maybe cheap, but how much is your life worth?
I often see drift cars with plenty of front camber. What are the benefits of this, and are there any drawbacks?
MG: The main reason for high camber values are because of modifications made to the steering angle, because you have to focus on the maximum lock and the tire being used in those extreme positions. The drawback of high camber in general is less tire-to-tarmac contact in a straight position, which means less braking power and increased inner wear of the tire.
Why are your TÜV-approved Variant 1,2 and 3 coilover suspension kits for a 1998 Honda Civic Coupe so stiff at the front compared to the rear? This fact is more or less the only thing keeping me from buying them.
MG: Good question! How do you know the car is so stiff at the front versus the rear? From testing or just looking at the technical data? In case you are looking at the technical data and notice a difference in spring rates, you also have to consider the wheel/damper ratio of the car. Imagine you have a 1:1 damper (spring)/wheel ratio and you want to achieve a 50N/mm spring rate at the wheel – you have to use a 50N/mm spring. If your car has a damper (spring)/wheel ratio of 1:2, the suitable spring is not 100N/mm like most people guess, but you’d actually have to use a 200N/mm spring. Therefore, as the Civic has different ratios front versus rear, this results in different spring rates in order to achieve suitable spring rates at the wheel.
I own a 2013 BMW 135i Coupe. It’s a weekend toy mainly driven in a spirited way on bad B-roads. I’ve already put on new non-runflat tires and am also thinking about a thicker swaybar, M3 subframe bushings and more camber up front. But the stock suspension is too harsh and too soft in corners. What coilover system do you recommend? KW SC or ST XA? Is getting used coilovers a bad idea? Can they be refreshed at KW/ST? Lastly, do KW and ST coilovers rust?
MG: Honestly – and not talking as a sales representative – I would go for Variant 3 if the budget allows. With the technology being offered within this package, you are able to adjust your car exactly to your requirements – both sporty and comfortable. The Street Comfort kit would be the choice to go for if you only focus other than ride height adjustment is comfort. In comparison to the M Sport package, the Variant 3 won’t stiffen up your ride.
Does KW’s coilover lift kit effect the rebound or extension at all? And how much does the KW lift kit extend the shock/coil to lift the suspension?
MG: The hydraulic units extend for 35mm and depending on the damper/wheel ratio of the car, it will cause a lift of 35-50mm at the wheel. Sure, once lifted your rebound travel decreases slightly, but cars with HLS kit installed will drop automatically at 60km/h in order to offer a safe ride – something especially important if the lift kit is mounted at the front only. It’s not a driving and performance feature, but a product which helps to avoid damages being caused by speed bumps and garage entries etc.
When trying to get the right amount of shock stroke, is the best position to set the ride height with the shock in the middle of its travel when sitting static? Do you want equal amounts of max shock travel for compression and rebound?
MG: It depends on your specific car of course, but a rough guideline would be 40 per cent positive and 60 per cent negative travel way from static ride height.
When it comes to coilover kits, what do you recommend for the budget-minded? Or is KW suspension a case where tight wallets need not apply? The ‘if you’re going to do it right…’ cliche comes to mind, but do you offer kits that will let me upgrade my suspension without spending half the value of the car?
MG: At the end of the day everyone has to decide how much budget they have to spend. If you can’t afford a KW kit or your budget is limited, don’t do it. Maybe save your money first and get a kit once you are able to. There are alternatives too – just look at the ST product range: same technology, same R&D progress – the main difference is stainless versus galvanized steel struts. On the other hand, don’t buy cheap stuff as suspension kits are a technical product.Low Pros
Is it dangerous to go from a spring bucket type rear suspension to a true rear coilover system?
MG: You might get in trouble, yes. When a manufacturer designs a car with spring/damper separated in the rear, all involved parts are adapted to this design. In detail, the areas where the spring ends are settled (chassis/lower wishbone) are stiffened and built solid. Why? Because the springs carry the weight of the car! Once you move the spring to another position, the weight of the car has to be carried at a different location. As the upper top mount of the shock and the turret around are not intended to deal with these loads, you might be confronted with a shock visiting you inside the car…
How do you choose which type of oil is going to be used in a shock? Thicker oil equals stiffer movement?
MG: Setup is made by valve technology only, the oil just differs between mono-tube and twin-tube shocks.
How do you measure spring rate and bound/rebound stiffness?
MG: KW owns spring and shock dynos which are used to check and analyse both OEM and KW/ST products. As a side not, every single shock that leaves the KW facilities has been tested on a shock dyno, and KW operates with 100 per cent final testing.
I have KW V2s on my VW Bora daily driver and whilst the ride is pretty good compared with budget coils, I have to say the build quality is not what I expected from the price. Some questions… 1. Why use plastic adjuster rings? Mine have seized onto to the threaded body after two years use and when I tried to adjust them, they would not budge. After a lot of brute force the only thing I’ve succeeded in doing is breaking bits of plastic off the adjuster rings. Now there are so many bits of plastic chipped off that there is no way they would adjust, even if they would move. 2. Why use just one ring with a grub screw? The grub screw puts a dent into the thread on the main body (which may or may not be the reason why mine are seized in the first place). Also, because the grub screw is going into a plastic ring, it strips the thread on the plastic when you try to tighten them up. A cheaper alternatives would be to use two metal rings – one for the adjuster and one for the lock nut. This solution is far more durable. 3. Also, the fronts would not go low enough as they were, so I had to remove the helper springs and raise it up a bit to get the ride height/clearance I required. 4. The damper insert seems to have play in them now as well, which is not good for a product that costs the amount it does. 5. For the above reasons, I wouldn’t recommend KWs and I am in the process of changing my suspension again, to a cheaper alternative that seem to be constructed better. Although I’m not sure the ride will compare. I’d rather they lasted.
MG: I will try to answer all of your questions!
1. First of all, KW doesn’t use simple plastic rings – they are made of polyamid with a stainless steel core inside. The reason for switching to those from alloy rings is the fact that alloy and stainless steel can cause problems in terms of corrosion, which means that once the combination meets salty roads, the alloy almost welds itself on the strut housing. In case you want to adjust the height after some time, operate as follows: jack the car up; clean the thread below the ring ; turn the ring downwards (no matter if you even want to go upwards later) ; clean the thread upon the ring ; turn upwards . There is always some dirt inside the upper first thread and if you screw it up immediately the ring will collapse.
2. To be honest, when calculating the friction of the threads inside the ring and taking the car’s weight into consideration, you will find out that you wouldn’t even need the grub screw. It’s more a visual safety tool which has to be tightened with 2N/mm only. Following this instruction, you won’t damage the thread.
3. All lowering details are published on the website, in the catalogue and in the papers of the kits. Did you achieve the drop amount listed by KW, or is this maximum lowering not low enough? Removing the helper springs is not a good idea as the springs will come loose once the shock extends, and the spring could leave its recommended position. In case you are looking for a ultra low kit, KW offers those as well.
4. Setting the car at a ride height lower than the recommended one causes wear of the shocks and associated parts. Therefore, I would recommend to step back to a higher ride height in order to avoid this problem, or switch to an ultra low kit which is designed to offer additional lowering for your car. Damper cartridges can be bought separately, so there’s no need to go for a complete new kit.
5. Sorry to hear this, but hopefully some of my answers have been helpful. It would be great to see your car still continuing to run on KWs in the future.
I just bought a brand new set of KW Clubsport for my S13 drift car. Would you recommend to start with basic setup described in the manual, or with something different. I’ve swapped the SR20DET engine with a heavier 2JZ-GTE and am wondering if this will this affect the recommended basic suspension setup?
MG: I would recommend to start with the basic adjustments. Just to note… KW introduced the Clubsport range as a performance-orientated solution for street legal cars intended to be used for fast road and trackday use. Reading between the lines with your car, it seems we are not talking about a street car being used for drifting sometimes – but a professional drift weapon! If so, a KW Competition kit might have been the better choice as they are designed and built to order considering all details you supply in advance, and therefore are matched to your car and its purpose of use.
I currently daily drive a BMW 316i Compact (E36) with a TA-Technix coilover kit. Noticing the difference in price, where is the difference in quality between a TA-Technix (budget/cheap coilover) and a KW coilover?I’ve read in a few forums that budget/cheap coilovers are okay for daily driving, but not safe for driving hard on a track. Is this true?
MG: Well, maybe some sales guys might talk about competitors in a bad way in order to point out their own product, but that’s not my style. I can answer questions about KW products all day long, but it’s the customer’s choice which product to go for in the end. Just ask the same questions to a sales guy or technician of another suspension brand and compare all the points afterwards. At the end the day, a product’s price is calculated on the costs of raw material, the R&D process and the customer service.
Why the purple and yellow colours?
MG: The choice of colors is quite simple. In the very beginning, Klaus Wohlfarth (Mr. KW) had to choose a color for powder coating his springs. As several colors were being used already by established suspension manufacturers, he decided to go for yellow as it was still free. The same thing went for the anodized color – red, black and blue already existed, but and purple was available. That’s the whole story. As it’s turned out though, the combination of purple and yellow is unique and easy to see. At the race track, you only need to take a quick look at the wheel arch to see if the car is KW-equipped or not.
A lot of aftermarket suspension kits lower the car’s ride height, and by doing so, change the suspension arms’ geometry. Some aftermarket parts makers have roll centre adaptors and tie rod ends that claim to fix the geometry after lowering A car. How much must a road legal car be lowered to warrant the use of these roll centre adaptors and tie rod ends?
MG: The main reason most people switch to a coilover kit is for the purpose of lowering. As KW is a German manufacturer and its products are sold worldwide (and of course also in Germany), the engineers have to follow certain regulations given by the technical inspection service here (TÜV). There are guidelines for spring rates, ride heights, safety issues, and raw materials etc. In buying a KW kit, you are safe to pass the TÜV tests, which means no conflict with OEM parts. Therefore, for a street car and street use, KW will supply all the necessary parts required to install and use the kit.
With KW’s Variant 1, 2 and 3 kits, what are the benefits of having only the possibility of rebound setting? I bought my 350Z with Variant 2s already installed, but I can’t see any benefits in changing the setup because there is no compression to alter as well. Main target is sporty street driving with some trackdays during the year.
MG: Rebound in general is the knob to adjust the body roll and at the same time your comfort. Closing the compression completely will result in a stiffer ride that’s still acceptable. Closing the rebound completely will result in less body roll, more direct steering but also far less comfort, as doing this makes the car copy the road. Reading your lines about usage, I would switch to V3 or Clubsport.Flat & Fast
I like the stanced look and a low car but also want a car that I can drive. How low can I go before the handling of my car is comprimised? Is there a point where I can have a low car without ruined handling?
MG: For KW suspension, the maximum lowering – or even better, the minimum center of wheel to outer wheel arch distance – is listed in the TÜV paper included in the suspension box. Just take a look and you will see how low your car can go while still operating within the healthy range.
Is it possible to have a single tune for coilovers that are practical and reasonably comfortable for the street while at the same time good for the track? Or is that too much to ask for?
MG: It depends on the level you are driving and racing. Hitting the track a few times a year while using the car as a daily all the other time, a Variant 3 is great. Being track addicted and racing every weekend with a track tool, a Clubsport or even Competition kit will be the better choice. But having an S Class during the week and a Porsche race car for the weekend by tuning one knob is not really possible.
For a competitive drift car specifically, is it better to run a softer spring rate? Also what about softer dampening etc. What’s the range as far as getting the most grip?
MG: In the beginning, drift cars had to be stiff in the rear in order to start drifting immediately. But things have changed and now drift-specific setup require serious development. Looking at Formula D cars you will see at that it’s not all about going sideways, but also car control and speed. Softer springs always supply more mechanical grip and that’s what pro drift teams are looking for. It’s not about burning rubber a 80km/h – we’re talking about up to 160km/h or more.
What is the difference between KW Variant 1, Variant 2, Variant 3 and Sleeve kit?
MG: The easiest thing to do is check the KW website as every single product range is explained in detail.
How and where can I get coilovers for a 1985 Toyota Celica ?
MG: Just call KW and order! As this car isn’t listed in the standard application list, it will be a customized kit being produced for you. This can be done for any car which is not available officially, and the kit will be designed and produced in the race department regardless of whether it’s for a street or competition application.
I’d like to know about your smartphone controlled adjustable suspension. What sort of height differences are possible with it and how does it stand up to track use?
MG: The KW DDC kits are not adjustable in height via the App – it’s only possible to choose different set ups. Regarding ride heights, they are similar to the standard coilover kits.
If I were to replace my shin-bones with KW coilovers, could I jump off really tall buildings and walk away unharmed?
MG: Yes you could Mr. Clark Kent, I promise KW doesn’t use kryptonite in their kits!
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CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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