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000-R13 exam Dumps Source : IBM Retail Environment for SUSE LINUX (IRES) Technical Mastery Test
Test Code : 000-R13
Test Name : IBM Retail Environment for SUSE LINUX (IRES) Technical Mastery Test
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 67 Real Questions
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Australian SD-WAN provider Fusion Broadband migrated its SD-WAN capabilities to the IBM Cloud, which has supported a four hundred p.c boom of these services.
Fusion Broadband claims to be the first SD-WAN company in Australia, first launching service and technology-agnostic SD-WAN capabilities round 2013. “At that element we didn’t in reality consider of it as SD-WAN. It become most effective when SD-WAN turned into getting more publicity and fitting greater neatly frequent that we realized, ‘hi there, we’re already doing that!’” mentioned Jason Maude, Fusion Broadband’s managing director. “We’re very a good deal an SD-WAN player, now not a service with SD-WAN.”
The provider doesn't present its personal circuits — together with mounted line connections, wireless, and satellite — so it is still completely dealer agnostic. in accordance with Maude, the SD-WAN additionally makes use of an array of technologies from its partners for the service itself. This contains backend routing and algorithms. It does, youngsters, depend on a number of open source facets and its personal overlay code and framework so that customers can control, deploy, and guide their networks.
Fusion runs 5 separate features of presence (PoPs) within the country to guide its SD-WAN services. despite the fact, because the enterprise grew, it outpaced its latest environments and decided to migrate these services to the cloud.
“we now have additionally retained all our existing PoPs, which proceed to elevate loads of load, but the IBM movement fairly a great deal has given us the skill to scale up and scale anyplace on the flip of a knob,” Maude noted. by using “scale” he's relating to the potential to scale up CPU cycles and connectivity on-demand.
The other improvement migrating to IBM Cloud had become that it permits purchasers to have their own SD-WAN core.
“Most other SD-WAN suppliers and vendors require the valued clientele to make the most of their particular infrastructure,” Maude pointed out. “This [new] solution permits clients to leverage our IBM infrastructure, or they could use their personal IBM infrastructure and it will also be anywhere in the world.” And, he introduced, that notwithstanding a customer doesn’t use IBM, they could nonetheless use their personal facts core environment or cloud company. “Who they make the most of is not essential, it’s the great, that’s one cause we use IBM”
The different rationale Fusion selected IBM Cloud was its existing partnership and having an IBM atmosphere enabled the enterprise to put into effect wonderful routing eventualities that more desirable assist its atmosphere, Maude referred to.
Now consumers have three options for constructing their network on the IBM Cloud infrastructure: they could have an SD-WAN core inside Fusion’s multi-tenant environment; they can have a committed core infrastructure it truly is managed with the aid of the issuer and best run their personal site visitors throughout the atmosphere; or they can function their personal IBM core as a single PoP or assorted PoPs which are 100 percent of their handle.
based on Maude, Fusion Broadband has greater than 1,000 SD-WAN deployments worldwide, and it manages a bit below 200 partners (which contains both information superhighway and managed provider providers) to reach the smaller enterprise market.
The smartphone video game Flappy chook was removed from smartphones in 2014 through its creator, Dong Nguyen, since it turned into too addictive. however the application lives on as an concept to deep learning researchers.
also: fairness in AI, StarCraft edition
exceptionally, international enterprise Machines scientists this week unveiled analysis into how machines can consistently learn tasks, including enjoying Flappy hen, improving over time instead of discovering one stage of play and stopping at that.
referred to as lifelong researching, or continuous gaining knowledge of, the area has been studied for a long time but is still a bold analysis challenge.
apart from providing a vital new device for AI, the work is something of a meditation on what it means for learning to take location each ahead and backward in time.
Flappy chicken turned into one of their chief assessments. In that game, you must fly the little animated fowl safely through a collection of pillars. The IBM researchers defined every alternate in the factor of the video game, such because the top of the pillars, as a novel task. Neural networks then need to extrapolate from one assignment to the subsequent by way of maximizing what has already been realized in prior projects.
IBM's work with MIT and Stanford university tests weight sharing for playing two video games, "Catcher," and "Flappy bird."IBM, MIT, Stanford school. × ibm-playing-flappy-hen-april-2019.png
referred to as Meta-experience replay, or MER, the work is a bit of a mash-up between a couple of prior strategies within the literature of neural networks.
The work, discovering To study without Forgetting through Maximizing transfer And Minimizing Interference, turned into written through a gaggle from IBM, MIT, and Stanford school, consisting of Matthew Riemer, Ignacio cases, Robert Ajemian, Miao Liu, Irina Rish, Yuhai Tu, and Gerald Tesauro, and is posted on the arXiv pre-print server. The paper is being offered on the overseas convention on researching Representations, occurring in may also.
The problem that happens in continuous researching has been studied for a long time. It turned into formulated by way of researchers Gail wood worker and Stephen Grossberg in 1987. it's known as the balance-plasticity catch 22 situation. a synthetic intelligence equipment, they wrote, must be "able to plasticity as a way to find out about big new routine, yet it must also stay solid according to inappropriate or often repeated routine."
in the phrases, in line with Riemer and his team, the weights of a deep gaining knowledge of network ought to be developed in a method that preserves and extends what's optimized at each and every element in time. The aim is to lower interference, the disruption of what's been discovered, and on the same time maximize future gaining knowledge of through permitting weights to alternate in response to new suggestions.
To do it, the authors mixed collectively two strains of weight optimization: One known as event replay, and one called Reptile.
in the first case, they build on code developed by way of fb researchers David Lopez-Paz and Marc'Aurelio Ranzato in 2017, called Gradient Episodic memory for chronic getting to know, or GEM. GEM uses a number of ideas to keep away from the erasure of past weights and confirm balance.
additionally: Google's AI surfs the "gamescape" to conquer game conception
Reptile, on the other hand, developed remaining 12 months with the aid of Alex Nichol, Joshua Achiam and John Schulman of OpenAI, focuses on a way to raise ahead studying on past tasks to aid the gaining knowledge of of recent projects as they are encountered, a type of switch studying.
IBM explores the "stability-plasticity dilemma," and the melding of weights across time.IBM, MIT, Stanford tuition × ibm-explores-transfer-interference-change-off.png
The challenge of plasticity-balance is to reconcile past and present weight selections. The secret's that the gradient, the optimization manner for each sample of data, should be additive. it will all the time cause more suitable weight selections at any point in time, no longer ones that detract from what's been developed nor that cling lower back weight growth down the road.
The authors determined that GEM and Reptile are constrained in the feel that they are handiest concerned with one route of time.
GEM desires to preserve the past via holding past weights, and Reptile wants to exchange weights only in the mean time new examples are realized. What's essential as a substitute, argue Riemer and colleagues, is a inspiration of symmetry, where the value of weights is better to an extent in both instructions of time.
"In our work we are trying to study a generalizable concept about weight sharing that may study to affect the distribution of gradients not just during the past and latest, however in the future as neatly."
additionally: AI ain't no A scholar: DeepMind essentially flunks high school math
it be a matter of "aligning" the gradients "and accordingly weight sharing," they write, "throughout examples arises [sic] each backward and forward in time."
"we would like to influence gradient angles from all tasks in any respect features in time," rather than for a single point in time, they write.
To discover a kind of foremost gradient descent, they "interleave" examples from the past with each and every new example of statistics, taken separately, and use an goal function that optimizes the gradient over existing and previous examples.
The authors tested their approach on two distinct neural network benchmark assessments. One is a version of the normal "MNIST" facts set of handwritten digits, developed by using the countrywide Institute of requisites and know-how. The intention is to identify labeled examples of digits written in plenty of forms and thru diversifications such as rotation.
The 2d test is the flappy chook check, using a reinforcement learning approach, in keeping with an latest type of neural community called a Deep Q community, or DQN.
In both cases, the authors cite sophisticated accuracy scores in the case of benchmarks, specifically compared to Lopez-Paz and Ranzato's GEM.
also: Google's StarCraft II victory shows AI improves by way of variety, invention, now not reflexes
The DQN equipped with MER, they write, "turns into a Platinum player on the primary task when it is gaining knowledge of the third project" in Flappy chicken.
"DQN-MER reveals the sort of studying patterns anticipated from humans for these games, whereas a common DQN struggles to generalize because the game alterations and to retain abilities over time," they write.
On desirable of moving backward and forward across gradients, from past to future, there are a couple of noteworthy objects during this work.
For one thing, the neural nets cope with the truth the successive initiatives are distinct distributions of data, what's referred to as "non-stationarity." That poses a problem for the networks to generalize. not like in any other settings, the neural networks developed during this case have no explicit sign that every new task is, actually, new. The guidelines of the game alternate and the community comfortably adapts.should examine
What's greater, in preference to being processed in batches, as is average in most neural networks, each new example from records is a single illustration, processed one by one. That has critical implications for being in a position to be trained from sparse signals in the information.
Two critical questions stay for the work. One is whether the diversity of initiatives in anything like Flappy chook is difficult ample. IBM's Riemer answered in an electronic mail to ZDNet that the work will tackle greater different units of initiatives over time.
"we are excited to try it out on extra expansive and distinct collections of tasks in the future," says Riemer.
at the same time, he argues the subtlety of projects right here is effective. "seeing that refined non-stationarities in atmosphere situations will also be exciting and revealing as well," he says. "When non-stationarities within the environment are very severe, it could make it handy for fashions to notice them. due to this fact, noticing greater subtle adjustments can every now and then reflect a extra refined capability to adapt to changing atmosphere conditions."
2d, the task of Flappy bird is a "toy" problem, as opposed to a true-world challenge. Riemer says the group aims to broaden its work to encompass deeper challenges in future. they've "currently been exploring environments that are even more non-stationary each in terms of containing a big quantity of more diverse 'initiatives' and in terms of having fewer examples per 'project'."
there's a lot to be learned from elementary issues, says Riemer. at the identical time, "the activity of our group at IBM is certainly to look at various the bounds of these capabilities and build AI options that can at last be used to resolve true company issues for our shoppers."
PUNE, India, April 5, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- 360Quadrants powered by way of MarketsandMarkets™, the realm's most effective comparison platform that combines professional evaluation with crowdsourced stories, has launched a quadrant on AI in Fintech solutions to help organizations make faster and greater counseled decisions.
synthetic Intelligence (AI) in Fintech refers back to the theory and development of computing device techniques able to performing finance-connected initiatives that constantly require human intelligence. it's an software of AI know-how used within the economic sector to design funding options, realize anomalies with pattern & voice consciousness, and conduct market evaluation with information mining. The AI in Fintech options market for this quadrant is defined because the summation of AI-enabled Fintech options and features.
For this quadrant, the components of AI in Fintech are mainly segmented into options and utility. most important software areas of AI in Fintech solutions are virtual assistants, company analytics & reporting, and consumer behavioral analytics. These solutions have been analyzed in line with cloud and on-premise deployment.
IBM has been recognized as a visionary leader in the AI in Fintech space given its wide product points, excessive product first-class, reliability, suitable channel strategy, and broad geographical footprint. 360Quadrants also lists competitors of rivals of IBM Watson Platform in the AI in Fintech area.
AI in Fintech offerings from IBM aim to convey advantageous insights and intelligence from records. The company has an established product portfolio with a robust market presence and enterprise method. one of the crucial most important trends of the enterprise in the AI in Fintech space include:
IBM and Crédit Mutuel Partnered to serve financial institution customers
Crédit Mutuel entered into a strategic partnership with IBM to better serve the bank's shoppers, globally. in accordance with the partnership, IBM offers Crédit Mutuel with its advanced cybersecurity technologies, Watson, and Cloud to more suitable the customer relationship and enhance their productiveness. Crédit Mutuel is expected to installation the IBM Watson across all its company strains.
IBM and Banca Carige power Digital Transformation with artificial Intelligence
IBM and Banca Carige, an Italian bank, partnered to introduce a Dock worth USD 500 million. This dock will compile analytics, big records, cognitive equipment, and synthetic intelligence to increase the competitiveness of the bank in addition to its valued clientele. in keeping with the partnership, IBM will provide options to all banking sectors and help the bank reply to new enterprise needs by simplifying its IT ambiance.
IBM collaborated with Dream funds to offer digitalized payment functions on the Cloud for monetary associations within the US
IBM collaborated with Dream payments, a FinTech company based in Toronto to introduce mobile fee choices by way of the IBM Cloud for retailers and economic institutions in the US. These digital price choices consist of cell wallets, CHIP playing cards, and contactless funds. This provider will support increase consumer experiences. financial associations can also reduce or steer clear of making investments on prolonged and costly IT projects.
360Quadrants provides equal opportunities to all stakeholders, consequently cutting back prejudice. carriers get to win premiere new customers, customise their quadrants, decide key parameters, and place themselves strategically in a spot area, to be consumed by giants and start-americaalike. 360Quadrants goals to simplify and de-risk advanced purchase decisions by way of proposing buyers with precise-world insights from their peers, trade specialists, analysts, and carriers, assisting patrons make greater counseled decisions and discovering the most excellent-fit options faster. consultants get to grow their own brand and boost their concept leadership. The platform pursuits the constructing of a social community that hyperlinks trade consultants with agencies global.
Contact: Mr. Manoj Singhvimanoj.firstname.lastname@example.org MarketsandMarkets™ research private Ltd. Tower B5, office a hundred and one, Magarpatta SEZ, Hadapsar, Pune - 411013, India mobile: +1-888-600-6441
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Network SoftwarePress Release Summary:
IBM Retail Environment for SUSE LINUX v2 consists of SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server-based distribution for IBM xSeriesÂ® store servers and IBM POS devices. Open platform enables retailers to utilize Linux(TM) features and run it at POS and back-office servers. Functionality includes automatic flashing of POS BIOS; problem determination, including dump button enablement; operator guidance; system-wide configuration and change management; and GUI.Original Press Release: IBM Retail Environment for SUSE LINUX V2 Provides an Integrated Linux POS Platform to Enable Most Leading-Edge Applications and Technologies
At a glance
IBM Retail Environment for SUSE LINUX Version 2:
Offers retail functions such as those provided by IBM's 4690 features, such as:
Server-based POS loading and booting
Industry-standard system-wide configuration and change management
Fast problem determination with single-step dump button support
Combined server/terminal support
Client preload GUI
Remote Management Agent support for systems management
Helps reduce total cost of ownership through expanded versatility, scalability in the store, and single-source technical support
Combines a reliable, enterprise-class Linux distribution with a retail-friendly support and maintenance model
Offers enhanced functionality designed to help streamline installation, configuration, and systems management
Offers a choice of LDAP or new Dynamic POS client configuration, which could potentially reduce the time required to install and maintain the POS clients
IBM Retail Environment for SUSE LINUX V2 (IRES V2) consists of a SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server (SLES) based distribution for IBM xSeries® store servers and select IBM point of sale (POS) devices that includes features tailored for the retail environment. It offers retailers an open, cost-effective, retail-optimized platform for delivering next-generation retail solutions. IBM hardware and drivers are pretested and supported for IRES.
With IRES V2, on demand retailers can acquire the advantages of Linux(TM), run it at the point of sale and on back-office servers, enjoy robust functionality drawn from many years of IBM retail experience, and receive outstanding technical support from IBM. Like IRES V1, IRES V2 includes a retail-optimized distribution of Novell's robust SUSE LINUX Enterprise Server called Novell Linux Point of Service (previously named SUSE LINUX Retail Solution or SLRS). IRES V2 adds function gained from many years of experience in retail solutions, such as automatic flashing of POS BIOS, improved problem determination including dump button enablement, improved operator guidance, a simplified configuration graphical user interface, and systems management. IRES supports select IBM SurePOS(TM) systems, IBM xSeries hardware, and IBM middleware. IRES V2 also includes a cost-effective, retail-friendly support and maintenance model that helps deliver the long lifecycle and rapid response retailers need to help maintain high uptime in the store.
IRES can scale to many different POS application solutions, giving you the flexibility to run it on most systems ranging from non-GUI clients to full graphic Java(TM)-based solutions. In addition, customers who purchased the IRES V1 product and are current with their software maintenance PRPQs can order this product, IRES V2, at no additional cost. Version 1 customers who are not already Passport Advantage® customers will need to enroll in Passport Advantage.
This announcement fulfills the requirements of the Preview Software Announcement 205-005 , dated January 11, 2005.
For information on IBM's Statement of Limited Warranty, contact your IBM representative or reseller. IBM makes no representation or warranty regarding third-party products or services.
The information in IBM announcement letters is subject to change without notice. Consult the IBM Sales Manual, or your IBM marketing representative or reseller, for the most current information.
Planned availability dates
July 22, 2005: Electronic software delivery including English only documentation
August 19, 2005: Media with translated documentation available on the IBM Web siteRelated Thomas Industry Update
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March 24, 2004
This article was contributed by Tom Dunstan
Some tensions that have been building in the GNOME community for a while came out this week. Havoc Pennington wrote about the language and platform options available to open source development generally, and GNOME in particular. This sparked a large debate on PlanetGnome, among other places.
Currently the GNOME platform, meaning primarily the libraries available to GNOME developers, is written in C. There are a number of historical reasons for this: C was considered to be the most portable language around, and it allowed for very easy bindings to be written for other languages. The only real alternative when GNOME was formed was C++, which, at the time, scored lower on both of the previous measures. Also, some members of the community generally didn't like C++ as a language.
Times have changed. The Mono project was launched in August 2001 after the folks at Ximian had decided that, having gone through the pain of developing a large, multi-component application, enough was enough:
There is a point in your life when you realize that you have written enough destructors, and have spent enough time tracking down a memory leak, and you have spend enough time tracking down memory corruption, and you have spent enough time using low-level insecure functions, and you have implemented way too many linked lists.
The obvious candidate for an object oriented, statically typed, garbage collected language is Java. Unfortunately, the most widely used, certified Java Virtual Machines (JVMs) are not free software. Sun Microsystems still maintains tight control over them, and even limits the ability to freely redistribute the free-as-in-beer JVM, even without modification. Currently, to the author's knowledge, the only Linux distributions that ship with either the Sun or IBM JVMs are a few commercial enterprise distributions. While there are some free software JVMs available, their performance is generally well below that offered by the proprietary ones.
You may be wondering why languages such as Python, Perl or Ruby aren't in consideration here. Havoc's paper doesn't do much to explain why languages such as these won't be used for writing system components, because the audience that he wrote it for probably take that as a given. Dave Camp's one-liner in this blog post probably explains the thoughs of most developers on this issue: I have a soft spot in my heart for Python (although I have a softer spot for static type checking).
Ximian saw the standardized C# language, and the standardized Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) from Microsoft as the way out: they could write a GNOME platform with all to goodies of an object oriented, statically typed, garbage collected language using and extending the existing GNOME APIs. Since the language was standardized, there were seemingly no trademark issues, and the parts of the platform that were Windows specific would be replaced with GNOME components anyway.
So Ximian founded the Mono project, and things have continued with the GNOME platform itself continuing to be coded in C, with the Mono team progressing its C# compiler, CLI runtime and class libraries at a tremendous rate.
Two things have happened recently to make some in the community start to think about the strategic direction that GNOME should take. The first is that Mono is actually approaching a 1.0 release sometime this year. The second is that the Java compiler and class library that are part of the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC), GCJ, is now considered to be fairly mature.
GCJ treats Java essentially as a subset of C++ with garbage collection and a large class library. Java source code is compiled to native code and then linked against a modified Boehm garbage collection library. Most of the standard class libraries have been implemented, with the notable exception being the windowing packages AWT and SWING. The GCJ was able to natively compile Eclipse last year, and it is considered mature enough for Red Hat to ship a GCJ compiled Tomcat Java Servlet Container in their Application Server enterprise distribution.
All of these environments will work quite well together, until GNOME makes a decision to start writing platform libraries in a managed language, for a managed platform. Whichever platform is not chosen might have a much more difficult time integrating such components. Many feel that GNOME needs to make some decision about which platform to support officially, otherwise the community will continue to be tied to C for the platform libraries indefinitely, or worse, risk forking.
There are a number of reasons given (by Havoc and others) as to why some in the GNOME community are unhappy with using Mono as the platform of choice, including:
While Havoc argued that using a C#/CLR combo might "speed up" the adoption of Microsoft's technology, proponents of Mono point out that it allows a migration path away from Windows in the future, something that won't be there if the Windows world is using CLR technologies, and the free software world has no CLR.
The catching-up-with-Microsoft argument is persuasive, but Java hardly presents a better alternative. Java, under the tight control of Sun, has moved much slower than the corresponding pace of many free software projects such as GNOME, Python, or indeed, Mono. The language has evolved very slowly, with features that developers have wanted for years, such as enums and generics (templates for C++ people), only just now being added to the language, after they came out as part of C# from Microsoft, a much younger piece of software.
Sun's reluctance to support a native widget based GUI toolkit, sticking with the sometimes sluggish, alien looking SWING, left developers with no real option for developing desktop applications. There's a reason why Java is used heavily on the server, with a devoted following, but very sparingly on the desktop. To use a contrasting example, Python has evolved as a language at a much faster rate, with incremental rather than groundbreaking speed improvements over time as well. The Benevolent Dictator model is used in Python as it is in Linux, with great effect.
Keeping Sun happy seems like a very valuable goal for some in the community in light of the major contributions that Sun has made to GNOME. It's ironic, however, that the community seemingly is in this position at least partly because of Sun's refusal to let go of Java, and more ironic that one proposed solution to keep Sun happy is to use a non-Sun-licensed, non-Sun-certified Java platform which doesn't support Sun's preferred GUI APIs. While it might keep Sun happier than if GNOME adopted Mono, it would seem unlikely that that's where they'd like to be. Even if Sun were to make an open source version of their JVM and class libraries available, as advocated by IBM and others, the interaction between two competing platforms may still be awkward. It would be a great step, in any case.
Meanwhile, discussions continue, and there have been some constructive suggestions as to how to interoperate and leave the community's options as open as possible. The debate is currently civil, intelligent and constructive. There are a number of parties with big stakes involved, however, so things may yet get heated. A fragmented platform helps nobody, so there's a big incentive to work out the most inclusive solution constructively. It's a debate which will be watched closely by many.(Log in to post comments)
This is well and good, but what if you live in the world of Linux, freed from the constraints of vendors, able to work on technologies instead? You have not been forgotten. There are quite a number of Linux certification options in existence today. In fact, Linux certification can effectively counter the “no support” argument often levelled at the operating system by commercial vendors. And nicely Foote Partners see no reason to doubt the higher pay rate applies equally to Linux certified pros too.
Of these options, there are three main players: CompTIA, LPI and Red Hat. The latter actually is partial to a specific flavour of Linux – and is the oldest in existence - but the first two are entirely distro-neutral.
How to be certified
Before discussing these varying alternatives in more detail, let’s get to the gist of just how to be certified. The following applies universally to the great bulk of all certifications – be they Microsoft or Linux or Cisco or others (Note, there are some exceptions, particularly higher-level credentials like Cisco’s CCIE.)
It’s important to understand from the onset that certification does not equal education. Certs can follow a course of study, and often they are advertised in conjunction with an educational vendor’s program.
Certifications are actually attained by completing examinations. Some certs may require just one exam. Others may take several. However, it is the successful completion of these exams which merit the qualifications. It’s not uncommon for the highly experienced to take an exam without undertaking training specifically, or even reviewing study materials. Training will help prepare, but the attainment is based solely on exam performance.
Each exam has a set number of questions and a time limit. Ordinarily, if you know your stuff, the time allotted is very generous. Almost all questions are multiple choice. This is a matter of continual debate and discussion. A Microsoft blogger offers some reasons why this is so – citing the cost of developing alternate examination forms as very expensive and the increased difficulty in accurately assessing a submitted answer which may have a wide array of possible solutions. Additionally, Microsoft appeal to standard U.S. tests such as the SAT which is itself multiple choice but yet highly regarded.
Exams typically cost between $150 and $200 and are pass/fail situations only and the exam fee must be repaid if the test is failed and then re-taken. Should you be unlucky enough to fail exam do check if you can take advantage of any re-take policy which may offer a discount valid within a certain time period.
The examinations are taken at authorised exam centres which may themselves also be training providers. However, the exams are entirely independent of whether you have undertaken a course there or not. The exams are typically booked with a national exam provider like Pearson Vue or Thomson Prometric and taken at your nearest local centre.
Let's now check out the options available if you're seeking recognition of your Linux ability.
CompTIA (“the Computing Technology Industry Association”) is well-known for providing independent certification in a broad range of categories. Perhaps the best known of these is their A+ certification aimed at computer technicians and covering hardware installation, configuration, diagnosing problems, preventative maintenance and basic networking.The CompTIA Linux offering is labelled “Linux+” and is the newest of those described here. It is a single examination and professes to validate the knowledge of individuals who have a minimum of six to twelve months practical Linux experience. The stated objectives are that people who hold this certification can be expected to competently perform fundamental command-line administration, manage user accounts and handle file permissions, software configurations and security issues.
A criticism levelled of CompTIA is that in striving for maximal compatibility across technologies that it cannot, by necessity, offer depth in its assessments. This is evidenced by the stated objectives above; reading between the lines it’s clear that a Linux+ holder can be assured of being able to perform basic systems administration but there’s no guarantees anything more can be expected.
Here’s some sample questions:
A customer wants internal office information to be accessible by employees through a Web browser. Which of the following Linux services should be used?
A. SquidB. MySQLC. ApacheD. sendmail
Which of the following packages is usually more important for a “workstation” installation than a “server” installation?
A. DNSB. DHCP serverC. Proxy serverD. XFree86 server
A new employee having a problem with account login has the following entry in the /etc/passwd file: user1:*:51:501:John Doe:/home/user1:/bin/bash. What is wrong with this entry?
A. The UID is not validB. The account is lockedC. The UID and the GUID must matchD. Spaces are not permitted between the first and last name
A Linux superuser is unable to delete a file. The user is also unable to change permission for the file. What is the problem?
A. The file is actually a hard link.B. The file has the immutable flag set.C. The file has been fragmented across directories.D. The superuser does not have permission to access the file.
How did you go? The answers are Apache, XFree86 server, The account is locked, and The file has the immutable flag set, respectively. It may strike you that some of these are relatively basic; after all, if you want to make information available over the Web it stands to reason you’d use a web server – not a mail server or a proxy cache. However, others are more difficult and require uncommon knowledge – like the immutable flag, which can be read about more. Even so, it’s hard to escape the feeling the CompTIA exams are aimed at the “lowest common denominator” and are more suited for an inexperienced person wanting to break into IT rather than an embattled pro seeking to prove their skill. This feeling is enhanced by the fact CompTIA don’t offer any path leading to higher certs.
If you want to take training to prepare you for the CompTIA Linux+ exam, you can find region-specific providers online. However, the list is either out-of-date or Australia is sorely-lacking in training companies who have ventured down this path with not one single listing. This means the only option for many is self-study. To assist, CompTIA have a range of training materials to help in this regard. You can also take practice exams to get in the zone for the real thing.
The exam is graded on a scale of 100 to 900, with the minimum passing score being 655. Exams are taken through Vue or Prometric centres.
Linux Professional Institute
At a more advanced level comes the Linux Professional Institute, or LPI, which aims to be recognised as the global leader in certifying Linux professionals while advancing the Linux and Open Source movement through partners, activities and other means. LPI released its first two exams in 2000 and then a further two exams, aimed at a higher-grade, the following year. It released its third, senior-level, exam grade early in 2007.
Unlike many other exam providers, LPI are extremely open about how they develop their questions. This includes a great deal of pilot testing and statistical analysis to identify those questions that should go live as well as the minimum passing score, which is scaled so that the pass mark is 500 with a normalised distribution that places the majority of results between 200 and 800 (being three standard deviations away from the mean.) Their exam FAQ is very interesting reading. As of December 1st, 2005, LPI have administered over 103,000 examinations with the passing rates ranging from 67% to 86%.
As touched on, the LPI path comes at three levels: junior, advanced and senior – or, more clinically, LPIC-1, LPIC-2 and LPIC-3. Each level requires successful completion of two exams.
The LPIC-1 credential attests an individual can work at the Linux command line, perform easy maintenance tasks including backups and user admin, and install and configure workstations. The LPIC-2 credential means a professional can administer a small to medium site and design and deploy small mixed network environments. The LPIC-3 credential demonstrates a person has several years Linux admin experience and has integrated it in diverse environments, knows advanced and enterprise administration levels, can plan and implement full environments and perform system programming and shell scripting.
Sample LPIC-1 questions are:
Which of these commands could you use to show one page of output at a time?
1. more2. less3. sed4. pause5. grep
If you wanted to turn off mail notification, what command would you use?
1. biff n2. mesg n3. mesg off4. notify off5. set notify=off
What command(s) do you use to create swap space?
1. mkswap2. activeswap3. swapon4. initswap5. mkfs –t swap
Sample LPIC-2 questions are:
You have just added PCMCIA to your system so you can add a PCMCIA Ethernet adapter to connect to a wireless network. Upon testing you discover it works properly when you enable it manually, but it does not initialise during boot. Which of the following is most likely the problem?
1. Card services is not configured properly to initialise during the boot process2. The init scripts do not include PCMCIA initialisation or are not initialising in a suitable sequence3. PCMCIA support must be compiled into the kernel4. Hot-plug support is not enabled in the kernel at boot
You are testing some new settings for syslogd in /etc/testlog.conf but none of your changes seem to take effect when you send a SIGHUP to syslogd. What is likely to be the problem?
1. You have errors in your configuration file that are causing them to be ignored upon reading of the configuration file2. syslogd does not respond to SIGHUP3. The wrong configuration file is being read on SIGHUP4. You cannot use alternate configuration files with syslogd and you must rename your testlog.conf file.
Which file contains the settings that determine root login privileges via ssh?
1. ssh.config2. ssh_config3. sshd.config4. sshd_config
You have a client machine that is receiving unknown host error messages, but you are able to ping the hosts IP address. What file should you examine?
1. /etc/hosts.conf2. /etc/resolv3. /etc/host4. /etc/resolv.conf5. /etc/nsswitch
Finally, sample LPIC-3 questions are:
When configuring a syncrepl provider slapd, which directives must be present in slapd.conf? (Choose TWO correct answers)
1. syncprov-sessionlog2. syncprov-overlay3. syncprov-checkpoint4. syncprov-errorlog
When troubleshooting capacity problems, when would taking measurements be most appropriate?
1. During successful operation2. During an overload or an episode3. After an overload or an episode4. After replacing problematic hwardware
Which of the following are valid passdb backends? (Select THREE correct answers)
1. smbpasswd2. bdb3. tdbsam4. mysql5. ldbm
As can be seen, the jargon and technologies become more arcane and advanced as one rises through the levels. In this regard, LPI’s qualifications are worth attaining because they demonstrate sound core Linux expertise without respect for any individual distro. However, on the other hand, LPI mandate that higher-level certs can only be reached if the preceding exams have been completed. This means a senior Linux admin cannot elect to take the third-level LPI exams and receive recognition. They must work their way through the junior and advanced exams to receive any acknowledgement of his or her status. Additionally, LPI lapse certs after five years: your highest-level achievement must be re-taken within five years or it is no longer marked active.
LPI give pointers to approved training materials and resources but do not produce any official set of materials. Additionally, courses may be taken at training partners but LPI do not help find any on their site; fortunately Google is more forthcoming. As with CompTIA, exams can be taken at any Vue or Prometric centre.
Red Hat Linux
One of the oldest Linux certification providers is the very well-known Red Hat Linux organisation, which was also an early Linux commercial success. Possibly capitalising on the recognition given Microsoft’s MCSE, Red Hat produced the Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) designation in 1999. Three years later they announced a lower-level Red Hat Certified Technician (RHCT) title. They have since added Red Hat Certified Security Specialist (RHCSS) and Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) – this last one being a premium title which demonstrated advanced mastery of the OS. The RHCA is attained by holding an RHCE then taking a further five exams which range in duration from two to eight hours. It really is not for the faint of heart.Unlike the majority of all other certification processes, Red Hat do not use multiple-choice questions but practical hands-on labs. The RHCT requires a half-day lab; the RHCE a full-day lab. This includes a written test, a server installation and network services configuration and measures real-world competencies performing actual tasks. Due to the specific requirements, the labs cannot be taken at ordinary examination centres but only at Red Hat facilities. It’s also important to note the labs and RHCA exams are the most expensive out of any listed here, ranging from over $US 300 to almost $US 800 each.
Having been in operation for eight years, Red Hat’s training and certification is highly evolved and as such is too complex to describe in an article like this. It is worth checking out Red Hat’s site directly for the multitude of exams and courses. Training can be readily found throughout North America but the rest of the world does not fare as well. Fortunately, many subjects can be taken online.
Red Hat’s certifications expire after the second major release since your credential was earned; so, if you are certified today against Red Hat 7, your qualification is recognised until the release of Red Hat 9.
Due to its rigorous testing process, and despite its partiality to one vendor, the Red Hat certification process is arguably the most prestigious of the Linux qualifications; by passing, the individual has demonstrated their genuine ability to configure and administer Linux servers. Anyone serious about proving their mettle would do well to genuinely consider the challenge offered by Red Hat.
Unfortunately, the specific exam locations – as well as the lack of training options, let alone the price – may not be practical for everyone.
CompTIA, LPI and Red Hat are not the only certification providers by any means. Novell has introduced two streams – Novell Certified Linux Professional and Novell Certified Linux Engineer. Despite the generic “Linux” in the title, these focus on SUSE Linux.
Similarly, Ubuntu fans may like to consider our old friend LPI. Somewhat oddly, and juxtaposed against their stated vendor-neutrality, LPI offers an Ubuntu certification which consists of a single $US 100 exam taken on top of the two LPIC-1 exams. Successful completion of all three grants the title of Ubuntu Certified Professional.
Another early Linux cert, along with Red Hat, was the SAIR Linux/GNU certification. Despite its early footing it never reached the same level of prestige largely due to its several changes of ownership and associated lack of sustained consistent development.
Finally, BrainBench.com offers cheap Linux assessment exams. These do not proffer to confer any title upon the test taker but do give printable certificates which can be included with resumes and which do meet the goal of independently measuring competency to a specific standard. However, the biggest downfall of BrainBench.com is that the examinations are administered online and there are no checks that the exam was undertaken within a controlled environment. There is absolutely nothing stopping a person achieving a BrainBench.com certificate with the site open in one browser window and Google in another. This greatly distils any value the site may offer, because it is inherently untrustworthy.
While not Linux, it also must be mentioned that MySQL offers certification examinations also. There are two streams (developer and DBA) which both are achieved through the successful completion of two exams. There are other Linux-sympathetic paths that can be followed, like Java development, or networking or even other variations of UNIX like Sun Microsystem’s Solaris admin certs.
And that’s Linux certification in a nutshell! My recommendation is, if it is feasible for you, to strive for Red Hat’s accolades. Failing that, LPI is the next best thing and has a lot of respect.
CompTIA’s Linux+ is reputable by association with a trusted brand but falls short of really proving you know your stuff; I can’t escape the feeling it instead shows the potential of a junior Linux admin wanting to go further, rather than the worth of a true pro. And if you want a certificate the easiest way possible, go with Brainbench – just don’t expect anyone to really treat it too seriously.
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