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Barminco, Hindustan Zinc, Petra Diamonds and Vedanta Zinc foreign faucet into the Sandvik and IBM relationship to enrich operations and defense in underground tough-rock mining
Award-successful OptiMine® Analytics with IBM Watson IoT for predictive maintenance and optimization, analyzes, learns and communicates with gadget working lots of feet underground
TAMPERE, Finland and ARMONK, N.Y., April 1, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- Joint customers of IBM (NYSE: IBM) and Sandvik Mining and Rock technology, one of the world's biggest top rate mining equipment manufacturers, are tapping the powers of IoT, advanced analytics and synthetic intelligence to understand safeguard, protection, productivity and operational effectivity.
The mining and rock excavation trade is under turning out to be power to increase the global supply of minerals to fulfill the needs and expectations of a all of a sudden rising world population. This commonly requires extracting from expanding improved depths, which could make it complex to speak and act as fundamental when gadget fails or must be serviced.
OptiMine® Analytics transforms facts into procedure improvements by means of predictive insights and actionable dashboards embedded into operation administration methods. using the analytics capabilities from IBM Watson IoT, this suggestions administration solution allows for mining businesses to mix device and utility statistics from disparate sources in precise-time, analyzing patterns within the information to aid increase availability, utilization and efficiency.
via a series of IBM Design thinking workshops, IBM and Sandvik work with consumers to boost a framework to shape choices around statistics driven productiveness and predictive protection. the use of the Watson IoT expertise, Sandvik and IBM have collectively created a platform in a position to comply with the stringent reliability and safety necessities of mining operations. Predictive preservation technology leveraging IoT sensor statistics has also been introduced as a part of this platform.
"Proactively deciding upon upkeep wants earlier than some thing breaks is resulting in large charge and time reductions," referred to Patrick Murphy, president, Rock Drills & applied sciences, Sandvik. "Our award-profitable OptiMine® Analytics with IBM Watson IoT solutions offer our valued clientele a more comprehensive view of their operations for smarter, safer and extra productive work."
Sandvik and IBM consumers equivalent to Petra Diamonds and Barminco are the usage of IoT to aid reduce miner publicity to adversarial work environments and increase safety.
"Our true precedence is the defense of our personnel and if a laptop fails underground, we want immediate perception into what is occurring in that tunnel," pointed out Luctor Roode, govt operations at Petra Diamonds. "With the answer from Sandvik and IBM, we now have precise-time facts that makes it possible for us to automatically establish the basis explanation for the difficulty and act as a consequence."
"Leveraging facts is become more and more positive throughout the mining sector. via analytics, desktop researching and AI, we are seeing new percentages for multiplied operational efficiency," pointed out Paul Muller, chief executive officer, Barminco. "Our partnership with Sandvik's OptiMine® Analytics makes it possible for us to quickly-track our efforts, leveraging Sandvik's entire-of-fleet facts and innate laptop expertise."
OptiMine® Analytics will even be used via Vedanta Zinc overseas's Black Mountain Mining (BMM) operations in South Africa's Northern Cape Province, to accelerate data-driven operations for safeguard, effectivity and productivity for vans, loaders and drills. additionally, Hindustan Zinc, probably the most world's biggest integrated producers of zinc, lead and silver has tapped Sandvik to put into effect an incredible digital transformation at its Sindesar Khurd Mine, India, to be certain all required infrastructure and systems can obtain world-category mining protection, efficiency and productiveness.
"Sensors and monitoring techniques for asset administration is just the beginning when it comes to how artificial intelligence will disrupt the mining business," stated Jay Bellissimo, normal supervisor, Cognitive manner Transformation, IBM international enterprise capabilities. "developing an answer that turns the data into actionable insights is a fragile matter. It requires an interdisciplinary effort spanning across mining technology, application engineering and statistics science. IBM and Sandvik at the moment are on route to support radically change the mining price chain with the fusion of cognitive capabilities into miners business and operating methods."
Sandvik has been providing options in the mining automation business for decades, with autonomous operations in more than 60 mines on six continents. This footprint is a major asset to the technique optimization options in greater and higher demand. For its part, IBM has been working with leading mining purchasers to infuse cognitive capabilities of their business and operating processes, growing the Cognitive price Chain for Mining. This multidisciplinary approach leverages and expands on the ideas of the fourth industrial revolution with the aid of assisting miners achieve new effectivity mark downs, with no need to make huge-scale capital investments.
Sandvik group Sandvik is a high-tech and international engineering neighborhood offering products and functions that boost consumer productivity, profitability and safeguard. We dangle world-leading positions in selected areas – tools and tooling techniques for steel slicing; gadget and equipment, service and technical options for the mining business and rock excavation inside the construction industry; items in superior stainless steels and particular alloys in addition to items for industrial heating. In 2018, the group had about forty two,000 employees and revenues of about a hundred billion SEK in more than one hundred sixty international locations within carrying on with operations.
Sandvik Mining and Rock technology Sandvik Mining and Rock expertise is a company area in the Sandvik neighborhood and a worldwide leading business enterprise of equipment and equipment, service and technical options for the mining and construction industries. software areas consist of rock drilling, rock slicing, crushing and screening, loading and hauling, tunneling, quarrying and breaking and demolition. In 2018, sales had been approximately forty three billion SEK with about 15,000 employees in continuing operations.
About IBM For more information about IBM services please seek advice from: https://www.ibm.com/capabilities
IBM company emblem. (PRNewsfoto/IBM)extra
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a couple of years ago, the proprietor of InterForm A/S tasked two enterprise partners with main the expansion of the Danish company’s items into the USA. The enterprise, whose suite of IBM i-based mostly doc management utility is well customary in Europe, remains making an attempt to locate its footing in a U.S. market that has turn into more open following the divestiture of IBM‘s printing unit to Ricoh.
InterForm is a reasonably younger enterprise that has a rich 30-yr historical past of setting up output management solutions for the AS/four hundred, iSeries, gadget i, and now IBM i servers. The company’s recent historical past is a bit messy, because of the activities surrounding the April 2008 acquisition of Intermate A/S with the aid of Kodak. Intermate, which turned into additionally based in Denmark, turned into a detailed partner of InterForm’s, and turned into its grasp distributor. Kodak, despite the fact, changed into best drawn to Intermate’s IPDS printing products. Following an possession exchange, a brand new InterForm turned into fashioned that concentrated on income and advertising besides building.
nowadays, InterForm develops and sells utility that improves the printing and electronic distribution capabilities of IBM i servers. on the core of InterForm’s suite is InterForm400, which contains a laptop-based, graphical forms design device and an IBM i-based spool file merge utility that generates PCL and ZPL output. Surrounding InterForm400 are a few modules for outputting IBM i spool file by the use of fax, and for integrating IBM i content material with Microsoft word and Excel documents. InterForm400 additionally generates comfy PDFs.
InterForm counts a couple of well known European organizations as shoppers, together with Porsche, Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson and Johnson, Lamborghini, Erdinger Weissbrau, and Euler Hermes, according the company’s web site. The InterForm items benefited from partnerships that Intermate had with Baan and different ERP programs now owned through Infor, in line with Paul Tykodi, who provides consulting and technical support capabilities to InterForm from his office in New Hampshire.
almost two years ago, the owner of InterForm sought to expand the product into the North American market. Tykodi and Patrick Race, the managing director of InterForm’s basic U.okay.-primarily based company partner house Tec, were tasked with spearheading the building of a U.S. income channel and drumming up excitement for the application, which is marketed as ArtForm400 within the united states because of copyright restrictions, according to the InterForm web site.
today, InterForm has a handful of partners, including the lately introduced reseller take care of ProData desktop capabilities, the Omaha, Nebraska, developer of the enormously ordinary DBU utility. other companions include ASK of Lansing, Michigan; CIM options of Woburn, Massachusetts; and MiNET Communications of Boise, Idaho.
Breaking into the competitive North American market can also be very complex, as Intermate is discovering. Many European IBM i application companies have tried through the years, and few have succeeded. InterForm is struggling to strengthen company consciousness in North the usa, says Tykodi, who splits his time between InterForm and working with the Intermate IPDS application it's now bought in the course of the Creo color Servers unit of Kodak’s Print On-Demand options group.
one in all InterForm’s most promising market-constructing actions is its new relationship with the folks at IBM’s lab in Rochester, Minnesota. in response to Tykodi, Rochester has been very receptive to getting to know concerning the InterForm product line. The lab has even installed it and validated InterForm’s capabilities, which Tykodi hopes will result in product recommendations from Rochester in the future.
Tykodi attributes the receptiveness to the recent sale of IBM’s printing group to Ricoh, which is now the impartial InfoPrint solutions business. “They’re open now,” he says of Rochester. “although you made anything neatly prior to now, they form of had to defend their own stuff. So it become a little more durable to show them what you do, or to explain how to aid their consumers. Now that that’s gone, they’re very pleasant to work with.”
while IBM retained the Print provider Facility (PSF) utility for the IBM i and z/OS platforms (InfoPrint owns the windows and AIX models of PSF), the fact that IBM doesn’t have a printing division to any extent further ability that IBM have to lean on third events to remedy customers’ IBM i-linked printing and output management issues.
“They’re no longer ready to write down as tons code, and do as many things for themselves as they used to,” Tykodi says. subsequently, companions are brought in, “so purchasers can nevertheless find ways of getting all of the facets they’re trying to find after they buy an i.”
Tykodi says the core strengths of the InterForm products are its integrated nature and its help for PDF. He says InterForm presents lots of the elements one looks for in a doc management equipment, including: the capacity to aid every kind of input, from usual SCS to AFP and IPDS; the graphical types clothier and help for conditional good judgment and spool file splitting capabilities; and the guide for PDF, PCL, notice, Excel, email, and fax output. Having these facets in a single suite ability shoppers don’t have to cobble collectively products from different providers, he says.
PDF is an additional enviornment of power, he says. for example, InterForm has developed a utility that allows users to print a PDF off the IFS by way of issuing an easy command. “There’s instructions for everything,” Tykodi says. “You’d believe there’s a command to print a PDF. but they haven’t invented that yet. So InterForm has that.”
a different product reality of observe is that this: The upcoming InterForm M2011 release will additionally add the means to run the core spool file merge processing on systems aside from IBM i. in an effort to extend the capabilities marketplace for InterForm products, and will even seize the attention of multi-platform shops that choose no longer to pressure printers from IBM i servers.
For extra information, see the InterForm web site at www.interform400.com.
ProData Hooks Up with InterForm for Doc management
Kodak Buys Intermate for IPDS abilities
Intermate Launches Spool-to-Excel Conversion tool
this text has been corrected. Intermate A/S became a distributor of InterForm’s products, not an proprietor. InterForm has always developed its personal items, and maintained possession. The relevant web page for InterForm is www.interform400.com. IT Jungle regrets the error.
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a brief checklist of probably the most transformative products of the past century and a half would consist of the lightbulb, Ford’s model T—and the IBM gadget/360. This mainframe series invariably modified the laptop business and revolutionized how groups and governments worked, enhancing productiveness and making numerous new initiatives viable.
in the years leading as much as its 7 April 1964 launch, despite the fact, the 360 changed into one of the most scariest dramas in American business. It took a virtually fanatical commitment in any respect degrees of IBM to bring about this fabulous assortment of machines and application. while the technological innovations that went into the S/360 were crucial, how they have been created and deployed bordered on catastrophe. The business skilled what science coverage knowledgeable Keith Pavitt called “tribal conflict”: people clashing and taking part in a abruptly turning out to be business with unstable, and in some cases unknown, technologies, as uncertainty and ambiguity dogged the entire protagonists.
eventually, IBM changed into massive and diverse satisfactory in skill, staffing, financing, and materiel to prevail. In an almost entrepreneurial style, it took talents of rising technologies, no remember the place they were observed within the business. In hindsight, it seemed a sloppy and sick-informed recreation, chaotic in execution and yet brilliantly a hit. We live in an age that celebrates innovation, so examining instances of how innovation is carried out can only illuminate our realizing of the method.
through the conclusion of the Fifties, computer users faced a reputedly intractable difficulty. Had it now not been solved, it could have averted computers from becoming widespread, and any techniques of residing in an tips Age would were fiction.photograph: IBM The S/360 was designed to replace IBM’s 1401 mainframe, which become usual however couldn’t be increased or upgraded.
companies have been buying computers in remarkable numbers, automating lots of the historical punch card operations and doing more with statistics processing. The recognition of the IBM 1401 illustrates the quick adoption of computing. Over 12,000 of those techniques were bought from their introduction in 1959 to 1971, when IBM retired the road.
With the 1401 so dominating the computing device enterprise, any issues with it have been severe. certainly one of them changed into that the 1401 become too small.
clients discovered these machines so positive that they saved piling greater work on them, reaching the gadget’s capability. They then had three alternate options: circulate to an even bigger IBM equipment, equivalent to an IBM 7000, set up a competitor’s device, or purchase extra 1401s. None of those options became fascinating. To trade to a bigger system required rewriting application, considering the fact that the historic application would no longer work on a distinct classification of desktop. The can charge of rewriting may conveniently exceed the financial benefits of moving to a bigger machine. Such a change also known as for retraining team of workers or hiring new group of workers typical with the new device. including more units of the equal gadget turned into equally unattractive as a result of each and every unit required replica team of workers, gadget, and preservation of hardware and application. shoppers desired systems that were “upgradable” or “compatible,” such that as their needs grew, they may bring in higher machines however nonetheless run the same software and peripheral gadget. within the Fifties and early Nineteen Sixties, it turned into a wish, and for vendors an aspiration.
IBM had worse complications than its customers did. The 1401s were proving so established that engineers in Endicott, N.Y., which had developed the gadget, resisted makes an attempt through their counterparts in Poughkeepsie to build bigger computer systems, leading to turning out to be competition between the two groups. As one engineer recalled, “So intense was it that every now and then it appeared to exceed the rivalry with exterior rivals.” systems made by using Poughkeepsie would not run courses written for the 1400 sequence. shoppers wanting to move from the smaller 1400s to the bigger Poughkeepsie machines put increasing pressure on IBM to deliver compatibility. Senior management had to contend with the expenses of sustaining R&D for a half-dozen incompatible product lines and practicing IBMers to sell and preserve so many programs.
Consensus grew that IBM needed to get down to one gadget to simplify creation, reduce the can charge of R&D, and be extra competitive in opposition t a growing array of opponents. If valued clientele needed to upgrade within the early Nineteen Sixties, they may just as quite simply circulate to a competitor’s machine, due to the fact they might must rewrite their utility anyway.
The vigour of compatibility was tested in the fall of 1960, when IBM added the more potent 1410 to exchange the 1401. utility and peripheral device for the 1401 labored with the newer computing device. purchasers and IBM earnings cherished that truth. Poughkeepsie’s engineers were near completing work on a collection of four computers known because the 8000s that were compatible with the 7000s.photograph: IBM To get the S/360 off the floor, T. Vincent Learson compelled engineering factions within IBM to cooperate.
T. Vincent Learson—known as Vin or T.V.—changed into in cost of future product construction as the vice president of producing and construction. A talented issue solver, he knew he needed to movement quickly to smash down the competition between Endicott and Poughkeepsie. IBM’s CEO on the time, Thomas J. Watson Jr., later described what took place: “He did it with the aid of applying a administration approach referred to as ‘abrasive interplay.’ This capability forcing individuals to swap aspects: taking the accurate engineer from the small-computer division and making him boss of the gold standard building crew within the massive-laptop division. a lot of people notion this made about as lots experience as electing Khrushchev president.”
Learson replaced the Poughkeepsie supervisor in cost of the 8000 venture with Bob O. Evans, who had served as the engineering manager for the 1401 and 1410. Evans liked compatibility across all future items. After 90 days in his new position, Evans informed that work on the 8000s be stopped and that each websites start working “to boost a total cohesive product line.” He additionally proposed a bold new base know-how for all future techniques, referred to as strong good judgment expertise (SLT), to make IBM’s machines more competitive.
Frederick P. Brooks Jr., who led the design crew for the 8000, fought lower back. Evans and Brooks have been ambitious opponents. both engineers both had years of event operating engineering and product development actions at IBM, and they were articulate and highly revered with the aid of their staffs and senior management. Brooks become not as excessive ranking as Evans, so Learson introduced in Jerrier A. Haddad, who had spent the outdated two years in can charge of the advanced Engineering development Division, to examine the proposed techniques of Evans and Brooks. Haddad counseled going with Evans’s ideas, and Learson killed the 8000 challenge in may also 1961.
Bob Evans automatically requested Brooks to boost the plan for a compatible household of computers. Brooks changed into flabbergasted, however he permitted, and with that both engineering communities stopped feuding and began collaborating. there have been still opponents within the business, however no remember—the trajectory towards a common system had been set.photos: IBM Bob O. Evans [left] suggested killing IBM’s higher 8000 mainframe in prefer of a new line of compatible computers. Frederick P. Brooks Jr. [middle], who led the 8000’s design, objected, but Jerrier A. Haddad [right] sided with Evans. Evans then requested Brooks to work on the brand new line, which grew to be the S/360.
Learson additionally assigned John W. Haanstra, president of the universal products Division, which produced the 1400s, to chair an internal assignment force known as unfold (for techniques Programming, analysis, Engineering, and development), with Evans as vice chair. Brooks later joined the assignment force. In December 1961, the neighborhood presented its technical techniques.
Their report referred to as for five appropriate computers, labeled processors (defined because the desktop, its memory, and channels to hook up with peripheral equipment). The software and peripherals for one processor have been to work with all different processors. The plan known as for using regular hardware and utility interfaces between computer systems and peripherals, corresponding to between disk drives and tape drives connecting to computers, in order that the peripherals did not must be swapped out when a brand new processor changed into put in. The options grew to become the foundation for the equipment/360.
as a result of so an awful lot would be new, the processors would not be suitable with IBM’s current items. That turned into an highly vital point. customers moving to the brand new IBM machines would need to rewrite existing software just once to get on the course of the new gadget.
Then, IBM obtained a lucky spoil. As one engineer wrote, “virtually miraculously [Evans’s] vision of the brand new product line changed into saved by means of a last-minute technical accomplishment. In mid-1963, engineers within the Poughkeepsie and Endicott laboratories had begun exploring the chance of adding particular microcode to the handle outlets of computers to improve their efficiency when simulating previous IBM computers.” This characteristic would enable 1401 application to run in the two smaller fashions of the proposed new system, only quicker. revenue got on board, and its executives began pressuring R&D and manufacturing management for early introduction of the brand new processors.
Watson recognized what became at stake, as he recalled in his memoirs:
From the beginning we faced two dangers, either of which turned into adequate to hold us awake at night. First there was the assignment of coordinating the hardware and application design work for the new line. We had engineering teams far and wide the united states and Europe working concurrently on six new processors and dozens of recent peripherals…however within the end all of this hardware would need to plug together. The software become a bigger hurdle nevertheless. in order for equipment/360 to have a common character, a whole lot of programmers had to write tens of millions of lines of desktop code. no one had ever tackled that complex a programming job, and the engineers had been below first rate drive to get it done.
A second set of complications involved manufacturing the digital accessories for the new systems. The electronics business became starting to work on built-in circuits, and the new computers had been going to be crammed with these new add-ons. To be impartial, IBM needed to make its personal. It proved to be an expensive proposition.
ultimately, the corporate administration committee, together with Watson and the board of directors, sucked in a deep breath and accepted the unfold thoughts. IBM turned into off to the races in the wildest experience of its heritage.
IBM could not conceal what became happening. New employees flocked to Endicott, Poughkeepsie, and different labs and flowers. valued clientele heard rumors, the desktop press changed into speculating, and executives at GE, Honeywell, Sperry Univac, and somewhere else were attempting to count on what IBM would do.
At IBM, no person seemed satisfied with development on the new device. Engineering, manufacturing, sales, and company staff have been in lots of situations working one hundred-hour weeks. Engineers moved cots into their workplaces. When Watson stopped in to peer how programming turned into going, an engineer yelled at him to get out so he could work. The chairman of IBM beat a hasty retreat.pictures: IBM On 7 April 1964, a teach from manhattan city’s Grand important Terminal shuttled newshounds to Poughkeepsie, the place IBM chairman Thomas J. Watson Jr. formally unveiled the system/360.
it all grew to be public at noon jap time within the u.s. on 7 April 1964. Over one hundred,000 valued clientele, reporters, and technologists met in one hundred sixty five U.S. cities, while others gathered round across the world the following few days to hear the information. As Watson declared at a press convention in Poughkeepsie, it changed into “the most vital product announcement in the business’s history.”picture: Mark Richards/laptop heritage Museum among the equipment/360’s 44 peripherals became the 2311 disk storage pressure. each detachable disk pack kept 7.25 megabytes.
On that day, IBM brought a mind-boggling one hundred fifty new items: 6 computers; 44 peripherals, together with tape drives, disk drives, printers, and manage instruments; and a promise to provide the application critical to make every little thing work together. the click packet turned into an inch thick, and manuals describing all the machines, components, software, and their setting up and operation crammed greater than 50 linear toes.
The vital feature of the gadget/360 became, of course, its compatibility. A transforming into statistics middle might set up a small 360 computer and later improve to a bigger one with out rewriting utility or replacing peripheral machine. as soon as accepted with the equipment, one didn't ought to learn a great deal greater to deal with an improve. The name 360 changed into chosen to suggest the idea of 360 levels, masking every thing.
in the first month following the S/360 announcement, customers global ordered over 100,000 systems. to place that number in viewpoint, in that identical 12 months in the united kingdom, all of Western Europe, the us, and Japan, there were somewhat more than 20,000 computers of any variety put in. the primary deliveries of the smaller machines had been promised for the third quarter of 1965, and deliveries of the greater ones in the first quarter of 1966. The delay between announcement and shipping date gave clients time to come to a decision which models to acquire, get them permitted and budgeted, plan on where to residence them, coach team of workers, comprehensive software remediation, and so on. With the April announcement, IBM purchased itself two years to make good on its promises and knock rivals back on their heels.
From 7 April to when the business started providing machines to clients, IBM entered essentially the most bad, severe, and challenging era of its background. The company spent US $5 billion (about $40 billion nowadays) to enhance the gadget/360, which on the time became greater than IBM made in a 12 months, and it would finally rent more than 70,000 new workers. every IBMer believed that failure supposed the dying of IBM.
As Watson later recalled, “now not all of the device on screen [on 7 April] was real; some units had been just mockups product of wood. We explained that to our visitors, so there was no deception. but it surely become a dangerous slicing of corners—now not the style I suppose company must be achieved—and an uncomfortable reminder to me of how a ways we had to go earlier than we might call the program a success.”
Watson assigned his brother, Arthur, to manage engineering and manufacturing going forward. Learson would run earnings for the new gadget, “twisting the tails of our salesmen.” Tom Watson Jr. thought Learson had the greater problematic assignment. The possibility of consumers changing to a person else’s machines in preference to to the S/360 enormously concerned Watson.photograph: IBM IBM promised to begin delivering the primary S/360 machines within the third quarter of 1965. construction complications emerged shortly.
as the variety of orders for the S/360 saved increasing, manufacturing turned into asked in 1965 to double creation. One production manager talked about it couldn't be finished and changed into changed. satisfactory declined. some of the digital circuits within an SLT, as an example, were not complete, so electrons couldn't go the place they had been purported to. through the conclusion of the yr, the fine manage department had impounded 25 p.c of all SLT modules, bringing construction to a halt.image: IBM With the S/360, IBM brought its solid good judgment technology (SLT), a precursor to integrated circuits. Doubling the production of the S/360 in 1965 resulted in defects in 1 / 4 of the SLT modules.
After the problems had been solved, manufacturing proceeded in 1966, resulting in ninety million SLT modules bring produced, compared to just 36 million the previous yr. IBM opened a brand new plant in East Fishkill, simply south of Poughkeepsie, which made greater semiconductor devices than all different manufacturers international mixed. production additionally improved to new amenities in Burlington, Vt., and in Corbeil-Essonnes, France.
To get to the bottom of manufacturing problems with the ferrite-core recollections, IBM install a plant in Boulder, Colo., in 1965. however it took the craftsmanship of worker's in Japan to get the production of memories up to the mandatory amounts and first-class.photograph: Mark Richards/desktop history Museum The S/360’s ferrite-core memory additionally proved extremely tricky to manufacture. This airplane contains 1,536 memory cores.
As manufacturing grew to be a world effort, new complications arose in coordinating actions and fabricating machines. Arthur Watson had some adventure managing IBM’s small factories backyard the us however none with resolving engineering problems, not to mention big world complications in construction and manufacturing. He turned into out of his league, and his brother challenged him to resolve the problems. meanwhile, Learson and his earnings teams wanted extra advancements to the product line. members of the family between Learson and Arthur absolutely deteriorated. In October 1964, IBM announced significant delays in transport products.
Tom removed Arthur from his job and grew to become over his duties to Learson, who in turn brought in 4 engineering managers to punch in the course of the problems. Nicknamed the “four horsemen,” that they had full authority international for getting the S/360 manufactured and brought to shoppers. Their collection of complications, probably the most managers mentioned later, turned into “an absolute nightmare,” “a grey blur of 24-hour days, seven days per week—certainly not being home.” And yet, in five months, that they had labored out satisfactory of the complications to start assembly delivery dates. In January 1966, Learson grew to be president of IBM.photos: IBM dealing with unacceptable production delays, Learson introduced in [left to right] Henry E. Cooley, Clarence E. Frizzell, John W. Gibson, and John Haanstra, who sorted out manufacturing issues international and got the S/360 lower back on the right track.
Arthur changed into shunted into the role of vp. His profession was damaged, and he retired in 1970. In his memoirs, Tom Watson Jr. admitted to being in a virtually continual panic from 1964 to 1966 and deeply regretted his treatment of Arthur. “I felt nothing however disgrace and frustrations on the way I’d handled him…. because it was, we remade the desktop trade with the device/360, and objectively it changed into the most fulfilling triumph of my business career. but on every occasion I seem to be again on it, I feel about my brother I injured.”
utility issues additionally slowed production of the 360. The application building workforce was described as being in “disarray” as early as 1963. The working equipment, known as OS/360, struggled to run multiple job at a time, which turned into standard to making the S/360 quickly and productive. different issues surfaced with telecommunications and with software courses. Programming assist became an additional contentious challenge.
Fred Brooks volunteered to assist, and IBM introduced 1,000 individuals to the working system task, costing the company more for software in one year than had been deliberate for the whole development of the S/360 system. however throwing extra programmers at the venture did not aid. in accordance with the S/360 adventure, Brooks would later extend on that theme in the mythical Man-Month (Addison-Wesley, 1975), nonetheless one of the crucial most generally read books on computing. The software would take years to comprehensive, however within the end it labored neatly sufficient to maintain the delivery lengthen to 1 month.photo: IBM A system/360 arrives at Tokai financial institution in Japan. Demand for computing grew incredibly in the years following the S/360’s launch.
despite the fees and anxiety, in 1965—the year IBM had committed to transport the primary contraptions to customers—it managed “via some miracle” (Watson’s phrases) to bring a whole bunch of medium-size S/360s. Their best did not all the time fit the long-established design specifications. Shortages of materials, different elements that did not work, and utility full of bugs spread to many international locations. almost each preliminary customer encountered issues.
department offices have been hiring systems engineers to support. SEs have been school graduates, usually with technical levels, who knew the way to debug utility and assisted the earnings force in promoting and aiding computer systems. The SEs heroically tackled S/360’s software complications, while field engineers, who installed device, fastened hardware complications. Salesmen calmed their purchasers, while department managers worked to retain their staffs inspired and focused.
And regardless of the various issues, “shoppers have been still ordering 360s quicker than we could build them,” Watson recalled, forcing delivery dates out as a great deal as three years. by using the end of 1966, clients had taken start of 9 fashions of the S/360, for a total of seven,700.
IBM’s opponents replied. Burroughs, GE, Honeywell, NCR, and Sperry Rand, operating largely within the united states, CII in France, and ICT (later ICI) in first-rate Britain delivered programs appropriate with one another’s machines, however not appropriate with IBM’s. A 2d, smaller neighborhood selected to manufacture machines that have been compatible with IBM’s, together with RCA and others in Europe and Japan, counting on RCA’s licenses.picture: IBM NASA purchased a few S/360s, including this one at Goddard space Flight middle. a few others at mission control in Houston have been used to display screen Apollo 11.
five years later, the worldwide stock of put in IBM computer systems had grown to $24 billion, while that of competitors had reached $9 billion. In different phrases, IBM’s S/360 accelerated average demand for computing so hugely that it raised all boats. The industry’s annual increase in the 2nd half of the Nineteen Sixties changed into in double digits 12 months over 12 months, as many thousands of businesses accelerated their use of computers. Demand for computing grew on account of the technological innovations brought forth via IBM, however additionally as a result of clients had been collecting sufficient journey to have in mind a pc’s price in riding down fees and performing new services.
IBM also grew, greater than doubling from 127,000 personnel global in 1962 to 265,000 by means of the end of 1971. revenue rose from $3.2 billion in 1964 to $8.2 billion in 1971.image: IBM The S/360 strengthened IBM’s domination of the world computing device business. One govt, requested even if the enterprise would ever tackle one more such assignment, answered, “Hell no, not ever again.”
because the S/360 become the heart of a great deal computing with the aid of the conclusion of the Nineteen Sixties, its clients constituted an international of their personal. lots of programmers most effective knew the way to use software that ran on S/360s. additional hundreds of facts-processing personnel had labored only with IBM machine, including keypunch machines, printers, tape drives, disk drives, and utility, which in many circumstances took years to grasp. with the aid of the early 1970s the computing area was largely an IBM world on each side of the Atlantic, in the emerging markets in Latin america, and in Japan.
Years later, when requested no matter if IBM would ever have interaction in such a massive undertaking once more, one govt barked out, “Hell no, by no means once again.” Watson tilted towards an identical response. Commenting in 1966, he said, “At our dimension, we can’t go one hundred percent with anything else new once again,” which means anything that large. After the 360, Watson made it a coverage “on no account to announce a new know-how so we can require us to commit more than 25 percent of our construction to that know-how.”
The generation that brought out the S/360 remained wonderful in the enterprise, a different clan bonded ferociously to IBM. Careers had been made and damaged, own lives and marriages upended. IBMers didn't recognize at the time how greatly their items would trade the world, but we do.
this article is according to excerpts from IBM: the rise and Fall and Reinvention of a worldwide Icon (MIT Press, 2019).
James W. Cortada is a senior analysis fellow on the school of Minnesota’s Charles Babbage Institute. He labored at IBM for 38 years in sales, consulting, managerial, and research positions.
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Most companies are trying to squeeze more work out of fewer people -- and are in no position to pick up the slack a bad employee can cause. The result: you can't afford to recruit and hire the old way. Here's what smart CEOs are doing instead
A few months back Tom Garrison was shopping for an anniversary present for his wife. He found himself in a jewelry store with a friendly salesclerk who showed him a beautiful, but pricey, diamond-studded bracelet. When Garrison balked at the price, the clerk asked him how long he'd been married. Twenty-one years, he said. Well, wait a minute, she gently pointed out: "This bracelet costs only $143 for every year you've been married."
It may be the oldest trick in the jewelry-retailing book, but Garrison, president of Brown, Moore and Flint, a Dallas-based food broker, thought the clerk "really had a good soft approach." In the end he walked out with the jewelry. More important, he says, he left with the name of someone who might make a good employee at his company.
Click. This little episode seems like the quintessential hiring story. Something just clicked, we say. We don't know exactly why, but the job applicant seems right. Or wrong. Or something in between. When it comes to hiring, in fact, many of us are in murky territory. Sure, we look at job experience. Education? Naturally. But a good part of our decision rests on a shadowy collection of vague impressions. We call it intuition, chemistry, a gut reaction.
Others call it a crapshoot. And Garrison, for one, doesn't believe in it. His apparently casual contact with the jewelry clerk was actually part of a painstakingly choreographed process to steer a certain kind of person into his company. He had to learn the hard way -- when lack of customer confidence in his people put his business at risk -- that hiring isn't just another operational necessity, like collecting receivables or marketing. In fact, apart from actually conceiving the idea for your business, hiring those who will bring that idea to life is the single most consequential step you take. With every person you hire, you determine how great your potential successes may be -- or how awful your failures. And if it's always been true that a company's prospects are defined by its work force, it's equally true that now its work force defines them more than ever.
Think about it: when a company lays off workers and runs more lean, each worker has a greater effect on the company's performance; each employee becomes more important. And it's not just the demand for more elbow grease that's raised the stakes in every staffing decision you make. These days you need workers to perform more than their obvious duties -- you need workers who can offer perceptions about your customers, or insights into your production process. In these resource-parched times, an order clerk who can pinch-hit as a salesperson, analyze operations like a consultant, and communicate like a leader would fit the bill nicely.
And if you were to say your business can't afford to sustain the disciplined, continuous recruiting process needed to find such people -- that it's too short on management time, energy, or money -- then we'd argue that you can't afford not to.
Consider the downside of getting it wrong -- the price of a mishire. The tangible costs are obvious: salary, fringe benefits, recruitment and training expenses. According to Michael Riordan, president of Riordan and Associates, a Kansas City management-consulting firm, a salesperson who lasts six months in an office-products dealership, for example, would cost the company about $17,000.
Not a very threatening number, true. But then tally the intangible expenses: the time you, the manager, invest in that person; lost sales opportunities; loss of morale on the sales team. Riordan says such costs can come to seven times the purely tangible losses, bringing the price tag of this particular bad hire to $136,000.
That multiplier may be hard to believe until you consider the ripple effect of the bad hire in your marketplace. "First of all the guy doesn't work out. He does not take care of the customer," says Mike Koether, president of Infincom, an office-equipment distributor in Phoenix that has 5,000 to 6,000 customer contacts each month. "He eludes the team's efforts and erodes the manager's confidence. What looks like a $1,500-a-month hiring mistake becomes a lot more expensive when you multiply that with my annual turnover and the number of customers that are let down."
The cruelest cost, however, is the most subtle: the loss of what might have been. In wrongful-death and personal-injury legal cases, lawyers sometimes argue that their client has suffered "hedonic loss." That means that not only has the client experienced the obvious costs -- forgone income, medical expenses, and pain and suffering -- but he or she has also lost the enjoyment of life. Similarly, our mishired salesperson has cost you all the positive things that would have occurred had you hired the perfect candidate: a reenergized sales team, a fresh flow of new product ideas, your next vice-president of operations -- who knows?
So what do you do to find and hire perfection? Begin by renovating the hiring strategy you carry around in your mind. If you're like most managers, it's a strategy that's antique -- we want to hire someone who's done the job before. This logical-sounding idea springs from an earlier time, when companies were hierarchical, labor was plentiful, and technology was slow moving. You needed a pair of hands that would do what you asked. Job experience equaled competence.
As mass production has given way to customized products and services, and technology has shouldered a greater portion of the work, business's needs have changed radically. A pair of hands is by no means enough. Managers rely more heavily on workers' insights and initiatives. A successful service business depends as much on the attitudes of its employees as on their technical skills.
In this context, evaluating job applicants on the basis of their education and previous work experience is myopic -- like looking at a candidate through a peephole when you could open the door for a full view. Some business owners go so far as to say you should be wary of these old standbys. "Looking at rÃ©sumÃ©s and experience is a trap," claims Bruce Male, president of TravCorps, a temporary-nurse service in Malden, Mass.
The pickiest companies we found aim to do what might be called holistic hiring. They believe that a person's behavior, interests, and personality are crucial contributors to his or her success or failure in a job. So they have found a way to decipher this soft data, to decode the click. Some use personality tests -- though they avoid calling them that. Some use activity tests of their own design. Some don't use tests at all. But all strive to objectify the subjective.
There are other components to successful hiring -- hundreds of them, in fact. But to do it well, you can't pluck a few scattered techniques. What's needed is a comprehensive system that starts, above all, with the premise that hiring is an ongoing process, a constant investment of your company's time and energy whether or not you have a job to fill. The rewards are handsome -- in most cases far greater than you might expect.
The penalty for not elevating hiring to number one on your company's priority list? You systematically shortchange your company's potential, as Jim Fuchs, president of Fuchs Copy Systems Inc., in Milwaukee, knows all too well. "We were reactive. All of a sudden we would lose an employee. We'd jump right into action and say, 'We've got to hire quick.' Six candidates come in and we hire one. Chances are, they're not a good fit, but we hire the best of the worst -- we hire out of desperation."
Step One: Recruit All the Time
Constant recruiting is what makes the difference between hiring the best of the worst and hiring the best for the job. Very simply, it is forward-looking, ensuring that the pipeline of high-quality candidates is full when you have an opening. Does that mean advertising continuously? Definitely not, according to Tom Garrison, the Dallas food broker. "People who read ads are looking for a job. We are looking for people who aren't looking for a job -- they're happy and productive where they are. When we find that person, we try to sell him on why he should work here," he says.
Garrison and his retail managers call their technique "center of influence" recruiting. When Garrison runs across someone -- such as the aforementioned jewelry clerk -- that he thinks he'd love to have as an employee, or conversely, that he himself would like to work for, he engages her in a conversation about his industry. "If she's excited, if we see she's reading us, then we move into why Brown, Moore and Flint is a good place to work."
Then Garrison begins describing the characteristics he looks for in a job candidate and asks his newly minted center of influence to be on the lookout for anyone fitting the description. Now that 10 or so Brown, Moore and Flint managers have been seeding the area with centers of influence for six years, Garrison gets four or five calls a week regarding potential candidates. Good scouts may come from anywhere; some of the food broker's best recruiters are its clients. Sometimes the recruiters are so sold on the company that they decide to apply for jobs themselves.
Not only did Garrison build a pipeline to future employees, he was careful about its placement. As a result he taps a labor pool that isn't traditional for his industry. Adina Marcheschi did the same thing even before her pipeline was in place. Her recruiting problem: people were turned off by the two most visible characteristics of her company -- it's in the head-hunting business, and it pays commissions only. "A lot of times when people called in response to our ad, they'd say they weren't interested as soon as I mentioned the word commission," she recounts.
Yet she knew that visitors often fell in love with the company's young, open environment. So two years ago, when her fast-growing firm, CPS Employment Services Network Inc., in Westchester, Ill., had a handful of openings, she decided to hold an open house; it attracted people who might not have responded to a conventional ad. Sixty prospects were led through a casual but carefully structured introduction to the company. Each attendee watched a video, was screened by a manager, and filled out an abbreviated application form.
To get at an entirely different group of prospective employees -- those who did not respond to the open-house invitation -- Marcheschi asked attendees to refer her to other people who might be interested in her company. All told, an ad and the open house yielded more than 100 applicants, 5 of whom were hired. "When you need to hire a lot of people quickly, it's your best way to do it," she asserts.
Step Two: Write a Real Job Description
We think this little piece of homework is the single best thing you can do to hire well. That's right, write a good job description. It may sound like a bureaucratic nuisance you don't want anything to do with, but that's not the kind of job description we mean. We're talking about reaching an understanding of a position that goes far beyond a list of duties.
The reason that is so critical? If you have real intimacy with what's required in a particular job, you are disciplined to look for someone who matches the description. Without a blueprint, managers will usually hire the person they like the best who's done the job before. "Most often we make the mistake of hiring in our own image," says TravCorps' Bruce Male.
He recently crafted a job description that dramatically altered the kind of person he hired for a key position -- the manager of TravCorps' growing information-systems department. "Initially, I thought that I needed someone who had technical mastery," recalls Male. Then he defined the job in terms of its objective -- what would be the result of hiring the right person? What he wanted, he realized, was someone who could develop the department and discern what the rest of the company required of it. He needed a nurturer and communicator -- not an inspired computer hacker.
To continue building a profile, define the traits needed to succeed in the job. At Advanced Network Design, a third-party telecommunications handler in La Mirada, Calif., managers begin by writing down a list of actions a person will undertake in the job. Then they itemize the behavior necessary to execute those activities successfully. Finally, they concoct a script for the interview: "You write open-ended questions that will get people to discuss their previous work history in such a way as to disclose whether they have those traits," explains Dave Wiegand, the company's president.
The conventional job description, for example, focuses on activities. Here's the traditional salesperson's job description: generate and close new sales, make 15 cold calls a week, write call reports, and attend weekly sales meetings. Sound familiar? Obviously, there's nothing inaccurate about the description, but it leaves you clueless to find someone who will be a good salesperson. You're stuck, essentially, with just looking for a candidate who has done those five activities before.
In contrast, Wiegand's job description for a salesperson consists of 17 behavioral traits. One of them is healthy "self-talk," the mental dialogue we have with ourselves. To uncover that characteristic, Wiegand might ask the applicants what they would say to a fellow salesperson who was getting a lot of rejections and having difficulty making appointments. "By twisting the situation around and suggesting that they're helping others, you are discovering what they say to themselves," says Wiegand. What he wants to hear is a buck-up-and-keep-going speech to the imaginary colleague; he believes the inclination toward that response, rather than empathetic pessimism, is a key predictor of a salesperson's success.
A first step to constructing a truly useful job description: itemize the patterns of behavior of your most successful employee in each job class. Then revise that list as you get better at hiring. Over time, it will become a valuable recipe. At Millard Manufacturing, a food-processing-equipment manufacturer in Omaha, job profiles are reviewed, discussed, and tinkered with every time a position is filled. One personality trait may be replaced with another. Brown, Moore and Flint's Garrison considers his job profiles such an important template that he keeps the master copies in his desk.
Step Three: Interview According to Plan
After prescreening with minimum requirements and a five-minute interview, the serious interviewing is at hand. When preparing for interviews and while doing them, there are two things to think about. The first is what you probably already concentrate on -- the actual interchange between you and the aspiring employee. The second is your overall interview strategy. That usually neglected part of hiring involves choosing how many interviews you'll give each applicant, how long they'll last, the purpose of each, and who will conduct them.
Look first at how your approach might contrast with those of your competitors. Ari Weinzweig, co-owner of Zingerman's, a delicatessen in Ann Arbor, Mich., attributes his success in hiring to interview standards that are much higher than others in his industry. "To do three interviews is almost unheard of, and for the owner to do one of them is real different," he explains. Turnover at Zingerman's is half what its competitors suffer.
The strategy at Advanced Network is to market the position to applicants -- "We really make them fight for the job," says Wiegand. When a candidate walks through the door for the first time, he or she is handed a piece of paper that describes the multifaceted hiring process. The list of hoops that applicants will have to jump through is introduced this way: "As you may know, the selection process at Advanced Network Design is tough. If you are up to the challenge, then here are the steps to take. . . ." They include an application form, a basic math and filing test, a 10-to 15-minute meeting with the president, and an in-depth interview.
Think, too, about the variety and texture of your interviews. Tom Garrison includes a home interview in the lineup. Coming at the end of the process, this meeting with the candidate's spouse isn't so much an interview as another window into the applicant's soul. "I don't care what the house looks like," explains Garrison. "I just want to know that the husband or wife is supportive in this move."
Of course, interviews with the candidate are what are most critical. Doing a good job here is tricky because of one unalterable fact about those presumably polite interchanges: you want to get under the applicant's skin, and he doesn't want you to.
Because you're in the position of power, you can take your pick of techniques that encourage the truth to surface. Time is a key ally. Tom Garrison's main interview lasts two to five hours and contains carefully timed peaks and valleys. After reviewing with candidates the results of a personality quiz, Garrison asks them to start with high school and describe their experiences up to the present.
"When you're talking about yourself, that's an upper," says Garrison. "Then we take the candidates on a downhill portion of the roller coaster." He will express concern with certain of the quiz's findings. The applicants must defend themselves. After a bit of that, Garrison says, "Let me tell you a little more about the job." That sends the applicants' spirits soaring again, because they figure they might get an offer.
After a few ups and downs, says Garrison, "you'll see their role playing come down. They'll say, 'Let me tell you the truth about something." Advanced Network's Wiegand, who says interviews must last between 45 minutes and 90 minutes to scratch the surface, concurs. "Once they hit that point, you can ask incredible questions about their job history and they'll just tell you."
Your other key interviewing tool: listening. In order to do that well, you need to know in advance what you want to hear. This is where your carefully crafted job description comes in, becoming a blueprint for the interview. Take your script of questions or list of behaviors into the interview and pose follow-up questions until the trait is uncovered. Don't concentrate on candidates' descriptions of their actions as much as you listen for the attitude or preference you're trying to uncover. Where possible, ask for examples from the past. It's too easy to make up wonderful responses about a hypothetical case.
Millard Manufacturing's Ron Parks is one of the most disciplined listeners we found. He first devised a list of questions that uncover behavioral traits and are also hard for applicants to see through. Then he trained himself and his managers to listen for linguistic patterns, as well as content, in their answers.
For example, to discover an applicant's chief means of learning and relating to any task, Parks will ask, "How do you know if a coworker is doing a good job?" There's no right answer. Parks simply wants to find out what kind of "proof" is offered. If the applicant says she can simply see the results of a good job, she is dominantly sight-oriented, as most people in the world are. Others are hearing-oriented, and still others are reading-oriented.
To find out whether a person enjoys a lot of detail in a job or prefers a more general, big-picture orientation, Parks listens to the specificity in a response. Asked what part of a job gave him the greatest gratification, one fellow said, "Installing chicken cookers." Then he corrected himself and said, "No, installing big machines." To Parks's ears that means: "This is a very general guy. Even though installing a chicken cooker is a very broad description of a job, it was too specific for him. He's going to make lots of detail mistakes if we force too much of it on him."
Remember the purpose of interviewing: to get and give information. The process you construct should aim to collect data on what some call horizontal and vertical planes. Horizontal information, such as a candidate's schooling and background, isn't very hard to discover, but you need a sizable amount of it to begin to make your decision. Vertical information plumbs the depths of a candidate's personality, and it will determine who gets the job.
Step Four: Do Use Personality Tests
Personality testing is one tool that some of the best hirers use to probe vertical, or soft, data. Yet it's probably the most controversial issue in hiring. Understandably, too. No one likes the idea of his or her dazzlingly unique self being reduced to a test score or personality type. Tests of hard skills, such as typing, spelling, carpentry, and machine operations are fine. But our predispositions? "There's a constituency that feels it is un-American -- a breach of privacy," says Infincom's Koether, who asks candidates to fill out an "interest analysis."
Here's how to get over that hurdle: Assume there are no bad or good workers. There are, however, a lot of people in the wrong job. Consider the supervisor of a sophisticated inventory of 50,000 parts who can't stand detail or repetitive tasks, for example. Is he a happy man? No. And no sane manager would have put him there if she'd known about his preferences. The best personality tests don't produce answers; they produce a profile of leading indicators about someone. And the best use of the profile is to supplement or confirm what you have already learned.
Koether doesn't use the interest analysis until he's already sure the person has the capacity -- or "can-do," in his terminology -- to do the job. Further interviewing and the analysis provide a glimpse into an applicant's "will-do" -- his or her inclination to do the job successfully. Koether says that when he discusses the results of interest analysis with candidates, "9 times out of 10 they say, 'Yeah, that's me.' "
If you accurately assess a person's soft skills, the payoff is enormous. You've not only landed a productive employee but freed the employee's manager to do constructive, rather than remedial, coaching. "The first mistake that anybody in management makes is to assume that through training, incentives, or disciplinary action, you can change people who are not doing the job right. People can change, but in the end, we think, most people won't," Koether says.
To implement testing in your company, decide whether you want to create your own or buy an established test. Either way, be judicious; a test must be technically sound, be appropriate for the job and company involved, and comply with a slew of government regulations, including the new civil-rights act. The American Psychological Association suggests company owners contact the psychology department of a local university to find an industrial psychologist who can make recommendations.
Step Five: Keep Score with the Right Goals in Mind
Score your candidates immediately after seeing them, and make sure the same -- preferably senior -- person is seeing all the candidates for any one position. Assuming you have two or three candidates that have the characteristics to succeed in the job, the final piece of the puzzle is how well they will fit into your team or your company's culture. Look at whether the candidate has similar goals and how well his or her personality traits will mesh with existing employees'. Grade according to that as well, or compose questions to probe further.
The most important thing to remember while doing evaluations is that you are matching a person to a job profile, not comparing candidates with one another. "Comparison works OK if the worst candidates are sixes and sevens, and you select an eight," explains consultant Riordan. "But if the worst is a two and the best is a four, then you have a problem."
Another quality-control feature: make your decision based on a candidate's weakest score. Let's say you've graded a job candidate in three areas, as Riordan and Infincom's Koether do: she scores eight in her capacity to do the job, another eight for her behavioral preferences in a job, and a six on how well she fits the company team. Says Riordan: "Many selection processes would say, Well, you've got two eights -- hire her. I say, wrong. The smallest number will always bring the other two down. Your lowest number should be a seven or above."
Step Six: Finally, Check References Anyway
By this point, you won't be eager to do reference checking. After all, you've already worked so hard to get the right person that you don't really want to know if there's a problem. What's more, if you've been systematic in every other part of the hiring process, reference checking won't turn up anything you don't already know.
Still, do it. But to make it worthwhile, be sure to reach beyond the references -- acquaintances and former bosses -- that the applicant expects you to call. Ask those references for further references for the candidate, then call them.
* * *
Your biggest reward for creating and following a good hiring process will surprise you. It won't be the lower turnover or other concrete results you set out to secure -- though you'll likely achieve them. It will be this: if you hire the right way, you will manage your people better than ever before. You won't be able not to. You'll know precisely what motivates them, where they're likely to make mistakes, and how to package your feedback.
So while Infincom's turnover dropped dramatically when Koether altered his hiring practices a mere three years after starting the company, he doesn't rave about that. He says: "It gave us a common language among all our different disciplines. And talk about capacity to produce -- we went from zero in sales to $25 million in nine years."
Millard's Ron Parks knows which of his workers need to be assigned their machine-tooling jobs sequentially, rather than all at once at the beginning of the day. He knows which need continual external reinforcement and which would be insulted by such compliments. Understanding his new hires better begot an entirely new management style. Explains Parks: "Certain personality events used to make me angry. Now I understand that sometimes people can't help it. As long as I hire right, I don't have to put 80% of my energy into trying to change employees. I play to their strengths and subsidize their weaknesses."
Violins in various stages of completion lie scattered around violin maker Charles Rufino’s home workshop in Dix Hills.
Warm russet, amber and honey patinas color the nearly finished and varnished models, while pieces of bare wood glued and clamped together inside forms show the beginning stages of new instruments. Nearly completed violins and violas hang by their scrolls from a rack, awaiting finishing touches.
Rufino, 66, sits in the light of a south-facing window at his carpet-covered workbench. His tools surround the bench and line two walls; a segmented box holding knives for doing delicate scroll and cutting work sits within reach.
“I’m trying to do this one thing well,” he said, waving around his workshop at the violin forms, tools and instruments in progress. “I enjoy the awareness when I’m working and shaping and cutting the wood. I’m the luckiest man I know.”
While he talks, Rufino uses a woodcarver’s gouge to channel the edge of a violin in progress, one of the many steps in making a member of the orchestral string family, which includes violins, violas and cellos.
A visit with him to discuss his work turns into a run-through of the history of violin making and violin makers, along with a healthy side of technical information on wood types, measurements and techniques.
Rufino is a luthier, the name for those who craft stringed instruments that also can include guitars. Violins — unlike guitars, which have ends and sides flush with the top and back — have a curled, overhanging edge of about an eighth of an inch.Get the Breaking News newsletter!
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“It protects the side from a lot of damage that guitars do get,” Rufino said.
The edge of the violin is highlighted by a narrow decorative inlay called purfling. The purfling — two bands of black-dyed pear wood that sandwich a strip of white aspen for contrast — shows a maker’s skill and mastery, particularly how the points join in the corner.
When the violin is nearly finished, Rufino applies an oil varnish to it, based on a recipe he has developed over the years, made of natural plant resins mixed with drying oils.
Making a violin takes six to eight weeks of work, all told, Rufino estimates. “It’s not in a straight line,” he said. “You’ve got to be totally on your game. Sometimes you just don’t feel like doing it. That’s what makes it art.”
He has made several hundred instruments, the majority of them violins — but also violas and cellos — since he began training in 1974 after leaving New York University, where he had been a classics and history major. He had responded to an ad in the Village Voice to help build a house in Maine. He didn’t get paid, but he was able to live on a 100-acre property during construction. When the job was done Rufino returned to New York and worked as a carpenter, but found it wasn’t enough of a challenge. He wanted an apprenticeship where he could “study and learn secrets that didn’t come out of a book.”
“I’ve never looked back,” Rufino said. He first explored different options, visiting furniture makers, harpsichord makers and the late New York City guitar maker James D’Aquisto.
“I knew I wanted to work with wood, and then I got bit by the violin bug,” he said.
Rufino signs and dates his instruments, writing “Ad maiorem dei gloriam” (To the greater glory of God) inside his violins. The tagline ties back to his faith and family — both his wife and daughter have master’s degrees in theology — and his fondness for his wife’s uncle, who was a Jesuit priest. “We are a family of God-lovers,” Rufino said.
“I’ve been given astounding gifts and opportunities here, and I’m responsible to a higher power to fulfill what has been given to me,” he added. “It’s not just about me.”
Rufino apprenticed at the Newark School of Violin Making in England and also studied at the London workshops of J & Arthur Beare Ltd. and W.E. Hill & Sons.
After graduating, he returned to New York in 1977 and trained under luthier V.Y. “Nigo” Nigogosian, who also was a master violin restorer. In 1980, Rufino began a 4-year apprenticeship with Carl Becker & Son of Chicago.
He opened his own studio in 1984, on Broadway near Columbus Circle in Manhattan, making violins, violas and cellos, and also helped Nigogosian establish the Oberlin Restoration Workshops in 1986, where violin and bow makers study restoration and learn new techniques.
Rufino, who also plays viola in the North Shore Symphony Orchestra, is a member of the American Federation of Violin and Bow Makers and is on the executive committee of the International Society of Violin and Bow Makers.HE ALSO SELLS RETAIL
While violin making is his passion, one he runs under the Charles J. Rufino Violin Maker name, Rufino’s Long Island Violin Shops are what he calls his brasserie (an informal French restaurant), where he offers stringed instrument sales, lessons and repairs. Rufino initially did sales t students from his home, including after he closed his Manhattan workshop in 2004. He opened the Huntington store in 2008 and the East Setauket store in 2014. He plans to open a Smithtown store this year.
On a 1977 trip to Europe, Rufino bought wood he now uses to make his instruments, going for the sound that is made by spruce from the Alps in Italy and maple from Bosnia, searching for wood with the tonal characteristics that give violins their sound.
“If you want to make a supremely great instrument, you need great raw material,” he said.
You also need a design plan. Like any great chef or painter, luthiers start with the same raw ingredients and recipe, but the results differ.
“It’s not a formula,” Rufino said. “When you discover your voice or soul as a maker, you discover it’s OK to bring your life experience to creating this violin.”
Rufino said he considers the instruments he makes to be inspired by works of master luthiers in earlier generations, but not copies. “I want to be a maker of instruments for today and tomorrow,” he said.
Some of Rufino’s handcrafted violins can cost tens of thousands of dollars. While he enjoys making fine, handcrafted instruments, he notes that there is room for many options depending on budgets and a player’s needs.
A violinist who uses one of Rufino’s instruments sings its praises and the creator’s.
“I consider him one of the finest makers alive,” said Dale Stuckenbruck, 64, of West Hempstead, an adjunct professor of violin at LIU Post in Brookville and orchestra director at The Waldorf School of Garden City. “He’s had the best training possible and really does know what he’s doing. Historically, he’s very solidly rooted, and yet he’s making violins for the current generation, to meet our needs.”MODERN-DAY VIOLINS
The whole setup in instruments used today — from the tension to the tuning to the standard pitch — is different from what was needed to play in 17th and 18th century orchestras, Stuckenbruck said, adding that modern-day violins also must have enough projection to reach the back of far larger concert halls.
He has firsthand experience with how one of Rufino’s violins performs. The week before Christmas 1996, Stuckenbruck’s violin was stolen from his car parked in the driveway. As concertmaster of the “Victor, Victoria” orchestra on Broadway, he was due to play that night, and he also had a weekend performance scheduled at Lincoln Center’s former Avery Fisher Hall.
“Charles came in that night with a violin he was able to dedicate for my use,” Stuckenbruck recalled. “It was a competitive violin that I was able to use in my solos, my chamber music and in recording sessions with my colleagues. I felt comfortable with it.”
A week later, police recovered and returned Stuckenbruck’s stolen violin, but he continued to use the Rufino. “I realized what Charles’ violin was doing for me, and I decided to sell the old one,” Stuckenbruck said.
Shem Guibbory, a first violinist with the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, bought a Rufino violin in 2007. He loved its sound during a blind sound test at the opera house in comparison with an Italian violin he considered selling.
Guibbory sat in the top rear of the hall and had a colleague on stage play excerpts from several works on both violins.
“On one song, I was certain Violin A sounded so much more present and warm and really caught my attention in the big hall of the Metropolitan Opera,” Guibbory said. “And I was kind of crestfallen, because I knew that was my Italian fiddle, and that made me think, ‘Well, I better not sell it.’ It turned out that was the Rufino! That really persuaded me. Plus, colleagues’ reactions were very strong.”
Guibbory said he has known Rufino since the late 1970s when Rufino studied with Nigogosian. During that time, he said he has observed consistency in sound from Rufino’s instruments.
“They’re beautifully crafted and they speak evenly and warmly in all the registers, so from the lowest notes to the highest notes there is a very smooth, even grade of sound,” Guibbory said.
Rufino likens his creations to “a Savile Row suit.”
“I like to think they’re instruments that stand up to the heroic instruments of the past,” he said.THE LONG ISLAND VIOLIN SHOPS
8 Elm St. Huntington
250 Main St. East Setauket
The stores handle equipment sales and rentals, and offer lessons. Owner Charles Rufino also is available to do a PowerPoint presentation, The Art and Lore of the Violin, for interested groups about the history of the violin, tapping his perspective as a maker and historical researcher. Teachers interested in learning instrument repair techniques can inquire for information on summer workshops.
— Kay Blough
By Kay Blough Special to Newsday
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