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000-834 - Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design) - Dump Information

Vendor : IBM
Exam Code : 000-834
Exam Name : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)
Questions and Answers : 180 Q & A
Updated On : April 19, 2019
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000-834 Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)

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000-834 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)

Test Code : 000-834
Test Name : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 180 Real Questions

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IBM Object Oriented Analysis and

Object-Oriented evaluation and Design | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the ebook 

analysis emphasizes an investigation of the problem and requirements, as opposed to a solution. for example, if a new on-line trading system is preferred, how will it be used? What are its functions?

"evaluation" is a wide time period, most desirable certified, as in requirements evaluation (an investigation of the requirements) or object-oriented evaluation (an investigation of the area objects).

Design emphasizes a conceptual answer (in utility and hardware) that fulfills the necessities, rather than its implementation. as an example, a description of a database schema and application objects. Design concepts often exclude low-level or "evident" details—obtrusive to the supposed patrons. finally, designs can also be applied, and the implementation (equivalent to code) expresses the actual and complete realized design.

As with evaluation, the term is ideal qualified, as in object-oriented design or database design.

valuable analysis and design had been summarized in the phrase do the correct factor (analysis), and do the issue appropriate (design).


UNICOM Nabs Versant for Object-Oriented Databases | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

UNICOM accelerated into the object oriented database information realm this month when it announced plans to purchase Versant, a publicly traded developer of a couple of object-oriented databases, for roughly $32 million.

situated in 1988 as Object Sciences Corp., Versant become an early proponent of object oriented databases, which store facts as objects. Object database management techniques (ODBMS) deliver efficiency merits over relational database management programs (RDBMS) in powering purposes that are written in object oriented languages and require storing of complex objects.

Versant’s first product become the Versant Object Database (VOD), which started to profit steam within the early 1990s and is still actively developed nowadays. VOD runs on Unix, Linux, and home windows operating methods, and excels at running applications with excessive concurrency and efficiency necessities such as buying and selling structures, telecom community management systems, airline and inn reservation techniques, and risk evaluation for banks, based on the Wikipedia entry on Versant.

Versant changed its name to Versant Object know-how in 1993, went public on the NASDAQ trade in 1996, and altered its identify to Versant Corp. in 1999. In 2004, it acquired Poet application, the German developer of an ODBMS called FastObjects. In 2008 Versant bought a further ODBMS, known as db40, which is an open supply ODBMS assignment centered in 2000 by using Carl Rosenberger.

these days, Versant continues to sell and increase VOD, FastObjects, and db40. The company has struggled to generate sales over the remaining a few years, as revenues have dropped from $25.3 million in 2008 to about $16.3 million ultimate yr. The company, which is based mostly in Redwood metropolis, California, has remained profitable, youngsters, and continues to enhance new utility and are looking for new shoppers and OEM partnerships with ISVs.

Versant’s board approved the sale to UNICOM. The deal requires Versant shareholders to be paid $11.50 per average share, a 17 % top class on Versant’s closing expense on September 28. The transaction is anticipated to complete earlier than the conclusion of Versant’s current quarter ending January 31, 2013. Versant is free to are seeking option offers through October 29.

“This merger will deliver premium value and liquidity to Versant’s shareholders. Versant is worked up to associate with UNICOM to proceed to expand the enterprise’s market management place,” cited Versant president and CEO Bernhard Woebker in a statement.

The sentiment became echoed via Corry Hong, founder, president, and CEO of Mission Hills, California-primarily based UNICOM, who mentioned that Versant’s Redwood city and Hamburg places of work “will boost our existing presence in each California and Germany.”

UNICOM has acquired a few utility organizations over the final a number of years, including SoftLanding methods, a developer of change management software for the IBM i server.

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SoftLanding programs obtained by CICS expert Unicom systems

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Frenemies: a brief historical past of Apple and IBM Partnerships | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

notwithstanding Apple and IBM have had their share of fights over the years, this week's deal isn't their first pairing.

IBM Apple Merger

Steve Jobs battled a few tech competitors, however within the early 80s, his ire became largely directed at IBM. The professional squabble dates returned to at least 1981 with Apple's "Welcome, IBM. critically" ad, and seemingly ended simply yesterday with a joint agreement to convey IBM's commercial enterprise software to iOS contraptions later this yr. but while the organizations have certainly clashed over the ultimate 30 years, the day prior to this's pairing became not the first time these two behemoths have teamed up.

Take AIMJust 10 years after the first salvo become fired between Apple and IBM, the two joined with Motorola in 1991 to strengthen a standard for the PowerPC architecture that might go against the Microsoft-Intel Wintel alliance. The Apple-Intel-Motorola (purpose) crew took IBM's vigour guide set architecture and grew to become it right into a buyer-friendly version that turned into manufactured with the aid of IBM and Motorola and used in Apple's Macintosh line from 1994 to 2006, when Apple - to which Jobs returned in 1997 - transitioned to Intel-based machines.

"it's been ten years due to the fact that our transition to the PowerPC, and we consider Intel's expertise will help us create the top-quality personal computer systems for the next ten years," Jobs talked about in announcing the circulation.

From OS to Oh NoIn the late 80s, Apple changed into working on an object-oriented operating equipment, codenamed pink. but it surely changed into having quandary pulling it all collectively. in the wake of the goal alliance, Apple turned to IBM for tips, and pink become reborn as a joint challenge referred to as Taligent with IBM's Joe Guglielmi on the helm.

The Taligent construction crew worked away for 2 years, ultimately switching from an object-oriented OS to an object-oriented programming ambiance that might work on any contemporary OS. but despite help from Hewlett-Packard, Taligent all but fizzled by means of the mid-90s. Guglielmi left the company for Motorola in 1995, and after his successor, Dick Guarino, died of a heart assault later that 12 months, Taligent grew to become simply an extra IBM subsidiary. It became formally dissolved in 1998.

Bullet and a TargetAfter being spurned by Microsoft on an object linking and embedding undertaking, Apple approached IBM about engaged on it collectively in 1992. It resulted in the OpenDoc word-processing application and browser however didn't have what it took to go against Java. When he again to Apple, Jobs "put a bullet via [OpenDoc's] head," as he noted.

The Enemy of My EnemyIn the closing two decades, Apple and IBM have taken separate paths. IBM jettisoned its computer business and concentrated firmly on the business, making headlines alongside the way for its artificial intelligence work on Watson. Apple, meanwhile, grew to be a consumer darling, with consumers lining up to nab the enterprise's newest phones and tablets. by means of coming lower back collectively, although, Apple delves further into the enterprise with a companion it is widespread in that space, whereas IBM gets to present up items with a definite "cool" element and tap into the Apple mystique.

For extra, take a look at Apple and IBM Bury the Hammer and IBM and Apple mean company.


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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)

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Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, part 2 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

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June 7, 2011

This article was contributed by Neil Brown

In the first part of this analysis we looked at how the polymorphic side of object-oriented programming was implemented in the Linux kernel using regular C constructs. In particular we examined method dispatch, looked at the different forms that vtables could take, and the circumstances where separate vtables were eschewed in preference for storing function pointers directly in objects. In this conclusion we will explore a second important aspect of object-oriented programming - inheritance, and in particular data inheritance.

Data inheritance

Inheritance is a core concept of object-oriented programming, though it comes in many forms, whether prototype inheritance, mixin inheritance, subtype inheritance, interface inheritance etc., some of which overlap. The form that is of interest when exploring the Linux kernel is most like subtype inheritance, where a concrete or "final" type inherits some data fields from a "virtual" parent type. We will call this "data inheritance" to emphasize the fact that it is the data rather than the behavior that is being inherited.

Put another way, a number of different implementations of a particular interface share, and separately extend, a common data structure. They can be said to inherit from that data structure. There are three different approaches to this sharing and extending that can be found in the Linux kernel, and all can be seen by exploring the struct inode structure and its history, though they are widely used elsewhere.

Extension through unions

The first approach, which is probably the most obvious but also the least flexible, is to declare a union as one element of the common structure and, for each implementation, to declare an entry in that union with extra fields that the particular implementation needs. This approach was introduced to struct inode in Linux-0.97.2 (August 1992) when

union { struct minix_inode_info minix_i; struct ext_inode_info ext_i; struct msdos_inode_info msdos_i; } u;

was added to struct inode. Each of these structures remained empty until 0.97.5 when i_data was moved from struct inode to struct ext_inode_info. Over the years several more "inode_info" fields were added for different filesystems, peaking at 28 different "inode_info" structures in 2.4.14.2 when ext3 was added.

This approach to data inheritance is simple and straightforward, but is also somewhat clumsy. There are two obvious problems. Firstly, every new filesystem implementation needs to add an extra field to the union "u". With 3 fields this may not seem like a problem, with 28 it was well past "ugly". Requiring every filesystem to update this one structure is a barrier to adding filesystems that is unnecessary. Secondly, every inode allocated will be the same size and will be large enough to store the data for any filesystem. So a filesystem that wants lots of space in its "inode_info" structure will impose that space cost on every other filesystem.

The first of these issues is not an impenetrable barrier as we will see shortly. The second is a real problem and the general ugliness of the design encouraged change. Early in the 2.5 development series this change began; it was completed by 2.5.7 when there were no "inode_info" structures left in union u (though the union itself remained until 2.6.19).

Embedded structures

The change that happened to inodes in early 2.5 was effectively an inversion. The change which removed ext3_i from struct inode.u also added a struct inode, called vfs_inode, to struct ext3_inode_info. So instead of the private structure being embedded in the common data structure, the common data structure is now embedded in the private one. This neatly avoids the two problems with unions; now each filesystem needs to only allocate memory to store its own structure without any need to know anything about what other filesystems might need. Of course nothing ever comes for free and this change brought with it other issues that needed to be solved, but the solutions were not costly.

The first difficulty is the fact that when the common filesystem code - the VFS layer - calls into a specific filesystem it passes a pointer to the common data structure, the struct inode. Using this pointer, the filesystem needs to find a pointer to its own private data structure. An obvious approach is to always place the struct inode at the top of the private inode structure and simply cast a pointer to one into a pointer to the other. While this can work, it lacks any semblance of type safety and makes it harder to arrange fields in the inode to get optimal performance - as some kernel developers are wont to do.

The solution was to use the list_entry() macro to perform the necessary pointer arithmetic, subtracting from the address of the struct inode its offset in the private data structure and then casting this appropriately. The macro for this was called list_entry() simply because the "list.h lists" implementation was the first to use this pattern of data structure embedding. The list_entry() macro did exactly what was needed and so it was used despite the strange name. This practice lasted until 2.5.28 when a new container_of() macro was added which implemented the same functionality as list_entry(), though with slightly more type safety and a more meaningful name. With container_of() it is a simple matter to map from an embedded data structure to the structure in which it is embedded.

The second difficulty was that the filesystem had to be responsible for allocating the inode - it could no longer be allocated by common code as the common code did not have enough information to allocate the correct amount of space. This simply involved adding alloc_inode() and destroy_inode() methods to the super_operations structure and calling them as appropriate.

Void pointers

As noted earlier, the union pattern was not an impenetrable barrier to adding new filesystems independently. This is because the union u had one more field that was not an "inode_info" structure. A generic pointer field called generic_ip was added in Linux-1.0.5, but it was not used until 1.3.7. Any file system that does not own a structure in struct inode itself could define and allocate a separate structure and link it to the inode through u.generic_ip. This approach addressed both of the problems with unions as no changes are needed to shared declarations and each filesystem only uses the space that it needs. However it again introduced new problems of its own.

Using generic_ip, each filesystem required two allocations for each inode instead of one and this could lead to more wastage depending on how the structure size was rounded up for allocation; it also required writing more error-handling code. Also there was memory used for the generic_ip pointer and often for a back pointer from the private structure to the common struct inode. Both of these are wasted space compared with the union approach or the embedding approach.

Worse than this though, an extra memory dereference was needed to access the private structure from the common structure; such dereferences are best avoided. Filesystem code will often need to access both the common and the private structures. This either requires lots of extra memory dereferences, or it requires holding the address of the private structure in a register which increases register pressure. It was largely these concerns that stopped struct inode from ever migrating to broad use of the generic_ip pointer. It was certainly used, but not by the major, high-performance filesystems.

Though this pattern has problems it is still in wide use. struct super_block has an s_fs_info pointer which serves the same purpose as u.generic_ip (which has since been renamed to i_private when the u union was finally removed - why it was not completely removed is left as an exercise for the reader). This is the only way to store filesystem-private data in a super_block. A simple search in the Linux include files shows quite a collection of fields which are void pointers named "private" or something similar. Many of these are examples of the pattern of extending a data type by using a pointer to a private extension, and most of these could be converted to using the embedded-structure pattern.

Beyond inodes

While inodes serve as an effective vehicle to introduce these three patterns they do not display the full scope of any of them so it is useful to look further afield and see what else we can learn.

A survey of the use of unions elsewhere in the kernel shows that they are widely used though in very different circumstances than in struct inode. The particular aspect of inodes that is missing elsewhere is that a wide range of different modules (different filesystems) each wanted to extend an inode in different ways. In most places where unions are used there are a small fixed number of subtypes of the base type and there is little expectation of more being added. A simple example of this is struct nfs_fattr which stores file attribute information decoded out of an NFS reply. The details of these attributes are slightly different for NFSv2 and NFSv3 so there are effectively two subtypes of this structure with the difference encoded in a union. As NFSv4 uses the same information as NFSv3 this is very unlikely to ever be extended further.

A very common pattern in other uses of unions in Linux is for encoding messages that are passed around, typically between the kernel and user-space. struct siginfo is used to convey extra information with a signal delivery. Each signal type has a different type of ancillary information, so struct siginfo has a union to encode six different subtypes. union inputArgs appears to be the largest current union with 22 different subtypes. It is used by the "coda" network file system to pass requests between the kernel module and a user-space daemon which handles the network communication.

It is not clear whether these examples should be considered as the same pattern as the original struct inode. Do they really represent different subtypes of a base type, or is it just one type with internal variants? The Eiffel object-oriented programming language does not support variant types at all except through subtype inheritance so there is clearly a school of thought that would want to treat all usages of union as a form of subtyping. Many other languages, such as C++, provide both inheritance and unions allowing the programmer to make a choice. So the answer is not clear.

For our purposes it doesn't really matter what we call it as long as we know where to use each pattern. The examples in the kernel fairly clearly show that when all of the variants are understood by a single module, then a union is a very appropriate mechanism for variants structures, whether you want to refer to them as using data inheritance or not. When different subtypes are managed by different modules, or at least widely separate pieces of code, then one of the other mechanisms is preferred. The use of unions for this case has almost completely disappeared with only struct cycx_device remaining as an example of a deprecated pattern.

Problems with void pointers

Void pointers are not quite so easy to classify. It would probably be fair to say that void pointers are the modern equivalent of "goto" statements. They can be very useful but they can also lead to very convoluted designs. A particular problem is that when you look at a void pointer, like looking at a goto, you don't really know what it is pointing at. A void pointer called private is even worse - it is like a "goto destination" command - almost meaningless without reading lots of context.

Examining all the different uses that void pointers can be put to would be well beyond the scope of this article. Instead we will restrict our attention to just one new usage which relates to data inheritance and illustrates how the untamed nature of void pointers makes it hard to recognize their use in data inheritance. The example we will use to explain this usage is struct seq_file used by the seq_file library which makes it easy to synthesize simple text files like some of those in /proc. The "seq" part of seq_file simply indicates that the file contains a sequence of lines corresponding to a sequence of items of information in the kernel, so /proc/mounts is a seq_file which walks through the mount table reporting each mount on a single line.

When seq_open() is used to create a new seq_file it allocates a struct seq_file and assigns it to the private_data field of the struct file which is being opened. This is a straightforward example of void pointer based data inheritance where the struct file is the base type and the struct seq_file is a simple extension to that type. It is a structure that never exists by itself but is always the private_data for some file. struct seq_file itself has a private field which is a void pointer and it can be used by clients of seq_file to add extra state to the file. For example md_seq_open() allocates a struct mdstat_info structure and attaches it via this private field, using it to meet md's internal needs. Again, this is simple data inheritance following the described pattern.

However the private field of struct seq_file is used by svc_pool_stats_open() in a subtly but importantly different way. In this case the extra data needed is just a single pointer. So rather than allocating a local data structure to refer to from the private field, svc_pool_stats_open simply stores that pointer directly in the private field itself. This certainly seems like a sensible optimization - performing an allocation to store a single pointer would be a waste - but it highlights exactly the source of confusion that was suggested earlier: that when you look at a void pointer you don't really know what is it pointing at, or why.

To make it a bit clearer what is happening here, it is helpful to imagine "void *private" as being like a union of every different possible pointer type. If the value that needs to be stored is a pointer, it can be stored in this union following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern. If the value is not a single pointer, then it gets stored in allocated space following the "void pointers for data inheritance" pattern. Thus when we see a void pointer being used it may not be obvious whether it is being used to point to an extension structure for data inheritance, or being used as an extension for data inheritance (or being used as something else altogether).

To highlight this issue from a slightly different perspective it is instructive to examine struct v4l2_subdev which represents a sub-device in a video4linux device, such as a sensor or camera controller within a webcam. According to the (rather helpful) documentation it is expected that this structure will normally be embedded in a larger structure which contains extra state. However this structure still has not just one but two void pointers, both with names suggesting that they are for private use by subtypes:

/* pointer to private data */ void *dev_priv; void *host_priv;

It is common that a v4l sub-device (a sensor, usually) will be realized by, for example, an I2C device (much as a block device which stores your filesystem might be realized by an ATA or SCSI device). To allow for this common occurrence, struct v4l2_subdev provides a void pointer (dev_priv), so that the driver itself doesn't need to define a more specific pointer in the larger structure which struct v4l2_subdev would be embedded in. host_priv is intended to point back to a "parent" device such as a controller which acquires video data from the sensor. Of the three drivers which use this field, one appears to follow that intention while the other two use it to point to an allocated extension structure. So both of these pointers are intended to be used following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern, where a void pointer is playing the role of a union of many other pointer types, but they are not always used that way.

It is not immediately clear that defining this void pointer in case it is useful is actually a valuable service to provide given that the device driver could easily enough define its own (type safe) pointer in its extension structure. What is clear is that an apparently "private" void pointer can be intended for various qualitatively different uses and, as we have seen in two different circumstances, they may not be used exactly as expected.

In short, recognizing the "data inheritance through void pointers" pattern is not easy. A fairly deep examination of the code is needed to determine the exact purpose and usage of void pointers.

A diversion into struct page

Before we leave unions and void pointers behind a look at struct page may be interesting. This structure uses both of these patterns, though they are hidden somewhat due to historical baggage. This example is particularly instructive because it is one case where struct embedding simply is not an option.

In Linux memory is divided into pages, and these pages are put to a variety of different uses. Some are in the "page cache" used to store the contents of files. Some are "anonymous pages" holding data used by applications. Some are used as "slabs" and divided into pieces to answer kmalloc() requests. Others are simply part of a multi-page allocation or maybe are on a free list waiting to be used. Each of these different use cases could be seen as a subtype of the general class of "page", and in most cases need some dedicated fields in struct page, such as a struct address_space pointer and index when used in the page cache, or struct kmem_cache and freelist pointers when used as a slab.

Each page always has the same struct page describing it, so if the effective type of the page is to change - as it must as the demands for different uses of memory change over time - the type of the struct page must change within the lifetime of that structure. While many type systems are designed assuming that the type of an object is immutable, we find here that the kernel has a very real need for type mutability. Both unions and void pointers allow types to change and as noted, struct page uses both.

At the first level of subtyping there are only a small number of different subtypes as listed above; these are all known to the core memory management code, so a union would be ideal here. Unfortunately struct page has three unions with fields for some subtypes spread over all three, thus hiding the real structure somewhat.

When the primary subtype in use has the page being used in the page cache, the particular address_space that it belongs to may want to extend the data structure further. For this purpose there is a private field that can be used. However it is not a void pointer but is an unsigned long. Many places in the kernel assume an unsigned long and a void * are the same size and this is one of them. Most users of this field actually store a pointer here and have to cast it back and forth. The "buffer_head" library provides macros attach_page_buffers and page_buffers to set and get this field.

So while struct page is not the most elegant example, it is an informative example of a case where unions and void pointers are the only option for providing data inheritance.

The details of structure embedding

Where structure embedding can be used, and where the list of possible subtypes is not known in advance, it seems to be increasingly the preferred choice. To gain a full understanding of it we will again need to explore a little bit further than inodes and contrast data inheritance with other uses of structure embedding.

There are essentially three uses for structure embedding - three reasons for including a structure within another structure. Sometimes there is nothing particularly interesting going on. Data items are collected together into structures and structures within structures simply to highlight the closeness of the relationships between the different items. In this case the address of the embedded structure is rarely taken, and it is never mapped back to the containing structure using container_of().

The second use is the data inheritance embedding that we have already discussed. The third is like it but importantly different. This third use is typified by struct list_head and other structs used as an embedded anchor when creating abstract data types.

The use of an embedded anchor like struct list_head can be seen as a style of inheritance as the structure containing it "is-a" member of a list by virtue of inheriting from struct list_head. However it is not a strict subtype as a single object can have several struct list_heads embedded - struct inode has six (if we include the similar hlist_node). So it is probably best to think of this sort of embedding more like a "mixin" style of inheritance. The struct list_head provides a service - that of being included in a list - that can be mixed-in to other objects, an arbitrary number of times.

A key aspect of data inheritance structure embedding that differentiates it from each of the other two is the existence of a reference counter in the inner-most structure. This is an observation that is tied directly to the fact that the Linux kernel uses reference counting as the primary means of lifetime management and so would not be shared by systems that used, for example, garbage collection to manage lifetimes.

In Linux, every object with an independent existence will have a reference counter, sometimes a simple atomic_t or even an int, though often a more explicit struct kref. When an object is created using several levels of inheritance the reference counter could be buried quite deeply. For example a struct usb_device embeds a struct device which embeds struct kobject which has a struct kref. So usb_device (which might in turn be embedded in a structure for some specific device) does have a reference counter, but it is contained several levels down in the nest of structure embedding. This contrasts quite nicely with a list_head and similar structures. These have no reference counter, have no independent existence and simply provide a service to other data structures.

Though it seems obvious when put this way, it is useful to remember that a single object cannot have two reference counters - at least not two lifetime reference counters (It is fine to have two counters like s_active and s_count in struct super_block which count different things). This means that multiple inheritance in the "data inheritance" style is not possible. The only form of multiple inheritance that can work is the mixin style used by list_head as mentioned above.

It also means that, when designing a data structure, it is important to think about lifetime issues and whether this data structure should have its own reference counter or whether it should depend on something else for its lifetime management. That is, whether it is an object in its own right, or simply a service provided to other objects. These issues are not really new and apply equally to void pointer inheritance. However an important difference with void pointers is that it is relatively easy to change your mind later and switch an extension structure to be a fully independent object. Structure embedding requires the discipline of thinking clearly about the problem up front and making the right decision early - a discipline that is worth encouraging.

The other key telltale for data inheritance structure embedding is the set of rules for allocating and initializing new instances of a structure, as has already been hinted at. When union or void pointer inheritance is used the main structure is usually allocated and initialized by common code (the mid-layer) and then a device specific open() or create() function is called which can optionally allocate and initialize any extension object. By contrast when structure embedding is used the structure needs to be allocated by the lowest level device driver which then initializes its own fields and calls in to common code to initialize the common fields.

Continuing the struct inode example from above which has an alloc_inode() method in the super_block to request allocation, we find that initialization is provided for with inode_init_once() and inode_init_always() support functions. The first of these is used when the previous use of a piece of memory is unknown, the second is sufficient by itself when we know that the memory was previously used for some other inode. We see this same pattern of an initializer function separate from allocation in kobject_init(), kref_init(), and device_initialize().

So apart from the obvious embedding of structures, the pattern of "data inheritance through structure embedding" can be recognized by the presence of a reference counter in the innermost structure, by the delegation of structure allocation to the final user of the structure, and by the provision of initializing functions which initialize a previously allocated structure.

Conclusion

In exploring the use of method dispatch (last week) and data inheritance (this week) in the Linux kernel we find that while some patterns seem to dominate they are by no means universal. While almost all data inheritance could be implemented using structure embedding, unions provide real value in a few specific cases. Similarly while simple vtables are common, mixin vtables are very important and the ability to delegate methods to a related object can be valuable.

We also find that there are patterns in use with little to recommend them. Using void pointers for inheritance may have an initial simplicity, but causes longer term wastage, can cause confusion, and could nearly always be replaced by embedded inheritance. Using NULL pointers to indicate default behavior is similarly a poor choice - when the default is important there are better ways to provide for it.

But maybe the most valuable lesson is that the Linux kernel is not only a useful program to run, it is also a useful document to study. Such study can find elegant practical solutions to real problems, and some less elegant solutions. The willing student can pursue the former to help improve their mind, and pursue the latter to help improve the kernel itself. With that in mind, the following exercises might be of interest to some.

Exercises
  • As inodes now use structure embedding for inheritance, void pointers should not be necessary. Examine the consequences and wisdom of removing "i_private" from "struct inode".

  • Rearrange the three unions in struct page to just one union so that the enumeration of different subtypes is more explicit.

  • As was noted in the text, struct seq_file can be extended both through "void pointer" and a limited form of "union" data inheritance. Explain how seq_open_private() allows this structure to also be extended through "embedded structure" data inheritance and give an example by converting one usage in the kernel from "void pointer" to "embedded structure". Consider submitting a patch if this appears to be an improvement. Contrast this implementation of embedded structure inheritance with the mechanism used for inodes.

  • Though subtyping is widely used in the kernel, it is not uncommon for a object to contain fields that not all users are interested in. This can indicate that more fine grained subtyping is possible. As very many completely different things can be represented by a "file descriptor", it is likely that struct file could be a candidate for further subtyping.

    Identify the smallest set of fields that could serve as a generic struct file and explore the implications of embedding that in different structures to implement regular files, socket files, event files, and other file types. Exploring more general use of the proposed open() method for inodes might help here.

  • Identify an "object-oriented" language which has an object model that would meet all the needs of the Linux kernel as identified in these two articles.

  • (Log in to post comments)

    Design patterns, the big picture, Part 2: Gang-of-four classics revisited | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The Gang of Four's Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software was a milestone in design pattern history. In Part 2 of his design patterns overview, Jeff Friesen focuses on the book and its 23 patterns. He first revisits the book's Strategy and Visitor patterns from a Java developer's perspective, then offers tips for learning all of the GoF patterns by successfully using Design Patterns as a reference manual. The article concludes with a summary of critiques of the GoF book and a warning about the perils of over-reliance on design patterns generally, which may be especially relevant for software developers new to programming.

    In Part 1 of this three-part series introducing design patterns, I referred to Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Design. This classic was written by Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides, who were collectively known as the Gang of Four. As most readers will know, Design Patterns presents 23 software design patterns that fit into the categories discussed in Part 1: Creational, structural, and behavioral.

    GoF patterns on JavaWorld

    David Geary's Java design patterns series introduced many of the GoF patterns in Java code. See the Resources section at the end of this article for a listing of Geary's articles on JavaWorld.

    Design Patterns is canonical reading for software developers, but many new programmers are challenged by its reference format and scope. Each of the 23 patterns is described in detail, in a template format consisting of 13 sections, which can be a lot to digest. Another challenge for new Java developers is that the Gang of Four patterns spring from object-oriented programming, with examples based on C++ and Smalltalk, not Java code.

    In this article I'll unpack two of the commonly used patterns -- Strategy and Visitor -- from a Java developer's perspective. Strategy is a fairly simple pattern that serves as an example of how to get your feet wet with the GoF design patterns generally; Visitor is more complex and intermediate in scope. I'll start with an example that should demystify double dispatch, which is an important part of the Visitor pattern. Then I'll demonstrate the Visitor pattern in a compiler use case.

    Following my examples here should help you explore and use the other GoF patterns for yourself. In addition, I'll offer tips for getting the most out of the Gang of Four book and conclude with a summary of critiques of using design patterns in software development. That discussion could be especially relevant to developers new to programming.

     

    Unpacking Strategy

    The Strategy pattern lets you define a family of algorithms such as those used for sorting, text composition, or layout management. Strategy also lets you encapsulate each algorithm in its own class and make them interchangeable. Each encapsulated algorithm is known as a strategy. At runtime, a client chooses the appropriate algorithm for its requirements.

    What is a client?

    A client is any piece of software that interacts with a design pattern. Although typically an object, a client could also be code within an application's public static void main(String[] args) method.

    Unlike the Decorator pattern, which focuses on changing an object's skin, or appearance, Strategy focuses on changing the object's guts, meaning its changeable behaviors. Strategy lets you avoid using multiple conditional statements by moving conditional branches into their own strategy classes. These classes often derive from an abstract superclass, which the client references and uses to interact with a specific strategy.

    From an abstract perspective, Strategy involves Strategy, ConcreteStrategyx, and Context types.

    Strategy

    Strategy provides a common interface to all supported algorithms. Listing 1 presents the Strategy interface.

    Listing 1. void execute(int x) must be implemented by all concrete strategies public interface Strategy { public void execute(int x); }

    Where concrete strategies are not parameterized with common data, you can implement them via Java's interface feature. Where they are parameterized, you would instead declare an abstract class. For example, right-align, center-align, and justify text alignment strategies share the concept of a width in which to perform text alignment. So you would declare this width in the abstract class.

    ConcreteStrategyx

    Each ConcreteStrategyx implements the common interface and provides an algorithm implementation. Listing 2 implements Listing 1's Strategy interface to describe a specific concrete strategy.

    Listing 2. ConcreteStrategyA executes one algorithm public class ConcreteStrategyA implements Strategy { @Override public void execute(int x) { System.out.println("executing strategy A: x = "+x); } }

    The void execute(int x) method in Listing 2 identifies a specific strategy. Think of this method as an abstraction for something more useful, like a specific kind of sorting algorithm (e.g., Bubble Sort, Insertion Sort, or Quick Sort), or a specific kind of layout manager (e.g., Flow Layout, Border Layout, or Grid Layout).

    Listing 3 presents a second Strategy implementation.

    Listing 3. ConcreteStrategyB executes another algorithm public class ConcreteStrategyB implements Strategy { @Override public void execute(int x) { System.out.println("executing strategy B: x = "+x); } } Context

    Context provides the context in which the concrete strategy is invoked. Listings 2 and 3 show data being passed from a context to a strategy via a method parameter. Because a generic strategy interface is shared by all concrete strategies, some of them may not require all parameters. To avoid wasted parameters (especially when passing many different kinds of arguments to only a few concrete strategies), you could pass a reference to the context instead.

    Instead of passing a context reference to the method, you could store it in the abstract class, making your method calls parameterless. However, the context would need to specify a more extensive interface that would include the contract for accessing context data in a uniform manner. The result, as shown in Listing 4, is a tighter coupling between strategies and their context.

    Listing 4. Context is configured with a ConcreteStrategyx instance class Context { private Strategy strategy; public Context(Strategy strategy) { setStrategy(strategy); } public void executeStrategy(int x) { strategy.execute(x); } public void setStrategy(Strategy strategy) { this.strategy = strategy; } }

    The Context class in Listing 4 stores a strategy when it is created, provides a method to subsequently change the strategy, and provides another method to execute the current strategy. Except for passing a strategy to the constructor, this pattern can be seen in the java.awt .Container class, whose void setLayout(LayoutManager mgr) and void doLayout() methods specify and execute the layout manager strategy.

    StrategyDemo

    We need a client to demonstrate the previous types. Listing 5 presents a StrategyDemo client class.

    Listing 5. StrategyDemo public class StrategyDemo { public static void main(String[] args) { Context context = new Context(new ConcreteStrategyA()); context.executeStrategy(1); context.setStrategy(new ConcreteStrategyB()); context.executeStrategy(2); } }

    A concrete strategy is associated with a Context instance when the context is created. The strategy can be subsequently changed via a context method call.

    If you compile these classes and run StrategyDemo, you should observe the following output:

    executing strategy A: x = 1 executing strategy B: x = 2

     

    Revisiting the Visitor pattern

    Visitor is the final software design pattern to appear in Design Patterns. Although this behavioral pattern is presented last in the book for alphabetical reasons, some believe that it should come last due to its complexity. Newcomers to Visitor often struggle with this software design pattern.

    As explained in Design Patterns, a visitor lets you add operations to classes without changing them, a bit of magic that is facilitated by the so-called double dispatch technique. In order to understand the Visitor pattern, we need first to digest double dispatch.

     

    What is double dispatch?

    Java and many other languages support polymorphism (many shapes) via a technique known as dynamic dispatch, in which a message is mapped to a specific sequence of code at runtime. Dynamic dispatch is classified as either single dispatch or multiple dispatch:

  • Single dispatch: Given a class hierarchy where each class implements the same method (that is, each subclass overrides the previous class's version of the method), and given a variable that's assigned an instance of one of these classes, the type can be figured out only at runtime. For example, suppose each class implements method print(). Suppose too that one of these classes is instantiated at runtime and its variable assigned to variable a. When the Java compiler encounters a.print();, it can only verify that a's type contains a print() method. It doesn't know which method to call. At runtime, the virtual machine examines the reference in variable a and figures out the actual type in order to call the right method. This situation, in which an implementation is based on a single type (the type of the instance), is known as single dispatch.
  • Multiple dispatch: Unlike in single dispatch, where a single argument determines which method of that name to invoke, multiple dispatch uses all of its arguments. In other words, it generalizes dynamic dispatch to work with two or more objects. (Note that the argument in single dispatch is typically specified with a period separator to the left of the method name being called, such as the a in a.print().)
  • Finally, double dispatch is a special case of multiple dispatch in which the runtime types of two objects are involved in the call. Although Java supports single dispatch, it doesn't support double dispatch directly. But we can simulate it.

    Do we over-rely on double dispatch?

    Blogger Derek Greer believes that using double dispatch may indicate a design issue, which could impact an application's maintainability. Read Greer's "Double dispatch is a code smell" blog post and associated comments for details.

    Simulating double dispatch in Java code

    Wikipedia's entry on double dispatch provides a C++-based example that shows it to be more than function overloading. In Listing 6, I present the Java equivalent.

    Listing 6. Double dispatch in Java code public class DDDemo { public static void main(String[] args) { Asteroid theAsteroid = new Asteroid(); SpaceShip theSpaceShip = new SpaceShip(); ApolloSpacecraft theApolloSpacecraft = new ApolloSpacecraft(); theAsteroid.collideWith(theSpaceShip); theAsteroid.collideWith(theApolloSpacecraft); System.out.println(); ExplodingAsteroid theExplodingAsteroid = new ExplodingAsteroid(); theExplodingAsteroid.collideWith(theSpaceShip); theExplodingAsteroid.collideWith(theApolloSpacecraft); System.out.println(); Asteroid theAsteroidReference = theExplodingAsteroid; theAsteroidReference.collideWith(theSpaceShip); theAsteroidReference.collideWith(theApolloSpacecraft); System.out.println(); SpaceShip theSpaceShipReference = theApolloSpacecraft; theAsteroid.collideWith(theSpaceShipReference); theAsteroidReference.collideWith(theSpaceShipReference); System.out.println(); theSpaceShipReference = theApolloSpacecraft; theAsteroidReference = theExplodingAsteroid; theSpaceShipReference.collideWith(theAsteroid); theSpaceShipReference.collideWith(theAsteroidReference); } } class SpaceShip { void collideWith(Asteroid inAsteroid) { inAsteroid.collideWith(this); } } class ApolloSpacecraft extends SpaceShip { void collideWith(Asteroid inAsteroid) { inAsteroid.collideWith(this); } } class Asteroid { void collideWith(SpaceShip s) { System.out.println("Asteroid hit a SpaceShip"); } void collideWith(ApolloSpacecraft as) { System.out.println("Asteroid hit an ApolloSpacecraft"); } } class ExplodingAsteroid extends Asteroid { void collideWith(SpaceShip s) { System.out.println("ExplodingAsteroid hit a SpaceShip"); } void collideWith(ApolloSpacecraft as) { System.out.println("ExplodingAsteroid hit an ApolloSpacecraft"); } }

    Listing 6 follows its C++ counterpart as closely as possible. The final four lines in the main() method along with the void collideWith(Asteroid inAsteroid) methods in SpaceShip and ApolloSpacecraft demonstrate and simulate double dispatch.

    Consider the following excerpt from the end of main():

    theSpaceShipReference = theApolloSpacecraft; theAsteroidReference = theExplodingAsteroid; theSpaceShipReference.collideWith(theAsteroid); theSpaceShipReference.collideWith(theAsteroidReference);

    The third and fourth lines use single dispatch to figure out the correct collideWith() method (in SpaceShip or ApolloSpacecraft) to invoke. This decision is made by the virtual machine based on the type of the reference stored in theSpaceShipReference.


    Object-Oriented Analysis and Design | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the book 

    There are many possible activities and artifacts in introductory OOA/D, and a wealth of principles and guidelines. Suppose we must choose a single practical skill from all the topics discussed here—a "desert island" skill. What would it be?

    A critical ability in OO development is to skillfully assign responsibilities to software objects.

    Why? Because it is one activity that must be performed—either while drawing a UML diagram or programming—and it strongly influences the robustness, maintainability, and reusability of software components.

    Of course, there are other important skills in OOA/D, but responsibility assignment is emphasized in this introduction because it tends to be a challenging skill to master (with many "degrees of freedom" or alternatives), and yet is vitally important. On a real project, a developer might not have the opportunity to perform any other modeling activities—the "rush to code" development process. Yet even in this situation, assigning responsibilities is inevitable.

    Consequently, the design steps in this book emphasize principles of responsibility assignment.

    Nine fundamental principles in object design and responsibility assignment are presented and applied. They are organized in a learning aid called GRASP of principles with names such as Information Expert and Creator.



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