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000-834 - Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design) - Dump Information

Vendor : IBM
Exam Code : 000-834
Exam Name : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)
Questions and Answers : 180 Q & A
Updated On : February 15, 2019
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000-834 Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)

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000-834 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)

Test Code : 000-834
Test Name : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 180 Real Questions

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IBM Object Oriented Analysis and

Object-Oriented analysis and Design | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

just understanding an object-oriented language isn't sufficient to create object programs. You even have to learn to "suppose in objects." This chapter explains why or not it's important to be aware what it potential to in fact be "object-oriented" and the way which you can construct your business by using object-orientation from precise to backside.

This chapter is from the booklet 

Le temps est un grand professeur, mais malheureusement il tue tous ses élèves (Time is a great trainer, however alas it kills all its scholars.)

—Hector Berlioz

pursuits
  • Describe the booklet desires and scope.

  • outline object-oriented analysis and design (OOA/D).

  • Illustrate a short OOA/D instance.

  • Overview UML and visual agile modeling.

  • 1.1 what's going to You learn? Is it useful?

    What does it mean to have an outstanding object design? This booklet is a device to help developers and students be taught core competencies in object-oriented evaluation and design (OOA/D). These skills are elementary for the creation of well-designed, robust, and maintainable utility the use of OO technologies and languages comparable to Java or C#.

    The proverb "owning a hammer would not make one an architect" is very true with appreciate to object expertise. knowing an object-oriented language (equivalent to Java) is a quintessential but insufficient first step to create object systems. figuring out how to "think in objects" is crucial!

    here is an introduction to OOA/D whereas making use of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and patterns. And, to iterative building, the usage of an agile strategy to the Unified method for instance iterative system. It isn't intended as an advanced text; it emphasizes mastery of the fundamentals, corresponding to the way to assign responsibilities to objects, commonly used UML notation, and common design patterns. at the equal time, basically in later chapters, the fabric progresses to a couple intermediate-degree issues, similar to framework design and architectural evaluation.

    UML vs. thinking in Objects

    The ebook is not virtually UML. The UML is a common diagramming notation. general notation is effective, but there are more critical OO things to learn— peculiarly, the way to feel in objects. The UML is not OOA/D or a technique, it is barely diagramming notation. or not it's unnecessary to be trained UML and perhaps a UML CASE device, however not definitely know the way to create a superb OO design, or consider and enrich an existing one. here's the challenging and critical skill. in consequence, this publication is an introduction to object design.

    Yet, we want a language for OOA/D and "utility blueprints," each as a device of idea and as a variety of communication. for this reason, this publication explores a way to observe the UML in the carrier of doing OOA/D, and covers often used UML.

    OOD: ideas and Patterns

    How should responsibilities be allotted to classes of objects? How should objects collaborate? What courses should still do what? These are vital questions in the design of a gadget, and this booklet teaches the classic OO design metaphor: responsibility-pushed design. also, certain tried-and-real options to design issues can also be (and had been) expressed as most useful-observe ideas, heuristics, or patterns—named problem-solution formulation that codify exemplary design ideas. This ebook, with the aid of educating how to observe patterns or principles, helps quicker discovering and skillful use of those simple object design idioms.

    Case experiences

    This introduction to OOA/D is illustrated in some ongoing case stories that are followed right through the book, going deep sufficient into the evaluation and design in order that one of the most gory particulars of what should be regarded and solved in a realistic issue are regarded, and solved.

    Use circumstances

    OOD (and all utility design) is strongly involving the prerequisite endeavor of necessities analysis, which often includes writing use circumstances. therefore, the case examine starts off with an introduction to those issues, besides the fact that they don't seem to be chiefly object-oriented.

    Iterative construction, Agile Modeling, and an Agile UP

    Given many feasible activities from requirements via to implementation, how should a developer or team proceed? requirements analysis and OOA/D has to be offered and practiced within the context of some development manner. in this case, an agile (light, flexible) strategy to the widespread Unified system (UP) is used as the pattern iterative construction method within which these topics are brought. youngsters, the evaluation and design issues that are lined are regular to many methods, and getting to know them within the context of an agile UP does not invalidate their applicability to different strategies, akin to Scrum, function-driven development, Lean building, Crystal strategies, and the like.

    In conclusion, this publication helps a scholar or developer:

  • follow principles and patterns to create superior object designs.

  • Iteratively follow a group of average activities in evaluation and design, in accordance with an agile strategy to the UP for instance.

  • Create commonly used diagrams within the UML notation.

  • It illustrates this in the context of long-working case stories that evolve over a few iterations.

    01fig01.giffigure 1.1 themes and expertise covered.

    Many different advantage Are vital!

    This isn't the Compleate Booke of application; or not it's primarily an introduction to OOA/D, UML, and iterative building, whereas referring to linked subjects. building application comprises myriad different advantage and steps; for instance, usability engineering, consumer interface design, and database design are important to success.


    Python GUI Programming projects the usage of Tkinter and Python three - Simpliv | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    About this route study arms-On Python Programming by using growing initiatives, GUIs and pictures Python is a dynamic contemporary object -oriented programming language it is convenient to be taught and may be used to do loads of things each huge and small Python is what is known as a excessive stage language Python is used in the industry for things like embedded application, web development, computing device purposes, and even mobile apps! SQL-Lite makes it possible for your purposes to become much more powerful by means of storing, retrieving, and filtering through large information sets with ease if you want to be trained to code, Python GUIs are the ideal option to delivery! I designed this programming path to be with ease understood by using absolute beginners and younger individuals. We delivery with fundamental Python programming ideas. make stronger the equal through developing venture and GUIs. Why Python? The Python coding language integrates smartly with other systems – and runs on well-nigh all modern devices. in case you’re new to coding, you could without problems be trained the basics during this speedy and robust coding ambiance. in case you have event with different laptop languages, you’ll discover Python simple and easy. This OSI-accredited open-supply language permits free use and distribution – even industrial distribution. When and the way do I beginning a profession as a Python programmer? In an impartial third birthday celebration survey, it has been revealed that the Python programming language is currently the most everyday language for data scientists international. This claim is substantiated by using the Institute of Electrical and digital Engineers, which tracks programming languages through popularity. in line with them, Python is the second most everyday programming language this yr for development on the web after Java. Python Job Profiles application Engineer research Analyst facts Analyst statistics Scientist software Developer Python profits The median total pay for Python jobs in California, u.s. is $74,410, for an expert with 365 days of event beneath are graphs depicting ordinary Python salary by means of metropolis the first chart depicts normal salary for a Python skilled with three hundred and sixty five days of experience and the 2d chart depicts the regular salaries via years of adventure Who makes use of Python? This path offers you a superb set of advantage in a single of nowadays’s suitable programming languages. today’s greatest corporations (and smartest startups) use Python, including Google, fb, Instagram, Amazon, IBM, and NASA. Python is increasingly getting used for scientific computations and facts evaluation Take this direction these days and learn the advantage you need to rub shoulders with these days’s tech trade giants. have a good time, create and manage interesting and interactive Python GUIs, and revel in a vibrant future! better of good fortune who's the target viewers? anybody who desires to study to code For complete Programming learners For individuals New to Python This route become designed for college kids with little to no programming adventure people attracted to building projects any one looking to birth with Python GUI building Contact Us: simplivllc@gmail.com phone: 76760-08458 email: sudheer@simpliv.com mobilephone: 9538055093 To study extra and register: https://www.simpliv.com/python/python-gui-programming-tasks-using-tkinter-and-python-3

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    report: IBM Outpaces rivals in software development application market for Seventh Straight yr | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    supply: IBM

    June 13, 2008 08:00 ET

    ARMONK, big apple--(Marketwire - June 13, 2008) - IBM (NYSE: IBM) nowadays introduced that analyst company Gartner, Inc.* and market analysis enterprise Evans data Corp. have ranked IBM because the leader within the software building software market. These rankings come just as IBM is projecting more than 12,000 people will attend its 2008 IBM Rational software development Conferences in 13 international locations around the world.

    Gartner named IBM the international market share leader in utility construction in accordance with complete application income in 2007 and Evans facts Corp. survey respondents who were users of IBM Rational application Developer ranked it the #1 integrated Developer ambiance (IDE) for person satisfaction. this is the seventh consecutive 12 months that Gartner has ranked IBM the chief and 2nd consecutive yr that IBM Rational software Developer become chosen as the Developer's option suitable IDE with the aid of the 1,200 developers international participating in the survey.

    in keeping with the impartial Gartner file, IBM is the leading market share vendor in total software salary, with 37.eight % market share -- stronger market share than its three closest rivals mixed. The worldwide application development application market grew greater than 10% percent in 2007 to well-nigh $6.9 billion, according to Gartner.

    IBM became also cited for its universal management in accordance with complete application income for 2007 throughout application development market sub-classes, together with SCCM allotted, Object Oriented evaluation & Design and Java Platform advert tool. Telelogic, these days acquired by means of IBM, had a 2007 marketshare of forty.6 percent within the requirements Elicitation and management class in keeping with complete software income.

    "With the rise of globally distributed utility building groups, consumers are seeking for skilled companies to assist them collaborate in an open and transparent method," talked about Dr. Daniel Sabbah, commonplace supervisor, IBM Rational utility. "We believe the mighty response from the Evans statistics and Gartner experiences coincides with the feedback we've obtained from purchasers about IBM's strategy round constructive application delivery."

    IBM Kicks off the world's Most Attended Developer convention series

    This marketshare information coincides with IBM's announcement that over 12,000 contributors are anticipated to attend the 15 IBM Rational utility building Conferences deliberate world wide. Following the adventure held ultimate week in Orlando, FL, IBM will take the exhibit on the street to 17 cities including Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt; San Paulo, Brazil; Bangalore, India; Shanghai, China; Rome and Milan, Italy.

    For conference attendees using an iPhone, IBM is releasing a convention scheduler written in commercial enterprise generation Language (EGL) to enable iPhone users to dynamically adventure the IBM Rational application building convention via an interface that they consider relaxed with. the use of net 2.0 and social engineering ideas, users can give comments on and chat about periods, navigate the conference searching for tracks and routine, and use inventive know-how that implies which talks the person should still attend subsequent in line with preferences.

    on the annual IBM Rational utility construction convention in Orlando, Florida, more than 3,500 attendees learned about new utility and courses that aid shoppers seriously change how they are delivery software on a global scale. The announcement of recent products, capabilities and enterprise accomplice initiatives are designed to seriously change how IBM Rational application can help consumers power greater price and efficiency from their globally dispensed application investments.

    valued clientele unable to attend the conference locally can view the keynote presentations on IBM television.

    IBM helps developers stay competitive in ultra-modern speedy-paced construction environment. innovative courses akin to IBM developerWorks, the premier technical resource for software builders, and IBM alphaWorks, IBM's rising applied sciences outlet, deliver an internet group for the developers of today and the following day. developers who're impartial utility providers can take skills of income and advertising equipment, ability-building courses and technical assist by means of joining the international IBM PartnerWorld application. IBM's tutorial Initiative and IBM Rational software construction convention are examples of the continued researching and community-building classes mandatory by using college students, educators and developers worldwide.

    For greater tips, visit http://www.ibm.com/application/rational.

    *"Market Share: software construction utility, global, 2007" by Laurie Wurster, Teresa Jones and Asheesh Raina, might also 2008.


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    Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)

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    Object-Oriented Analysis & Design | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Object-Oriented Analysis & DesignJune 2, 3, 9, 10Worcester State CollegeTaught by Jan Bergandy, Computer Science, UMass, Dartmouth

    Seminar Objectives:

  • To develop an in-depth understanding of object-oriented paradigm
  • To obtain a working knowledge of object-oriented analysis & design techniques
  • To learn object-oriented modeling using Unified Modeling Language (UML)
  • To learn about basic design patterns and the role of patterns is software development
  • To understand the impact of object paradigm on software development activities
  • To explore synergy between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming
  • To learn about key object technologies
  • Who should attend:This workshop is addressed to faculty involved in teaching programming, software design, and other courses related to software development. It is addressed to those who face a transition to object technology and want to learn about challenges and benefits of this transition. The workshop does not require any prior knowledge of object-oriented programming or knowledge of object paradigm. General computer fluency and general knowledge of issues associated with software and software development are expected.

    Seminar Organization:The course will be conducted as a project with instructor giving short presentations pertaining to a specific stage of the analysis and design process. During this course the participants will construct an analysis model for a selected problem. This model will be refined in to the detailed design level providing an opportunity for discussion about the relationship between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming. Each student will receive a copy of the course materials and the textbook.

    Tools & Platforms:Rational-Rose CASE toolThe CASE tool is used exclusively to expedite the process of model construction. The students spend no more than half an hour of their time during the entire class on learning how to use the tool. Not using the CASE toll will make it almost impossible to experience hands-on all the elements of the object-oriented analysis and design process.

    Textbooks:M. Fowler, ÒUML DistilledÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-32563-2 (additional/optional )

    E. Gamma, R. Helm, R. Johnson, J. Vlissides, ÒDesign PatternÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-63361-2

    Outline:

    June 2, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00Topics to be addressed:Object paradigm top-down - analysis & design perspectiveObject paradigm bottom-up - programming perspectiveBasic concepts: abstraction, encapsulation, information hiding, modularityResponsibility view of the requirementsClasses and objects emerging from responsibilitiesComparison of procedural and object-oriented paradigmsClasses and relationships as the building blocks of software architectureCriteria of class qualityIntroduction to Unified Modeling Language (UML)Static & dynamic modelActors and use casesTransitioning from functional requirements to objects - introduction

    Project:Analysis of the requirements for the selected projectIdentifying actors and use casesConstructing use case diagrams

    June 3, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to be addressed:Transitioning from functional requirements to objectsIdentifying the first group of classesClass specificationClass as an encapsulation of a responsibilityClass, Utility Class, Parameterized Class and its instantiationClass diagram - introductionIdentifying relationships between classesAssociation relationshipsAssociation classesRepresenting relationships with cardinalityAggregation versus compositionRepresenting aggregation and composition relationshipsRepresenting generalization/ specialization (inheritance)PolymorphismAbstract classes and interfacesSpecification of relationshipsImplementing classes & relationships (bottom-up view of relationships)Class diagram

    Project:Identifying first group of classes based on responsibilitiesPreliminary class diagramIdentifying relationships between classesDefining cardinalitiesClass diagram

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00 (part I)Topics to be addressed:Static versus dynamic modelIdentifying scenarios through refinement of use casesModeling scenarios using object-interaction and sequence diagrams

    Project:Refining use casesDeveloping and modeling scenariosIdentifying methodsRefining class specifications

    June 10, 2001 (part II)Topics to be addressed:Events, states and actionsState diagramCriteria for using state diagramsConcurrency, active objectsMutual exclusion problemSequential, guarded, and synchronous objectsModeling concurrencyConcurrent state diagramsActivity diagrams

    Project:Evaluating classes for the need of state diagramsConstructing state diagrams for selected classes(Constructing activity diagrams)Refining class specifications

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to be addressed:Introduction to design patterns: Creational patterns, Abstract Factory, Builder, Prototype, Singleton, Virtual Constructor

    Structural Patterns: Adapter, Bridge, Composite, Decorator, Façade, Proxy

    Behavioral Patterns: Chain of Responsibility, Command, Iterator, Mediator, Memento

    Other important topics to be covered in this course:What to expect from an object-oriented languageDynamic nature of object-oriented systems and the issues of garbage collectionEffective use of inheritance and polymorphism and their impact on software qualitySingle versus multiple inheritancePolymorphism versus genericsClass design and data normalization (attribute dependence issues)


    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, part 2 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    June 7, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    In the first part of this analysis we looked at how the polymorphic side of object-oriented programming was implemented in the Linux kernel using regular C constructs. In particular we examined method dispatch, looked at the different forms that vtables could take, and the circumstances where separate vtables were eschewed in preference for storing function pointers directly in objects. In this conclusion we will explore a second important aspect of object-oriented programming - inheritance, and in particular data inheritance.

    Data inheritance

    Inheritance is a core concept of object-oriented programming, though it comes in many forms, whether prototype inheritance, mixin inheritance, subtype inheritance, interface inheritance etc., some of which overlap. The form that is of interest when exploring the Linux kernel is most like subtype inheritance, where a concrete or "final" type inherits some data fields from a "virtual" parent type. We will call this "data inheritance" to emphasize the fact that it is the data rather than the behavior that is being inherited.

    Put another way, a number of different implementations of a particular interface share, and separately extend, a common data structure. They can be said to inherit from that data structure. There are three different approaches to this sharing and extending that can be found in the Linux kernel, and all can be seen by exploring the struct inode structure and its history, though they are widely used elsewhere.

    Extension through unions

    The first approach, which is probably the most obvious but also the least flexible, is to declare a union as one element of the common structure and, for each implementation, to declare an entry in that union with extra fields that the particular implementation needs. This approach was introduced to struct inode in Linux-0.97.2 (August 1992) when

    union { struct minix_inode_info minix_i; struct ext_inode_info ext_i; struct msdos_inode_info msdos_i; } u;

    was added to struct inode. Each of these structures remained empty until 0.97.5 when i_data was moved from struct inode to struct ext_inode_info. Over the years several more "inode_info" fields were added for different filesystems, peaking at 28 different "inode_info" structures in 2.4.14.2 when ext3 was added.

    This approach to data inheritance is simple and straightforward, but is also somewhat clumsy. There are two obvious problems. Firstly, every new filesystem implementation needs to add an extra field to the union "u". With 3 fields this may not seem like a problem, with 28 it was well past "ugly". Requiring every filesystem to update this one structure is a barrier to adding filesystems that is unnecessary. Secondly, every inode allocated will be the same size and will be large enough to store the data for any filesystem. So a filesystem that wants lots of space in its "inode_info" structure will impose that space cost on every other filesystem.

    The first of these issues is not an impenetrable barrier as we will see shortly. The second is a real problem and the general ugliness of the design encouraged change. Early in the 2.5 development series this change began; it was completed by 2.5.7 when there were no "inode_info" structures left in union u (though the union itself remained until 2.6.19).

    Embedded structures

    The change that happened to inodes in early 2.5 was effectively an inversion. The change which removed ext3_i from struct inode.u also added a struct inode, called vfs_inode, to struct ext3_inode_info. So instead of the private structure being embedded in the common data structure, the common data structure is now embedded in the private one. This neatly avoids the two problems with unions; now each filesystem needs to only allocate memory to store its own structure without any need to know anything about what other filesystems might need. Of course nothing ever comes for free and this change brought with it other issues that needed to be solved, but the solutions were not costly.

    The first difficulty is the fact that when the common filesystem code - the VFS layer - calls into a specific filesystem it passes a pointer to the common data structure, the struct inode. Using this pointer, the filesystem needs to find a pointer to its own private data structure. An obvious approach is to always place the struct inode at the top of the private inode structure and simply cast a pointer to one into a pointer to the other. While this can work, it lacks any semblance of type safety and makes it harder to arrange fields in the inode to get optimal performance - as some kernel developers are wont to do.

    The solution was to use the list_entry() macro to perform the necessary pointer arithmetic, subtracting from the address of the struct inode its offset in the private data structure and then casting this appropriately. The macro for this was called list_entry() simply because the "list.h lists" implementation was the first to use this pattern of data structure embedding. The list_entry() macro did exactly what was needed and so it was used despite the strange name. This practice lasted until 2.5.28 when a new container_of() macro was added which implemented the same functionality as list_entry(), though with slightly more type safety and a more meaningful name. With container_of() it is a simple matter to map from an embedded data structure to the structure in which it is embedded.

    The second difficulty was that the filesystem had to be responsible for allocating the inode - it could no longer be allocated by common code as the common code did not have enough information to allocate the correct amount of space. This simply involved adding alloc_inode() and destroy_inode() methods to the super_operations structure and calling them as appropriate.

    Void pointers

    As noted earlier, the union pattern was not an impenetrable barrier to adding new filesystems independently. This is because the union u had one more field that was not an "inode_info" structure. A generic pointer field called generic_ip was added in Linux-1.0.5, but it was not used until 1.3.7. Any file system that does not own a structure in struct inode itself could define and allocate a separate structure and link it to the inode through u.generic_ip. This approach addressed both of the problems with unions as no changes are needed to shared declarations and each filesystem only uses the space that it needs. However it again introduced new problems of its own.

    Using generic_ip, each filesystem required two allocations for each inode instead of one and this could lead to more wastage depending on how the structure size was rounded up for allocation; it also required writing more error-handling code. Also there was memory used for the generic_ip pointer and often for a back pointer from the private structure to the common struct inode. Both of these are wasted space compared with the union approach or the embedding approach.

    Worse than this though, an extra memory dereference was needed to access the private structure from the common structure; such dereferences are best avoided. Filesystem code will often need to access both the common and the private structures. This either requires lots of extra memory dereferences, or it requires holding the address of the private structure in a register which increases register pressure. It was largely these concerns that stopped struct inode from ever migrating to broad use of the generic_ip pointer. It was certainly used, but not by the major, high-performance filesystems.

    Though this pattern has problems it is still in wide use. struct super_block has an s_fs_info pointer which serves the same purpose as u.generic_ip (which has since been renamed to i_private when the u union was finally removed - why it was not completely removed is left as an exercise for the reader). This is the only way to store filesystem-private data in a super_block. A simple search in the Linux include files shows quite a collection of fields which are void pointers named "private" or something similar. Many of these are examples of the pattern of extending a data type by using a pointer to a private extension, and most of these could be converted to using the embedded-structure pattern.

    Beyond inodes

    While inodes serve as an effective vehicle to introduce these three patterns they do not display the full scope of any of them so it is useful to look further afield and see what else we can learn.

    A survey of the use of unions elsewhere in the kernel shows that they are widely used though in very different circumstances than in struct inode. The particular aspect of inodes that is missing elsewhere is that a wide range of different modules (different filesystems) each wanted to extend an inode in different ways. In most places where unions are used there are a small fixed number of subtypes of the base type and there is little expectation of more being added. A simple example of this is struct nfs_fattr which stores file attribute information decoded out of an NFS reply. The details of these attributes are slightly different for NFSv2 and NFSv3 so there are effectively two subtypes of this structure with the difference encoded in a union. As NFSv4 uses the same information as NFSv3 this is very unlikely to ever be extended further.

    A very common pattern in other uses of unions in Linux is for encoding messages that are passed around, typically between the kernel and user-space. struct siginfo is used to convey extra information with a signal delivery. Each signal type has a different type of ancillary information, so struct siginfo has a union to encode six different subtypes. union inputArgs appears to be the largest current union with 22 different subtypes. It is used by the "coda" network file system to pass requests between the kernel module and a user-space daemon which handles the network communication.

    It is not clear whether these examples should be considered as the same pattern as the original struct inode. Do they really represent different subtypes of a base type, or is it just one type with internal variants? The Eiffel object-oriented programming language does not support variant types at all except through subtype inheritance so there is clearly a school of thought that would want to treat all usages of union as a form of subtyping. Many other languages, such as C++, provide both inheritance and unions allowing the programmer to make a choice. So the answer is not clear.

    For our purposes it doesn't really matter what we call it as long as we know where to use each pattern. The examples in the kernel fairly clearly show that when all of the variants are understood by a single module, then a union is a very appropriate mechanism for variants structures, whether you want to refer to them as using data inheritance or not. When different subtypes are managed by different modules, or at least widely separate pieces of code, then one of the other mechanisms is preferred. The use of unions for this case has almost completely disappeared with only struct cycx_device remaining as an example of a deprecated pattern.

    Problems with void pointers

    Void pointers are not quite so easy to classify. It would probably be fair to say that void pointers are the modern equivalent of "goto" statements. They can be very useful but they can also lead to very convoluted designs. A particular problem is that when you look at a void pointer, like looking at a goto, you don't really know what it is pointing at. A void pointer called private is even worse - it is like a "goto destination" command - almost meaningless without reading lots of context.

    Examining all the different uses that void pointers can be put to would be well beyond the scope of this article. Instead we will restrict our attention to just one new usage which relates to data inheritance and illustrates how the untamed nature of void pointers makes it hard to recognize their use in data inheritance. The example we will use to explain this usage is struct seq_file used by the seq_file library which makes it easy to synthesize simple text files like some of those in /proc. The "seq" part of seq_file simply indicates that the file contains a sequence of lines corresponding to a sequence of items of information in the kernel, so /proc/mounts is a seq_file which walks through the mount table reporting each mount on a single line.

    When seq_open() is used to create a new seq_file it allocates a struct seq_file and assigns it to the private_data field of the struct file which is being opened. This is a straightforward example of void pointer based data inheritance where the struct file is the base type and the struct seq_file is a simple extension to that type. It is a structure that never exists by itself but is always the private_data for some file. struct seq_file itself has a private field which is a void pointer and it can be used by clients of seq_file to add extra state to the file. For example md_seq_open() allocates a struct mdstat_info structure and attaches it via this private field, using it to meet md's internal needs. Again, this is simple data inheritance following the described pattern.

    However the private field of struct seq_file is used by svc_pool_stats_open() in a subtly but importantly different way. In this case the extra data needed is just a single pointer. So rather than allocating a local data structure to refer to from the private field, svc_pool_stats_open simply stores that pointer directly in the private field itself. This certainly seems like a sensible optimization - performing an allocation to store a single pointer would be a waste - but it highlights exactly the source of confusion that was suggested earlier: that when you look at a void pointer you don't really know what is it pointing at, or why.

    To make it a bit clearer what is happening here, it is helpful to imagine "void *private" as being like a union of every different possible pointer type. If the value that needs to be stored is a pointer, it can be stored in this union following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern. If the value is not a single pointer, then it gets stored in allocated space following the "void pointers for data inheritance" pattern. Thus when we see a void pointer being used it may not be obvious whether it is being used to point to an extension structure for data inheritance, or being used as an extension for data inheritance (or being used as something else altogether).

    To highlight this issue from a slightly different perspective it is instructive to examine struct v4l2_subdev which represents a sub-device in a video4linux device, such as a sensor or camera controller within a webcam. According to the (rather helpful) documentation it is expected that this structure will normally be embedded in a larger structure which contains extra state. However this structure still has not just one but two void pointers, both with names suggesting that they are for private use by subtypes:

    /* pointer to private data */ void *dev_priv; void *host_priv;

    It is common that a v4l sub-device (a sensor, usually) will be realized by, for example, an I2C device (much as a block device which stores your filesystem might be realized by an ATA or SCSI device). To allow for this common occurrence, struct v4l2_subdev provides a void pointer (dev_priv), so that the driver itself doesn't need to define a more specific pointer in the larger structure which struct v4l2_subdev would be embedded in. host_priv is intended to point back to a "parent" device such as a controller which acquires video data from the sensor. Of the three drivers which use this field, one appears to follow that intention while the other two use it to point to an allocated extension structure. So both of these pointers are intended to be used following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern, where a void pointer is playing the role of a union of many other pointer types, but they are not always used that way.

    It is not immediately clear that defining this void pointer in case it is useful is actually a valuable service to provide given that the device driver could easily enough define its own (type safe) pointer in its extension structure. What is clear is that an apparently "private" void pointer can be intended for various qualitatively different uses and, as we have seen in two different circumstances, they may not be used exactly as expected.

    In short, recognizing the "data inheritance through void pointers" pattern is not easy. A fairly deep examination of the code is needed to determine the exact purpose and usage of void pointers.

    A diversion into struct page

    Before we leave unions and void pointers behind a look at struct page may be interesting. This structure uses both of these patterns, though they are hidden somewhat due to historical baggage. This example is particularly instructive because it is one case where struct embedding simply is not an option.

    In Linux memory is divided into pages, and these pages are put to a variety of different uses. Some are in the "page cache" used to store the contents of files. Some are "anonymous pages" holding data used by applications. Some are used as "slabs" and divided into pieces to answer kmalloc() requests. Others are simply part of a multi-page allocation or maybe are on a free list waiting to be used. Each of these different use cases could be seen as a subtype of the general class of "page", and in most cases need some dedicated fields in struct page, such as a struct address_space pointer and index when used in the page cache, or struct kmem_cache and freelist pointers when used as a slab.

    Each page always has the same struct page describing it, so if the effective type of the page is to change - as it must as the demands for different uses of memory change over time - the type of the struct page must change within the lifetime of that structure. While many type systems are designed assuming that the type of an object is immutable, we find here that the kernel has a very real need for type mutability. Both unions and void pointers allow types to change and as noted, struct page uses both.

    At the first level of subtyping there are only a small number of different subtypes as listed above; these are all known to the core memory management code, so a union would be ideal here. Unfortunately struct page has three unions with fields for some subtypes spread over all three, thus hiding the real structure somewhat.

    When the primary subtype in use has the page being used in the page cache, the particular address_space that it belongs to may want to extend the data structure further. For this purpose there is a private field that can be used. However it is not a void pointer but is an unsigned long. Many places in the kernel assume an unsigned long and a void * are the same size and this is one of them. Most users of this field actually store a pointer here and have to cast it back and forth. The "buffer_head" library provides macros attach_page_buffers and page_buffers to set and get this field.

    So while struct page is not the most elegant example, it is an informative example of a case where unions and void pointers are the only option for providing data inheritance.

    The details of structure embedding

    Where structure embedding can be used, and where the list of possible subtypes is not known in advance, it seems to be increasingly the preferred choice. To gain a full understanding of it we will again need to explore a little bit further than inodes and contrast data inheritance with other uses of structure embedding.

    There are essentially three uses for structure embedding - three reasons for including a structure within another structure. Sometimes there is nothing particularly interesting going on. Data items are collected together into structures and structures within structures simply to highlight the closeness of the relationships between the different items. In this case the address of the embedded structure is rarely taken, and it is never mapped back to the containing structure using container_of().

    The second use is the data inheritance embedding that we have already discussed. The third is like it but importantly different. This third use is typified by struct list_head and other structs used as an embedded anchor when creating abstract data types.

    The use of an embedded anchor like struct list_head can be seen as a style of inheritance as the structure containing it "is-a" member of a list by virtue of inheriting from struct list_head. However it is not a strict subtype as a single object can have several struct list_heads embedded - struct inode has six (if we include the similar hlist_node). So it is probably best to think of this sort of embedding more like a "mixin" style of inheritance. The struct list_head provides a service - that of being included in a list - that can be mixed-in to other objects, an arbitrary number of times.

    A key aspect of data inheritance structure embedding that differentiates it from each of the other two is the existence of a reference counter in the inner-most structure. This is an observation that is tied directly to the fact that the Linux kernel uses reference counting as the primary means of lifetime management and so would not be shared by systems that used, for example, garbage collection to manage lifetimes.

    In Linux, every object with an independent existence will have a reference counter, sometimes a simple atomic_t or even an int, though often a more explicit struct kref. When an object is created using several levels of inheritance the reference counter could be buried quite deeply. For example a struct usb_device embeds a struct device which embeds struct kobject which has a struct kref. So usb_device (which might in turn be embedded in a structure for some specific device) does have a reference counter, but it is contained several levels down in the nest of structure embedding. This contrasts quite nicely with a list_head and similar structures. These have no reference counter, have no independent existence and simply provide a service to other data structures.

    Though it seems obvious when put this way, it is useful to remember that a single object cannot have two reference counters - at least not two lifetime reference counters (It is fine to have two counters like s_active and s_count in struct super_block which count different things). This means that multiple inheritance in the "data inheritance" style is not possible. The only form of multiple inheritance that can work is the mixin style used by list_head as mentioned above.

    It also means that, when designing a data structure, it is important to think about lifetime issues and whether this data structure should have its own reference counter or whether it should depend on something else for its lifetime management. That is, whether it is an object in its own right, or simply a service provided to other objects. These issues are not really new and apply equally to void pointer inheritance. However an important difference with void pointers is that it is relatively easy to change your mind later and switch an extension structure to be a fully independent object. Structure embedding requires the discipline of thinking clearly about the problem up front and making the right decision early - a discipline that is worth encouraging.

    The other key telltale for data inheritance structure embedding is the set of rules for allocating and initializing new instances of a structure, as has already been hinted at. When union or void pointer inheritance is used the main structure is usually allocated and initialized by common code (the mid-layer) and then a device specific open() or create() function is called which can optionally allocate and initialize any extension object. By contrast when structure embedding is used the structure needs to be allocated by the lowest level device driver which then initializes its own fields and calls in to common code to initialize the common fields.

    Continuing the struct inode example from above which has an alloc_inode() method in the super_block to request allocation, we find that initialization is provided for with inode_init_once() and inode_init_always() support functions. The first of these is used when the previous use of a piece of memory is unknown, the second is sufficient by itself when we know that the memory was previously used for some other inode. We see this same pattern of an initializer function separate from allocation in kobject_init(), kref_init(), and device_initialize().

    So apart from the obvious embedding of structures, the pattern of "data inheritance through structure embedding" can be recognized by the presence of a reference counter in the innermost structure, by the delegation of structure allocation to the final user of the structure, and by the provision of initializing functions which initialize a previously allocated structure.

    Conclusion

    In exploring the use of method dispatch (last week) and data inheritance (this week) in the Linux kernel we find that while some patterns seem to dominate they are by no means universal. While almost all data inheritance could be implemented using structure embedding, unions provide real value in a few specific cases. Similarly while simple vtables are common, mixin vtables are very important and the ability to delegate methods to a related object can be valuable.

    We also find that there are patterns in use with little to recommend them. Using void pointers for inheritance may have an initial simplicity, but causes longer term wastage, can cause confusion, and could nearly always be replaced by embedded inheritance. Using NULL pointers to indicate default behavior is similarly a poor choice - when the default is important there are better ways to provide for it.

    But maybe the most valuable lesson is that the Linux kernel is not only a useful program to run, it is also a useful document to study. Such study can find elegant practical solutions to real problems, and some less elegant solutions. The willing student can pursue the former to help improve their mind, and pursue the latter to help improve the kernel itself. With that in mind, the following exercises might be of interest to some.

    Exercises
  • As inodes now use structure embedding for inheritance, void pointers should not be necessary. Examine the consequences and wisdom of removing "i_private" from "struct inode".

  • Rearrange the three unions in struct page to just one union so that the enumeration of different subtypes is more explicit.

  • As was noted in the text, struct seq_file can be extended both through "void pointer" and a limited form of "union" data inheritance. Explain how seq_open_private() allows this structure to also be extended through "embedded structure" data inheritance and give an example by converting one usage in the kernel from "void pointer" to "embedded structure". Consider submitting a patch if this appears to be an improvement. Contrast this implementation of embedded structure inheritance with the mechanism used for inodes.

  • Though subtyping is widely used in the kernel, it is not uncommon for a object to contain fields that not all users are interested in. This can indicate that more fine grained subtyping is possible. As very many completely different things can be represented by a "file descriptor", it is likely that struct file could be a candidate for further subtyping.

    Identify the smallest set of fields that could serve as a generic struct file and explore the implications of embedding that in different structures to implement regular files, socket files, event files, and other file types. Exploring more general use of the proposed open() method for inodes might help here.

  • Identify an "object-oriented" language which has an object model that would meet all the needs of the Linux kernel as identified in these two articles.

  • (Log in to post comments)

    An Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts in Python, Part 1 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Programming expert Jesse Smith shows how to get started with programming Python objects using Python classes.

    Like this article? We recommend 

    In this article, I'll show you how to use Python from an object-oriented (OO) point of view. If you're unfamiliar with object-oriented concepts such as inheritance, encapsulation, and polymorphism, read my article "A Primer on Object-Oriented Concepts" before continuing with this article.

    This article builds on my earlier Python programming series "An Introduction to Python for the Experienced Programmer," Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3. If you're unfamiliar with Python, I recommend reading that series before continuing with this article.

    Python is often viewed mainly as a scripting language, but it can also implement object-oriented concepts by using classes. This design is important for building web-based applications that implement the Model View Controller (MVC) application architectural design pattern. This capability gives Python a decided advantage over other scripting languages such as JavaScript. As with JavaScript, in Python everything is essentially an object, making the language highly flexible and easy to use. However, unlike Python, JavaScript is a prototype language, which means that objects clone other objects to create new object instances. Python can create new object types like C# and Java can, making the language more object-centric and less prototype-centric.

    The programming examples in this article use Python 3.3.2.

    Python Classes

    As in other OO languages, the main type of object in Python is the Class object. In Python, declaring a class is easy:

    class PythonClass: pass

    We use the colon to indicate that statements will follow, in an indented sequence. A class name can only be composed of letters, underscores, and numbers. As in Java and .NET, the Python style guide recommends that class names use CamelCase notation, starting with a capital letter.

    While this is a very basic definition of a class, we can still use it in Python. The pass keyword tells Python that no further action needs to be taken. It's like an empty set of braces ({}) in other languages. To create an instance of a class, we simply use the class name followed by the parentheses, as with other languages:

    myClass = PythonClass()

    You may be wondering whether Python classes have constructors. Python doesn't have explicit constructors; however, it has something similar to a constructor: a method called __init__. This method is called immediately after a class is executed. The syntax for using the method is as follows:

    class PythonClass: def __init__(self): print('hello') myClass = PythonClass()

    If you run this code, you'll see the message 'hello' printed to the screen. The self keyword tells the Python interpreter that this is a newly created class object. The self keyword is used when defining all methods of a class, but when it's not used with the __init__ method, it refers to the instance whose method was called. In this case, the calling instance is the PythonClass. You can think of self as the same thing as this, commonly used with other languages such as Java. Notice that when you call a method, you don't need to pass the self argument, as it's always implicitly defined as a Python method parameter.

    Attributes

    Attributes are the instance variables of your class. With Python, you can even define the attributes outside the scope of the actual class by using an object instance. For example, the code below assigns two variables to the class:

    class PythonClass: def __init__(self): pass myClass = PythonClass() myClass.x = 10 myClass.y = 11 print(myClass.x) print(myClass.y)

    This is the same thing as defining the attributes within the scope of the class, as it's done in other languages such as Java and .NET:

    class PythonClass: x = 10 y = 10 def __init__(self): pass myClass = PythonClass() print(myClass.x) print(myClass.y)

    What's the advantage of being able to define instance variables outside the scope of the class? I haven't really found one, except that it's a more generic implementation of the class. By not defining the instance variables within the class, we basically can use any variable at any time, given the context in which the variables will be used. This is flexible if you want so-called "open-ended" classes.

    As with functions in Python, classes can take any number of arguments. For example, consider the following class declaration:

    class PythonClass: ' This is a Python class with two attributes and two methods.' x = 10 y = 10 def __init__(self): pass def method1(self, x,y): self.x = x self.y = y myClass = PythonClass() myClass.method1(5,4) print(myClass.x) print(myClass.y)

    In this example, a new method is added, called method1. This method takes two parameters called x and y and assigns the values passed into the method to the attributes of the calling instance, which in this case is the PythonClass instance. If you run the code, you'll get the values 5 and 4. Essentially, we've changed the original value assignments of the attributes initially declared for the class.

    Python classes can have what are called docStrings. They're simply strings enclosed in single quotes ('') or double quotes (""). These strings are often just comments for methods in your class, or an overall description of your class.

    Conclusion

    In this article, you learned how classes work in Python. Examples were given to define classes with multiple methods and arguments.

    Classes are essentially the backbone of any OO language. Some key things to know about Python classes: The self keyword references an instance of the calling class.

    You can define attributes outside the scope of the class. This differs from other languages such as Java and .NET, where the attributes are always defined within the class itself.

    Once you know how to do one Python class, you know how to do them all.

    In Part 2 of this series, I'll show you how to subclass Python classes and use them for other OO concepts like inheritance and polymorphism, along with learning more about other object concepts such as modules and packages.



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