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sign up to get MySQL certified at the 2008 MySQL convention & Expo. Certification assessments are being offered most effective at the convention for this discounted fee of $25 ($175 price). space is proscribed, best pre-registered tests are guaranteed a seat at the conference, so sign in now. For answers to commonly asked questions, talk over with the Certification FAQ.critical guidance exam info
10:30am - 12:00pm
1:40pm - 3:10pm
be aware: a special examination Q&A Session can be held in the Magnolia Room, Tuesday from 1:00 pm - 1:30 pm
CMDEV: MySQL 5.0 Developer I & IIThe MySQL 5.0 Developer Certification ensures that the candidate is aware of and is able to make use of the entire facets of MySQL that are necessary to improve and preserve functions that use MySQL for back-end storage. observe that you just need to pass both of the developer assessments (in any order) to gain certification.
CMDBA: MySQL 5.0 Database Administrator I & IIThe MySQL Database Administrator Certification attests that the grownup protecting the certification knows a way to hold and optimize an installation of one or extra MySQL servers, and operate administrative projects comparable to monitoring the server, making backups, etc. notice that youngsters you can also take the CMCDBA examination at any time, you need to circulate both of the DBA assessments (in any order) to acquire certification.
CMCDBA: MySQL 5.1 Cluster DBA CertificationThe MySQL Cluster Database Administrator certification exam will also be administered on the convention. be aware that you simply have to acquire CMDBA certification before a CMCDBA certification is identified.
note: CMDBA and CMCDBA Certification primers are being offered as tutorials all through the MySQL conference & Expo.Eligibility
Certification assessments are open to convention attendees registered to attend periods. assessments are not accessible to display-hall only participants or the widely wide-spread public.price
on-line registration for the assessments is obtainable. in case you register for the tests together with the convention registration, exam prices should be delivered to your total convention registration charges. area to availability, you may also also register and pay for tests on-web page. notice that simplest assessments paid all the way through convention registration are assured a seat. Vouchers for tests may be exceeded to you if you happen to register on the convention and are redeemed on the checking out room.vicinity and Time
All checks may be administered within the Magnolia Room on the foyer level of the Hyatt Regency Santa Clara (adjoining to the convention middle). tests might be offered Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday. assessments should be performed most effective at 10:30 am and at 1:40 pm and should ultimate 90 minutes.outcomes
outcomes of certification assessments can be posted outside the testing room following each exam session and sent to you by means of postal mail instantly following the convention.Re-exam policy
Full convention attendees might also opt for to re-take any exams no longer handed for a $25 charge. There isn't any restrict to the number of instances an exam could be taken. Re-checks are best provided on the conference and might be purchased on the registration desk. best cash or checks could be authorised onsite.Registering for exams
with a purpose to attend an exam, you must deliver:
In-Depthaccess MySQL Database With personal home page
Use the php extension for MySQL to access statistics from the MySQL database.
The MySQL database is the most typical open source relational database. It supports distinct statistics forms in these classes: numeric, date and time, and string. The numeric records types consist of BIT, TINYINT, BOOL, BOOLEAN, INT, INTEGER, BIGINT, DOUBLE, drift and DECIMAL. The date and time records types encompass DATE, DATETIME, TIMESTAMP and yr. The string information forms encompass CHAR, VARCHAR, BINARY, ASCII, UNICODE, text and BLOB. in this article, you're going to learn the way that you would be able to access these records varieties with php scripting language — taking expertise of Hypertext Preprocessor 5's extension for the MySQL database.
install MySQL DatabaseTo deploy the MySQL database, you should first download the neighborhood edition of MySQL 5.0 database for home windows. There are three versions: home windows necessities (x86), windows (x86) ZIP/Setup.EXE and with out installer (unzip in C:\). To set up the devoid of installer edition, unzip the zip file to a listing. in case you've downloaded the zip file, extract it to a directory. And, in case you've downloaded the home windows (x86) ZIP/Setup.EXE version, extract the zip file to a directory. (See resources.)
subsequent, double-click on on the Setup.exe application. you will activate the MySQL Server 5.0 Setup wizard. within the wizard, choose the Setup type (the default setting is usual), and click on on set up to set up MySQL 5.0.
within the sign-Up body, create a MySQL account, or select pass sign-Up. select "Configure the MySQL Server now" and click on conclude. you will prompt the MySQL Server illustration Configuration wizard. Set the configuration category to distinct Configuration (the default atmosphere).
if you're no longer prevalent with MySQL database, opt for the default settings within the subsequent frames. by using default, server type is set at Developer machine and database usage is set at Multifunctional Database. select the drive and listing for the InnoDB tablespace. in the concurrent connections frame, opt for the DDSS/OLAP atmosphere. subsequent, select the permit TCP/IP Networking and allow Strict Mode settings and use the 3306 port. choose the general personality Set surroundings and the deploy As windows service atmosphere with MySQL because the service name.
within the safety options frame, that you would be able to specify a password for the foundation consumer (through default, the foundation consumer does not require a password). next, uncheck regulate protection Settings and click on Execute to configure a MySQL Server illustration. at last, click on on conclude.
if you've downloaded the home windows Installer package software, double-click on on the mysql-standard-5.0.x-win32.exe file. you will prompt the MySQL Server Startup wizard. observe the equal process as Setup.exe.
After you've comprehensive installing the MySQL database, log into the database with the MySQL command. In a command prompt window, specify this command:>mysql -u root
The default user root will log in. A password is not required for the default person root:>mysql -u <username> -p <password>
The MySQL command will monitor:mysql>
To list the database instances within the MySQL database, specify this command:mysql>reveal databases
by means of default, the test database may be listed. to make use of this database, specify this command:mysql>use look at various
install MySQL personal home page ExtensionThe php extension for MySQL database is packaged with the php 5 down load (see substances). First, you should prompt the MySQL extension in the Hypertext Preprocessor.ini configuration file. get rid of the ';' before this code line in the file:extension=php_mysql.dll
next, restart the Apache2 web server.
Hypertext Preprocessor additionally requires access to the MySQL customer library. The libmysql.dll file is blanketed with the Hypertext Preprocessor 5 distribution. Add libmysql.dll to the home windows gadget course variable. The libmysql.dll file will seem in the C:/Hypertext Preprocessor listing, which you delivered to the gadget course for those who installed personal home page 5.
The MySQL extension gives a number of configuration directives for connecting with the database. The default connection parameters establish a reference to the MySQL database if a connection isn't distinctive in a characteristic that requires a connection resource and if a connection has no longer already been opened with the database.
The php category library for MySQL has various services to connect with the database, create database tables and retrieve database facts.
Create a MySQL Database TableNow it be time to create a table in the MySQL database using the Hypertext Preprocessor classification library. Create a Hypertext Preprocessor script named createMySQLTable.personal home page in the C:/Apache2/Apache2/htdocs listing. in the script, specify variables for username and password, and fasten with the database the usage of the mysql_connect() function. The username root doesn't require a password. next, specify the server parameter of the mysql_connect() formula as localhost:3306:$username='root'; $password=''; $connection = mysql_connect ('localhost:3306', $username, $password);
If a connection isn't dependent, output this error message using the mysql_error() feature:if (!$connection) $e = mysql_error($connection); echo "Error in connecting to MySQL Database.".$e;
you're going to need to choose the database through which a table will be created. opt for the MySQL verify database example the use of the mysql_select_db() function:$selectdb=mysql_select_db('examine');
next, specify a SQL observation to create a database desk:$sql="CREATE table Catalog (CatalogId VARCHAR(25) basic KEY, Journal VARCHAR(25), publisher Varchar(25),edition VARCHAR(25), Title Varchar(75), writer Varchar(25))";
Run the SQL statement using the mysql_query() function. The connection aid that you created past will be used to run the SQL observation:$createtable=mysql_query ($sql, $connection );
If a desk is not created, output this error message:if (!$createtable) $e = mysql_error($connection); echo "Error in growing desk.".$e;
next, add records to the Catalog table. Create a SQL remark so as to add statistics to the database:$sql = "INSERT INTO Catalog VALUES('catalog1', 'Oracle journal', 'Oracle Publishing', 'July-August 2005', 'Tuning Undo Tablespace', 'Kimberly Floss')";
Run the SQL commentary the use of the mysql_query() feature:$addrow=mysql_query ($sql, $connection );
in a similar fashion, add an additional table row. Use the createMySQLTable.php script shown in checklist 1. Run this script in Apache net server with this URL: http://localhost/createMySQLTable.Hypertext Preprocessor. A MySQL table will reveal (determine 1).
Retrieve statistics From MySQL DatabaseYou can retrieve information from the MySQL database the use of the Hypertext Preprocessor classification library for MySQL. Create the retrieveMySQLData.personal home page script within the C:/Apache2/Apache2/htdocs listing. within the script, create a connection with the MySQL database using the mysql_connect() function:$username='root'; $password=''; $connection = mysql_connect ('localhost:3306', $username, $password);
choose the database from which records could be retrieved with the mysql_select_db() components:$selectdb=mysql_select_db('verify');
next, specify the opt for commentary to question the database (The Hypertext Preprocessor classification library for MySQL does not have the availability to bind variables as the php classification library for Oracle does.):$sql = "choose * from CATALOG";
Run the SQL query the usage of the mysql_query() feature:$influence=mysql_query($sql , $connection);
If the SQL question doesn't run, output this error message:if (!$result) $e = mysql_error($connection); echo "Error in working SQL statement.".$e;
Use the mysql_num_rows() function to achieve the number of rows in the outcomes useful resource:$nrows=mysql_num_rows($influence);
If the variety of rows is better than 0, create an HTML desk to monitor the influence statistics. Iterate over the result set the use of the mysql_fetch_array() formulation to reap a row of facts. To reap an associative array for each and every row, set the result_type parameter to MYSQL_ASSOC:whereas ($row = mysql_fetch_array ($outcomes, MYSQL_ASSOC))
Output the row facts to an HTML desk the usage of associative dereferencing. as an instance, the Journal column value is got with $row['Journal']. The retrieveMySQLData.php script retrieves statistics from the MySQL database (listing 2).
Run the php script in Apache2 server with this URL: http://localhost/retrieveMySQLData.personal home page. HTML statistics will seem with facts got from the MySQL database (determine 2).
Now you be aware of a way to use the personal home page extension for MySQL to entry statistics from the MySQL database. that you can additionally use the Hypertext Preprocessor statistics Objects (PDO) extension and the MySQL PDO driver to entry MySQL with Hypertext Preprocessor .
in regards to the AuthorDeepak Vohra is a web developer, a sun-certified Java programmer and a sun-certified net component developer. you could reach him at email@example.com.
Deepak Vohra, a solar-certified Java programmer and solar-licensed internet element developer, has published a lot of articles in trade publications and journals. Deepak is the writer of the booklet "Ruby on Rails for php and Java builders."
Open source database seller MySQL AB has launched the newest version of its signature database management system, MySQL 5.0, with new pluggable storage engines -- swappable add-ons that present the skill to add or get rid of storage engines from a reside MySQL server.
SearchOpenSource.com talked to site knowledgeable Mike Hillyer to learn the way MySQL valued clientele can advantage from the new pluggable storage engines.
Hillyer, the webmaster of VBMySQL.com, a favored website for people who run MySQL on precise of windows, at the moment holds a MySQL expert Certification and is a MySQL professional at specialists-alternate.com.
What exactly do pluggable storage engines carry to MySQL that wasn't attainable in outdated types?
Mike Hillyer: Pluggable storage engines deliver the skill so as to add and remove storage engines to a running MySQL server. just before the introduction of the pluggable storage engine structure, clients were required to cease and reconfigure the server when including and removing storage engines. the use of third-celebration or in-condominium storage engines required additional effort.
if you were talking to a database administrator (DBA) no longer typical with MySQL, how would you describe the value of the new pluggable storage engines?
Hillyer: Many database management programs use a 'one-size-fits-all' method for facts storage -- all desk data is dealt with the same method, in spite of what the information is or the way it is accessed. MySQL took a different approach early on and applied the concept of storage engines: distinctive storage subsystems which are really expert to diverse use instances.
MyISAM tables are superb to study heavy functions equivalent to net websites. InnoDB supports larger study/write concurrency. the brand new Archive storage engine is designed for logging and archival data. The NDB storage engine offers very excessive performance and availability.
One benefit of this design is that our clients were in a position to make migrating from a legacy gadget to a SQL DBMS more convenient by way of converting their legacy storage into a MySQL storage engine, allowing them to subject SQL queries towards their legacy equipment with out leaving behind their historical methods.
Pluggable seems to indicate that they're used in certain instances, or now not at all reckoning on the administrator's wants. might you explain how one of the more essential engines (of the 9) support a MySQL DBA?
Hillyer: here are a few examples:
the brand new Archive engine is first rate for storing log facts because it makes use of gzip compression and suggests splendid efficiency for inserts and reads with concurrency guide. This capacity an administrator can shop on storage and processing expenses for logging and archival statistics.
the new Blackhole engine is enjoyable in that it takes all INSERT, replace and DELETE statements and drops them; it actually holds no facts. That may also look peculiar at first, however works well for allowing a replication grasp to address writes with out the usage of any storage because the statements nonetheless get written to the binary log and passed on to the slaves.
due to the brand new pluggable element, these storage engines will also be loaded into the server when crucial, and unloaded when now not getting used.
Are any of the nine modules some thing that has already been part of database know-how during the past? How does their inclusion in MySQL server make this app greater potent?
Hillyer: almost all these storage engines had been in area for quite some time, namely MyISAM, InnoDB, BDB, reminiscence and MERGE. they are reasonably mature and used by using most of our users. The NDB storage engine is new to MySQL, however it is an current know-how that has been in construction for over 10 years.
The NDB storage engine is an illustration of a storage engine that has contributed to creating MySQL greater potent by enabling five nines of availability when accurately carried out.
Are there any issues with MySQL that these pluggable storage engines do not handle? How important is it that further modules are released in future models?
Hillyer: there will at all times be needs that certain clients have that the existing storage engines will no longer handle, however the new pluggable approach capability that it might be increasingly standard to write customized storage engines according to a defined API [application programming interface] and plug them in.
As these engines are written, it can be unique to look the innovation that comes from the community, and i seem to be forward to attempting some of these group-provided storage engines.
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Virtually everything you do in MySQL involves data in some way or another because the purpose of a database management system is, by definition, to manage data. This chapter will help you get started working with data in SQL.This chapter is from the book
Virtually everything you do in MySQL involves data in some way or another because the purpose of a database management system is, by definition, to manage data. Even a simple SELECT 1 statement involves expression evaluation to produce an integer data value.
Every data value in MySQL has a type. For example, 37.4 is a number and 'abc' is a string. Sometimes data types are explicit, such as when you issue a CREATE TABLE statement that specifies the type for each column you define as part of the table:CREATE TABLE mytbl ( int_col INT, # integer-valued column str_col CHAR(20), # string-valued column date_col DATE # date-valued column );
Other times data types are implicit, such as when you refer to literal values in an expression, pass values to a function, or use the value returned from a function. The following INSERT statement does all of those things:INSERT INTO mytbl (int_col,str_col,date_col) VALUES(14,CONCAT('a','b'),20050115);
The statement performs the following operations, all of which involve data types:
It assigns the integer value 14 to the integer column int_col.
It passes the string values 'a' and 'b' to the CONCAT() string-concatenation function. CONCAT() returns the string value 'ab', which is assigned to the string column str_col.
It assigns the integer value 20050115 to the date column date_col. The assignment involves a type mismatch, but the integer value can reasonably be interpreted as a date value, so MySQL performs an automatic type conversion that converts the integer 20050115 to the date '2005-01-15'.
To use MySQL effectively, it's essential to understand how MySQL handles data. This chapter describes the types of data values that MySQL can handle, and discusses the issues involved in working with those types:
The general categories of data values that MySQL can represent, including the NULL value.
The specific data types MySQL provides for table columns, and the properties that characterize each data type. Some of MySQL's data types are fairly generic, such as the BLOB string type. Others behave in special ways that you should understand to avoid being surprised. These include the TIMESTAMP data type and integer types that have the AUTO_INCREMENT attribute.
MySQL's capabilities for working with different character sets.
Note: Support for multiple character sets was introduced beginning with MySQL 4.1, but underwent quite a bit of development during the early 4.1 releases. For best results, avoid early releases and use a recent 4.1 release instead.
How to choose data types appropriately for your table columns. It's important to know how to pick the best type for your purposes when you create a table, and when to choose one type over another when several related types might be applicable to the kind of values you want to store.
MySQL's rules for expression evaluation. You can use a wide range of operators and functions in expressions to retrieve, display, and manipulate data. Expression evaluation includes rules governing type conversion that come into play when a value of one type is used in a context requiring a value of another type. It's important to understand when type conversion happens and how it works; some conversions don't make sense and result in meaningless values. Assigning the string '13' to an integer column results in the value 13, but assigning the string 'abc' to that column results in the value 0 because 'abc' doesn't look like a number. Worse, if you perform a comparison without knowing the conversion rules, you can do considerable damage, such as updating or deleting every row in a table when you intend to affect only a few specific rows. MySQL 5.0 introduces "strict" data-handling mode, which enables you to cause bad data values to be rejected.
Two appendixes provide additional information that supplements the discussion in this chapter about MySQL's data types, operators, and functions. These are Appendix B, "Data Type Reference," and Appendix C, "Operator and Function Reference."
The examples shown throughout this chapter use the CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statements extensively to create and alter tables. These statements should be reasonably familiar to you because we have used them in Chapter 1, "Getting Started with MySQL and SQL," and Chapter 2, "MySQL SQL Syntax and Use." See also Appendix E, "SQL Syntax Reference."
MySQL supports several table types, each of which is managed by a different storage engine, and which differ in their properties. In some cases, a column with a given data type behaves differently for different storage engines, so the way you intend to use a column might determine or influence which storage engine to choose when you create a table. This chapter refers to storage engines on occasion, but a more detailed description of the available engines and their characteristics can be found in Chapter 2.
Data handling also depends in some cases on how default values are defined and on the current SQL mode. For general background on setting the SQL mode, see "The Server SQL Mode," in Chapter 2. In the current chapter, default value handing is covered in "Specifying Column Default Values." Strict mode and the rules for treatment of bad data are covered in "How MySQL Handles Invalid Data Values."
MySQL knows about several general categories in which data values can be represented. These include numbers, string values, temporal values such as dates and times, spatial values, and the NULL value.Numeric Values
Numbers are values such as 48 or 193.62. MySQL understands numbers specified as integers (which have no fractional part) and floating-point or fixed-point values (which may have a fractional part). Integers can be specified in decimal or hexadecimal format.
An integer consists of a sequence of digits with no decimal point. In numeric contexts, an integer can be specified as a hexadecimal constant and is treated as a 64-bit integer. For example, 0x10 is 16 decimal. Hexadecimal values are treated as strings by default, so their syntax is given in the next section, "String Values."
A floating-point or fixed-point number consists of a sequence of digits, a decimal point, and another sequence of digits. The sequence of digits before or after the decimal point may be empty, but not both.
MySQL understands scientific notation. This is indicated by immediately following an integer or floating-point number with 'e' or 'E', a sign character ('+' or '-'), and an integer exponent. 1.34E+12 and 43.27e-1 are legal numbers in scientific notation. The number 1.34E12 is also legal even though it is missing an optional sign character before the exponent.
Hexadecimal numbers cannot be used in scientific notation; the 'e' that begins the exponent part is also a legal hex digit and thus would be ambiguous.
Any number can be preceded by a plus or minus sign character ('+' or '-'), to indicate a positive or negative value.
As of MySQL 5.0.3, bit-field values can be written as b'val', where val consists of one or more binary digits (0 or 1). For example, b'1001' is 9 decimal. This notation coincides with the introduction of the BIT data type, but bit-field values can be used more generally in other contexts.mysql> SELECT b'101010' + 0; +---------------+ | b'101010' + 0 | +---------------+ | 42 | +---------------+ mysql> SELECT CHAR(b'1100001'); +------------------+ | CHAR(b'1100001') | +------------------+ | a | +------------------+ String Values
Strings are values such as 'Madison, Wisconsin', 'patient shows improvement', or even '12345' (which looks like a number, but isn't). Usually, you can use either single or double quotes to surround a string value, but there are two reasons to stick with single quotes:
The SQL standard specifies single quotes, so statements that use single-quoted strings are more portable to other database engines.
If the ANSI_QUOTES SQL mode is enabled, it treats the double quote as an identifier quoting character, not as a string quoting character. This means that a double-quoted value must refer to something like a database or table.
For the examples that use the double quote as a string quoting character in the discussion that follows, assume that ANSI_QUOTES mode is not enabled.
MySQL recognizes several escape sequences within strings that indicate special characters, as shown in Table 3.1. Each sequence begins with a backslash character ('\') to signify a temporary escape from the usual rules for character interpretation. Note that a NUL byte is not the same as the SQL NULL value; NUL is a zero-valued byte, whereas NULL in SQL signifies the absence of a value.Table 3.1 String Escape Sequences
NUL (zero-valued byte)
Ctrl-Z (Windows EOF character)
The escape sequences shown in the table are case sensitive, and any character not listed in the table is interpreted as itself if preceded by a backslash. For example, \t is a tab, but \T is an ordinary 'T' character.
The table shows how to escape single or double quotes using backslash sequences, but you actually have several options for including quote characters within string values:
Double the quote character if the string itself is quoted using the same character:
Quote the string with the other quote character. In this case, you do not double the quote characters within the string:
Escape the quote character with a backslash; this works regardless of the quote characters used to quote the string:
To turn off the special meaning of backslash and treat it as an ordinary character, enable the NO_BACKSLASH_ESCAPES SQL mode, which is available as of MySQL 5.0.2.
As an alternative to using quotes for writing string values, you can use two forms of hexadecimal notation. The first consists of '0x' followed by one or more hexadecimal digits ('0' through '9' and 'a' through 'f'). For example, 0x0a is 10 decimal, and 0xffff is 65535 decimal. The non-decimal hex digits ('a' through 'f') can be specified in uppercase or lowercase, but the leading '0x' cannot be given as '0X'. That is, 0x0a and 0x0A are legal hexadecimal values, but 0X0a and 0X0A are not. In string contexts, pairs of hexadecimal digits are interpreted as 8-bit numeric byte values in the range from 0 to 255, and the result is used as a string. In numeric contexts, a hexadecimal constant is treated as a number. The following statement illustrates the interpretation of a hex constant in each type of context:mysql> SELECT 0x61626364, 0x61626364+0; +------------+--------------+ | 0x61626364 | 0x61626364+0 | +------------+--------------+ | abcd | 1633837924 | +------------+--------------+
If a hexadecimal value written using 0x notation has an odd number of hex digits, MySQL treats it as though the value has a leading zero. For example, 0xa is treated as 0x0a.
String values may also be specified using the standard SQL notation X'val', where val consists of pairs of hexadecimal digits. As with 0x notation, such values are interpreted as strings, but may be used as numbers in a numeric context:mysql> SELECT X'61626364', X'61626364'+0; +-------------+---------------+ | X'61626364' | X'61626364'+0 | +-------------+---------------+ | abcd | 1633837924 | +-------------+---------------+
Unlike 0x notation, the leading 'X' is not case sensitive:mysql> SELECT X'61', x'61'; +-------+-------+ | X'61' | x'61' | +-------+-------+ | a | a | +-------+-------+ Properties of Binary and Non-Binary Strings
String values fall into two general categories, binary and non-binary:
A binary string is a sequence of bytes. These bytes are interpreted without respect to any concept of character set. A binary string has no special comparison or sorting properties. Comparisons are done byte by byte based on numeric byte values. Trailing spaces are significant in comparisons.
A non-binary string is a sequence of characters. It is associated with a character set, which determines the allowable characters that may be used and how MySQL interprets the string contents. Character sets have one or more collating (sorting) orders. The particular collation used for a string determines the ordering of characters in the character set, which affects comparison operations. Trailing spaces are not significant in comparisons. The default character set and collation are latin1 and latin1_swedish_ci.
Character units vary in their storage requirements. A single-byte character set such as latin1 uses one byte per character, but there also are multi-byte character sets in which some or all characters require more than one byte. For example, both of the Unicode character sets available in MySQL are multi-byte. ucs2 is a double-byte character set in which each character requires two bytes. utf8 is a variable-length multi-byte character set with characters that take from one to three bytes.
To find out which character sets and collations are available in your server as it currently is configured, use these two statements:mysql> SHOW CHARACTER SET; +----------+-----------------------------+---------------------+--------+ | Charset | Description | Default collation | Maxlen | +----------+-----------------------------+---------------------+--------+ | big5 | Big5 Traditional Chinese | big5_chinese_ci | 2 | | dec8 | DEC West European | dec8_swedish_ci | 1 | | cp850 | DOS West European | cp850_general_ci | 1 | | hp8 | HP West European | hp8_english_ci | 1 | | koi8r | KOI8-R Relcom Russian | koi8r_general_ci | 1 | | latin1 | ISO 8859-1 West European | latin1_swedish_ci | 1 | ... | utf8 | UTF-8 Unicode | utf8_general_ci | 3 | | ucs2 | UCS-2 Unicode | ucs2_general_ci | 2 | ... +----------+-----------------------------+---------------------+--------+ mysql> SHOW COLLATION; +----------------------+----------+-----+---------+----------+---------+ | Collation | Charset | Id | Default | Compiled | Sortlen | +----------------------+----------+-----+---------+----------+---------+ | big5_chinese_ci | big5 | 1 | Yes | Yes | 1 | | big5_bin | big5 | 84 | | Yes | 1 | ... | latin1_german1_ci | latin1 | 5 | | | 0 | | latin1_swedish_ci | latin1 | 8 | Yes | Yes | 1 | | latin1_danish_ci | latin1 | 15 | | | 0 | | latin1_german2_ci | latin1 | 31 | | Yes | 2 | | latin1_bin | latin1 | 47 | | Yes | 1 | | latin1_general_ci | latin1 | 48 | | | 0 | | latin1_general_cs | latin1 | 49 | | | 0 | | latin1_spanish_ci | latin1 | 94 | | | 0 | ... +----------------------+----------+-----+---------+----------+---------+
As shown by the output from SHOW COLLATION, each collation is specific to a given character set, but a given character set might have several collations. Collation names usually consist of a character set name, a language, and an additional suffix. For example, utf8_icelandic_ci is a collation for the utf8 Unicode character set in which comparisons follow Icelandic sorting rules and characters are compared in case-insensitive fashion. Collation suffixes have the following meanings:
_ci indicates a case-insensitive collation.
_cs indicates a case-sensitive collation.
_bin indicates a binary collation. That is, comparisons are based on character code values without reference to any language. For this reason, _bin collation names do not include any language name. Examples: latin1_bin and utf8_bin.
The sorting properties for binary and non-binary strings differ as follows:
Binary strings are processed byte by byte in comparisons based solely on the numeric value of each byte. One implication of this property is that binary values appear to be case sensitive, but that actually is a side effect of the fact that uppercase and lowercase versions of a character have different numeric byte values. There isn't really any notion of lettercase for binary strings. Lettercase is a function of collation, which applies only to character (non-binary) strings.
Non-binary strings are processed character by character in comparisons, and the relative value of each character is determined by the collating sequence that is used for the character set. For most collations, uppercase and lowercase versions of a given letter have the same collating value, so non-binary string comparisons typically are not case sensitive. However, that is not true for case-sensitive or binary collations.
Because collations are used for comparison and sorting, they affect many operations:
Comparisons operators: <, <=, =, <>, >=, >, and LIKE.
Sorting: ORDER BY, MIN(), and MAX().
Grouping: GROUP BY and DISTINCT.
To determine the character set or collation of a string, you can use the CHARSET() and COLLATION() functions.
Quoted string literals are interpreted according to the current server settings. The default character set and collation are latin1 and latin1_swedish_ci:mysql> SELECT CHARSET('abcd'), COLLATION('abcd'); +-----------------+-------------------+ | CHARSET('abcd') | COLLATION('abcd') | +-----------------+-------------------+ | latin1 | latin1_swedish_ci | +-----------------+-------------------+
MySQL treats hexadecimal constants as binary strings by default:mysql> SELECT CHARSET(0x0123), COLLATION(0x123); +-----------------+------------------+ | CHARSET(0x0123) | COLLATION(0x123) | +-----------------+------------------+ | binary | binary | +-----------------+------------------+
Two forms of notation can be used to force a string literal to be interpreted with a given character set:
A string constant can be designated for interpretation with a given character set using the following notation, where charset is the name of a supported character set:
The _charset notation is called a "character set introducer." The string can be written as a quoted string or as a hexadecimal value. The following examples show how to cause strings to be interpreted in the latin2 and utf8 character sets:
For quoted strings, whitespace is optional between the introducer and the following string. For hexadecimal values, whitespace is required.
The notation N'str' is equivalent to _utf8'str'. N must be followed immediately by a quoted literal string with no intervening whitespace.
Introducer notation works for literal quoted strings or hexadecimal constants, but not for string expressions or column values. However, any string or string expression can be used to produce a string in a designated character set using the CONVERT() function:CONVERT(str USING charset);
Introducers and CONVERT() are not the same. An introducer does not change the string value; it merely modifies how the string is interpreted. CONVERT() takes a string argument and produces a new string in the desired character set. To see the difference between introducers and CONVERT(), consider the following two statements that refer to the ucs2 double-byte character set:mysql> SET @s1 = _ucs2 'ABCD'; mysql> SET @s2 = CONVERT('ABCD' USING ucs2);
Assume that the default character set is latin1 (a single-byte character set). The first statement interprets each pair of characters in the string 'ABCD' as a single double-byte ucs2 character, resulting in a two-character ucs2 string. The second statement converts each character of the string 'ABCD' to the corresponding ucs2 character, resulting in a four-character ucs2 string.
What is the "length" of each string? It depends. If you measure with CHAR_LENGTH(), you get the length in characters. If you measure with LENGTH(), you get the length in bytes:mysql> SELECT CHAR_LENGTH(@s1), LENGTH(@s1), CHAR_LENGTH(@s2), LENGTH(@s2); +------------------+-------------+------------------+-------------+ | CHAR_LENGTH(@s1) | LENGTH(@s1) | CHAR_LENGTH(@s2) | LENGTH(@s2) | +------------------+-------------+------------------+-------------+ | 2 | 4 | 4 | 8 | +------------------+-------------+------------------+-------------+
Here is a somewhat subtle point: A binary string is not the same thing as a non-binary string that has a binary collation. The binary string has no character set. It is interpreted with byte semantics and comparisons use single-byte numeric codes. A non-binary string with a binary collation has character semantics and comparisons use numeric character values that might be based on multiple bytes per character.
Here's one way to see the difference between binary and non-binary strings with regard to lettercase. Create a binary string and a non-binary string that has a binary collation, and then pass each string to the UPPER() function:mysql> SET @s1 = BINARY 'abcd'; mysql> SET @s2 = _latin1 'abcd' COLLATE latin1_bin; mysql> SELECT UPPER(@s1), UPPER(@s2); +------------+------------+ | UPPER(@s1) | UPPER(@s2) | +------------+------------+ | abcd | ABCD | +------------+------------+
Why doesn't UPPER() convert the binary string to uppercase? This occurs because it has no character set, so there is no way to know which byte values correspond to uppercase or lowercase characters. To use a binary string with functions such as UPPER() and LOWER(), you must first convert it to a non-binary string:mysql> SELECT @s1, UPPER(CONVERT(@s1 USING latin1)); +------+----------------------------------+ | @s1 | UPPER(CONVERT(@s1 USING latin1)) | +------+----------------------------------+ | abcd | ABCD | +------+----------------------------------+ Character Set–Related System Variables
The server maintains several system variables that are involved in various aspects of character set support. Six of these variables refer to character sets and three refer to collations. Each of the collation variables is linked to a corresponding character set variable.
character_set_system indicates the character set used for storing identifiers. This is always utf8.
character_set_server and collation_server indicate the server's default character set and collation.
character_set_database and collation_database indicate the character set and collation of the default database. These are read-only and set automatically by the server whenever you select a default database. If there is no default database, they're set to the server's default character set and collation. These variables come into play when you create a table but specify no explicit character set or collation. In this case, the table defaults are taken from the database defaults.
The remaining variables influence how communication occurs between the client and the server:
character_set_client indicates the character set used for SQL statements that the client sends to the server.
character_set_results indicates the character set used for results that the server returns to the client. "Results" include data values and also metadata such as column names.
character_set_connection is used by the server. When it receives a statement string from the client, it converts the string from character_set_client to character_set_connection and works with the statement in the latter character set. (There is an exception: Any literal string in the statement that is preceded by a character set introducer is interpreted using the character set indicated by the introducer.) collation_connection is used for comparisons between literal strings within statement strings.
Very likely you'll find that most character set and collation variables are set to the same value by default. For example, the following output indicates that client/server communication takes place using the latin1 character set:mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'character\_set\_%'; +--------------------------+--------+ | Variable_name | Value | +--------------------------+--------+ | character_set_client | latin1 | | character_set_connection | latin1 | | character_set_database | latin1 | | character_set_results | latin1 | | character_set_server | latin1 | | character_set_system | utf8 | +--------------------------+--------+ mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'collation\_%'; +----------------------+-------------------+ | Variable_name | Value | +----------------------+-------------------+ | collation_connection | latin1_swedish_ci | | collation_database | latin1_swedish_ci | | collation_server | latin1_swedish_ci | +----------------------+-------------------+
A client that wants to talk to the server using another character set can change the communication-related variables. For example, if you want to use utf8, change three variables:mysql> SET character_set_client = utf8; mysql> SET character_set_results = utf8; mysql> SET character_set_connection = utf8;
However, it's more convenient to use a SET NAMES statement for this purpose. The following statement is equivalent to the preceding three SET statements:mysql> SET NAMES 'utf8';
One restriction on setting the communication character set is that you cannot use ucs2.
Many client programs support a --default-character-set option that produces the same effect as a SET NAMES statement by informing the server of the desired communication character set.
For variables that come in pairs (a character set variable and a collation variable), the members of the pair are linked in the following ways:
Setting the character set variable also sets the associated collation variable to the default collation for the character set.
Setting the collation variable also sets the associated character set variable to the character set implied by the first part of the collation name.
For example, setting character_set_connection to utf8 sets collation_connection to utf8_general_ci. Setting collation_connection to latin1_spanish_ci sets character_set_connection to latin1.Date and Time (Temporal) Values
Dates and times are values such as '2005-06-17' or '12:30:43'. MySQL also understands combined date/time values, such as '2005-06-17 12:30:43'. Take special note of the fact that MySQL represents dates in year-month-day order. This often surprises newcomers to MySQL, although this is standard SQL format (also known as "ISO 8601" format). You can display date values any way you like using the DATE_FORMAT() function, but the default display format lists the year first, and input values must be specified with the year first.Spatial Values
MySQL 4.1 and up supports spatial values, although currently only for MyISAM tables. This capability allows representation of values such as points, lines, and polygons. For example, the following statement uses the text representation of a point value with X and Y coordinates of (10, 20) to create a POINT and assigns the result to a user-defined variable:SET @pt = POINTFROMTEXT('POINT(10 20)'); The NULL Value
NULL is something of a "typeless" value. Generally, it's used to mean "no value," "unknown value," "missing value," "out of range," "not applicable," "none of the above," and so forth. You can insert NULL values into tables, retrieve them from tables, and test whether a value is NULL. However, you cannot perform arithmetic on NULL values; if you try, the result is NULL. Also, many functions return NULL if you invoke them with a NULL argument.
Since MySQL 4.0, the free (in the sense of GPL) and commercial versions have different names. Here they are:Name License Functionality MySQL Standard Community Edition GPL All default functions that can be considered stable (including InnoDB) MySQL Max Community Edition GPL Same as MySQL Standard, but with additional functions and table drivers that have not reached full maturity MySQL Classic commercial Like MySQL Standard, but without InnoDB MySQL Pro commercial Like MySQL Standard, but with InnoDB (thus with transactions) MySQL Pro Certified Server commercial Like MySQL Pro, but usable only in the context of the Certified Server program MySQL Network and optimized for maximum stability and security
For ordinary GPL applications, the use of the Standard version is recommended. The additional functions in the Max version are for use only in special applications. Currently (version 5.0), the Standard and Max versions differ in the support of BDB tables and the SSL encryption of client/server connections. These functions will be incorporated into the Standard and commercial versions only when they are considered sufficiently stable. You can determine which functions the running version of MySQL supports with the SQL command SHOW VARIABLES. In the following code you can see the results of MySQL Standard 5.0.2.mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'have%'; Variable_name Value have_archive NO have_bdb NO have_compress YES have_crypt YES have_csv NO have_example_engine NO have_geometry YES have_innodb YES have_isam NO have_ndbcluster NO have_openssl NO have_query_cache YES have_raid NO have_rtree_keys YES have_symlink YES
In the case of commercial applications, the decision between Classic and Pro depends simply on whether InnoDB is needed. (The license for the Pro version is more expensive.) The Classic and Pro versions cannot be simply downloaded at www.mysql.com, but are provided only after a license has been issued.
MySQL Pro Certified Server has been available only since the beginning of 2005, as part of the program MySQL Network. MySQL promises users of this program particularly stable and secure versions. If you wish to know which server version is being run, then execute the following SQL command:mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version'; Variable_name Value__________ . version 5.0.2-alpha-standard
This output shows that the Standard version 5.0.2 is running. There is no additional Max functionality and no license for commercial use.
Note: Do not confuse MySQL Max with MaxDB. The latter is the former SAP-DB database system that since 2004 has been maintained and sold by the MySQL firm. There are indeed similarities between the database systems MySQL and MaxDB, but there are considerable differences. This book is strictly about MySQL, not MaxDB.
Regardless of whether you are using a commercial or GPL version of MySQL, you may take out a support contract with MySQL. You thereby simultaneously support the further development of MySQL.
Tip: Details on commercial MySQL licenses and paid support can be found at https://www.mysql.com/support/. Links to various companies that offer commercial MySQL support can be found at http://solutions.mysql.com.
The above tip is excerpted from from Chapter 1, "What is MySQL?" of The Definitive Guide to MySQL 5 by Michael Kofler, courtesy of Apress. Find it helpful? Purchase the book here.
About the author: Michael Kofler holds a Ph.D. in computer science from Graz Technical University. He has written a number of successful computer books on topics such as Visual Basic, Visual Basic .NET, and Linux. Michael is the author of The Definitive Guide to MySQL 5, Third Edition and Definitive Guide to Excel VBA, Second Edition from Apress.
Attendees at the open source database's annual developers' conference in Santa Clara this morning are waking up to the incredible news that their own product, whose value to Sun Microsystems was to have been lauded by none other than Sun co-founder Andreas von Bechtolsheim in a keynote address scheduled for Thursday, is now owned by Oracle Systems.
The initial value of MySQL to Oracle -- up until this morning, its biggest competitor -- was obvious by its absence from this morning's joint press conference featuring Sun and Oracle executives. Sun CEO Jonathan Schwartz mentioned MySQL along with OpenOffice as part of what he now calls the world's largest supplier for open source software. Until Oracle's SEC filings are made public, we won't know whether MySQL even factored into its valuation of Sun.
LinuxQuestions.org editor Jeremy had, well, Linux questions this morning after the news was announced: "With much of Sun's revenue coming from hardware, will [Oracle] spin that division off or use it to focus more on a complete Oracle stack, that includes everything from hardware to database?" Jeremy wrote. "Moving to the individual parts of that stack, will Oracle continue with the SPARC CPU line or be interested in the more commodity x86 lines? At the OS level, will Oracle continue to focus on Linux and their Unbreakable implementation or will they attempt to keep Solaris alive? Oracle has been contributing to Linux in a significant way recently, and it would be a huge loss for that to go away."
Independent analyst and Betanews contributor Carmi Levy believes the deal could enable some intriguing opportunities for Oracle, which up to now has had more difficulty breaking into the lower end of the database market. There, MySQL rules among open source users, and Microsoft SQL Server has had a stronghold among the commercial set.
"This thinking extends into the lower end of the market as well, given how the Sun acquisition gives Oracle access to MySQL," Levy told Betanews. "While no one could ever rightfully claim that MySQL threatens Oracle's higher-end database offerings, its addition to the portfolio gives Oracle additional leverage in a market with significant growth potential. The MySQL installed base of approximately 11 million gives Oracle sales teams fertile opportunity to have conversations they haven't previously had."
But MySQL's support base is comprised in large part by independent developers, and that's by design. Already, those independent developers are waking up to a new world, including software engineer Ryan Thiessen. An 11-year MySQL veteran, Thiessen is scheduled to speak at the MySQL Conference this week; and in a blog post this morning entitled simply, "Stunned," he reveals his bewilderment:
"Last time this year I was cautiously optimistic about Sun's purchase of MySQL. But not this year -- it's fear and disappointment over what this means for MySQL," Thiessen wrote. "When I read this as a rumor a few weeks ago I thought it was a joke of an idea. Why would a high margin software company want to buy a declining hardware business, even if that hardware is great? As for their software, I cannot imagine that Oracle is interested in Java, MySQL, etc as revenue generating products, it would just be a tiny blip for them."Surprisingly, Java and Solaris were mentioned by Oracle CEO Larry Ellison as the key motivating factors, not the SPARC business -- in fact, it was SPARC that failed to generate a blip. MySQL got at least that much -- this for a business that was worth at least a billion to Sun just 15 months ago.
MySQL's founders have remained on the record as fiercely against the use of software patents, as detrimental to the spirit and ethics of open source. Oracle is not diametrically opposed to that line of thinking, having made statements in principle throughout this decade opposing the creation of patent portfolios for predatory purposes.
Oracle's 2000 statement on the issue, which is essentially unchanged, reads, "Patent law provides to inventors an exclusive right to new technology in return for publication of the technology. This is not appropriate for industries such as software development in which innovations occur rapidly, can be made without a substantial capital investment, and tend to be creative combinations of previously-known techniques."
But Oracle does support the use of patents for defensive purposes, particularly when a company is attacked by a company with a big portfolio.That fact alone does not mean Oracle can't, or hasn't, used its software assets very aggressively. In October 2005, the company acquired its first widely used open source database component: Innobase, whose InnoDB contained enterprise-class features that were actually rolled into MySQL 5.0. By acquiring InnoDB, Oracle ended up owning a part of MySQL anyway, in a move that InfoWorld's Neil McAlister astutely reasoned may be to keep the lower-class database snugly in the lower class, while siphoning customers into Oracle's upper class.
"That's why when Oracle snapped up Innobase in early October it was easy to interpret the move as a major offensive on Oracle's part," McAlister wrote then. "By taking control of one of MySQL's vital internal organs, Oracle gains the power to crush the upstart at a whim, simply by closing its grip around Innobase. But, seriously, why would Oracle do that?"
Four years later, we have a closer glimpse of an answer to McAlister's question: By taking control of the geography of enterprise databases over a larger area, Oracle maintains MySQL safely within its own continent, either locked away or funneling new customers across the channel. Maybe no one could ever rightly claim that MySQL was a genuine threat, but today, Oracle's move ensures that it never can be. And that's the new world that developers in Santa Clara are waking up to.
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McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
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Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
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NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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