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000-834 - Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design) - Dump Information

Vendor : IBM
Exam Code : 000-834
Exam Name : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)
Questions and Answers : 180 Q & A
Updated On : December 14, 2018
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000-834 Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)

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000-834 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)

Test Code : 000-834
Test Name : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 180 Real Questions

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IBM IBM Object Oriented Analysis

Analyst company Positions IBM in Leaders Quadrant of Magic Quadrant file | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

source: IBM

July 12, 2006 08:00 ET

SOMERS, ny -- (MARKET WIRE) -- July 12, 2006 -- IBM nowadays announced that Gartner, Inc. has located IBM within the leaders quadrant in its Magic Quadrant report of the thing Oriented analysis and Design tools space. in response to the file*, Gartner estimates that IBM has more than 50 percent of the market share versus its two nearest competitors who mixed hold 30 p.c or extra of the market.

model-pushed construction helps utility building teams take into account, doc and talk the enterprise system of application and programs building to reveal structure resilience earlier than making full scale development investments, and to define a service oriented architecture roadmap resulting in enterprise transformation.

IBM's leadership in the Object Oriented analysis and Design (OOA&D) tools marketplace for 2H06-2H07 is the effect of a complete portfolio of choices which assist agencies use models or patterns to force their utility development, together with:

-- IBM Rational utility Modeler, IBM Rational application Architect, and IBM Rational techniques Developer -- IBM's award-profitable mannequin-pushed construction tools, in line with Eclipse, to aid development teams create effective purposes; -- persisted assist of Microsoft environments through IBM Rational Rose demonstrates IBM's dedication to proposing a application construction platform that ambitions a wide range of implementation technologies; -- IBM WebSphere enterprise Modeler -- the result of IBM's acquisition of Holosofx -- helps business procedure analysis to close the hole between an firm's strains of enterprise and their development company's understanding of the company drivers; -- IBM Rational facts Architect -- an business facts modeling and database design tool that also helps users map statistics property to each and every other to more with no trouble create database and integration schemas. "Gartner's evaluation of the OOA&D positions IBM within the leaders quadrant which we agree with confirms our approach round mannequin-driven development," observed Danny Sabbah, standard manager, Rational software, IBM. "IBM's model-driven tools aid geographically distributed software construction groups to talk their designs and requirements visually, casting off the possibility of undertaking failures due to mis-communique due to language and cultural boundaries."

Gartner's Magic Quadrant positions providers along two dimensions: completeness of vision, and capacity to execute on that vision. For 2006, Object Oriented evaluation and Design equipment are neatly into mainstream use reaching 20 p.c to 50 % of the target audience: suggestions architects, analysts and builders. according to the record, most organizations have converted to OOA&D methods and tools in concert with imposing service oriented architectures (SOAs), leading to a quick explosion of this market from 2000-2004.

ultra-modern news builds on IBM's management in assisting consumers govern their application and techniques development. IBM turned into recently named the international market share leader in the utility construction and challenge and portfolio management software market in response to complete utility earnings for 2005 for the fifth consecutive year, in keeping with impartial analyst company Gartner Inc. based on the impartial file**, IBM became the leading market share seller in total software earnings with 25.4 % market share, more than double the share of its nearest competitor.

For greater assistance, consult with http://www.ibm.com/software/rational.

about the Gartner Magic Quadrant

The Magic Quadrant is copyrighted June 1, 2006 through Gartner, Inc. and is reused with permission. The Magic Quadrant is a graphical illustration of a marketplace at and for a specific time duration. It depicts Gartner's analysis of how definite providers measure towards standards for that market, as defined through Gartner. Gartner doesn't advocate any supplier, product or carrier depicted within the Magic Quadrant, and does not advise technology users to opt for best these providers positioned within the "Leaders" quadrant. The Magic Quadrant is supposed completely as a analysis tool, and isn't meant to be a selected guide to motion. Gartner disclaims all warranties, express or implied, with admire to this analysis, including any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular intention.

* The Gartner Magic Quadrant for Object Oriented analysis and Design (OOA&D) equipment, 2H06-2H07 file became authored by way of Michael J. Blechar.

** The Gartner market data file is entitled "Market Share: software development and mission and Portfolio management, worldwide, 2005" authored with the aid of Laurie Wurster and Fabrizio Biscotti.


The Promise of (well-nigh) ‘Serverless Computing’ | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The definition of cloud computing may be nebulous, but its promise is clear. as an alternative of filling a warehouse with servers and paying people to manage them, an organization can pay a cloud computing provider for computing materials on demand and pay simplest for what it truly makes use of.

This prospect lured organizations starting from startups to massive establishments to stodgy executive corporations onto cloud offerings from Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and others. those now neatly-dependent features might keep agencies from purchasing and managing physical servers, however they do not quite carry on the dream of paying simplest for what you employ.

capabilities like Amazon’s EC2 nevertheless require you to opt for—and pay for—a certain quantity of computing resources, including reminiscence and community capability. which you can dial these supplies up or down as demand on your internet utility adjustments. however that might nonetheless leave you with much less computing power than you want for a surprising or unanticipated spike in site visitors, leaving your app less attentive to clients. So, many cloud shoppers agree to pay for greater elements than they mechanically need.

Worse, these digital servers still require purchasers to do lots of real maintenance, says Donald F. Ferguson, cofounder and CTO of video-streaming business Seeka television and a professor of laptop science at Columbia tuition. for instance, shoppers need to deploy security updates and look at various them to make sure they do not damage existing facets. Ferguson, who spent many years as a software architect for groups including Dell and Microsoft and helped create IBM’s utility server WebSphere, says this consumes more time than you could believe. "for most initiatives, we would spend 20 p.c of our time managing cloud environments," he says.

it really is why Seeka tv depends on a burgeoning strategy to cloud computing that eliminates digital servers. The idea goes by using the paradoxical identify of serverless computing. So-called serverless services do basically rely on servers. The difference is that clients don't manage the servers. as a substitute of renting and managing virtual servers, comfortably upload the code you need to run, or the information you need to keep, and pay for the components you definitely use. For the developer, the server is basically invisible.

Ferguson says about 99 p.c of Seeka television's code runs on serverless systems. That’s decreased the time spent managing the cloud ambiance to nearly zero, he says.

It’s not just startups the use of serverless. Motorola options uses serverless computing for a few of its work with legislation enforcement and public security consumers, says govt Andrew Sinclair. "Serverless services enable us to spend more time on developing new points and less time on provisioning and managing servers," he says.

Cloud administration enterprise Cloudability noticed a virtually seven-fold raise in serverless usage among its customers in the closing quarter of 2017, compared with the prior quarter, according to a report the company released previous this year. "each person knows about serverless, and everyone is brooding about the place to use it," says Craig Lowery, research director at business analysis firm Gartner.

"feature as a provider"

Serverless computing has been around for years, however just recently has it become doable to create entire purposes based on it. during the last decade, programmers have shifted greater of the code for operating functions from servers to either your phone or your browser. Many builders would decide upon now not to retain servers for the few issues that can not run on the consumer’s machine, like information storage and password authentication. The earliest serverless features, which have been designed to deal with certain projects, helped builders outsource these sorts of issues. Amazon's storage carrier S3, for example, permits you to add information without worrying about how many servers or not it's stored on, and pay handiest for what you utilize. Twilio offers a carrier that lets builders use its computing infrastructure to send textual content messages to clients, devoid of installation or configuring specific servers. a more moderen service known as Auth0 handles initiatives like password verification.

the first wave of serverless computing proved conventional with app builders, but developers nonetheless needed traditional servers for lots of their custom code. That modified in 2014 with the launch of "function-as-a-service" choices like Hook.io and Amazon Lambda, which enable builders to upload small chunks of their own code, and pay most effective for the computing components that code consumes. That made it feasible for agencies like Seeka tv to depend just about solely on serverless computing.

counting on serverless computing gifts challenges. For one, builders should write utility otherwise than in the event that they planned to run an application on a laptop or ordinary cloud service. and a few capabilities, together with Amazon Lambda restrict the measurement of a code equipment, which means developers of tremendous purposes must divide them into pieces. That’s advanced for current purposes, so serverless is greater perfect for growing new applications that are developed with this type of modularity in mind.

performance can even be an issue for serverless computing. a traditional, server-primarily based application typically runs continuous, able to answer any question from a user. but services like Lambda stop operating code that is never in use and only load it back into memory when it's crucial. that may slow response time for users. further delays strengthen as distinct serverless components communicate with one an additional over a network. Sinclair says Motorola solutions shies far from serverless computing for functions that need short responses after lengthy periods of inactivity.

That means there'll always be a market for extra familiar cloud computing capabilities, says Mango Capital founder Robin Vasan, who has invested each in serverless organizations like Netlify and businesses that offer tools for managing extra ordinary cloud functions. "I consider serverless is the long run, however's now not the longer term for everything," he says. "not every feature should reside in a serverless framework."

Ferguson admits that serverless computing is rarely right for each problem, but says the sorts of performance issues that Vasan describes are infrequently a problem for Seeka tv. Its code is used often enough that Amazon Lambda rarely, if ever, has to shut it down.

meanwhile, an ecosystem of equipment is rising to aid with the challenges of serverless computing. Motorola options makes use of a carrier called Twistlock to monitor safety of its serverless code, for instance.

Lowery and Ferguson liken serverless computing today to "object-oriented programming," which made it more convenient for software developers to reuse code, in the Nineteen Eighties. It took time for builders to be taught the brand new method, and for the tools and different elements to mature. through the Nineteen Nineties, even though, it became the default, however now not unique, strategy to programming. They suppose serverless will observe an identical course.

"Any software that may also be made serverless, might be made serverless," Lowery says. "If it might not work as serverless, then you definitely'd analyze different alternatives."

Ferguson's students are already there. He nonetheless teaches college students to build utility the usage of strategies apart from serverless computing. "but it surely appears like i'm punishing the students," he says. "because serverless is so a good deal easier."

greater extraordinary WIRED reports

What Apple, Inc. receives from its new iOS partnership with IBM | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

 

Editorial

Apple's newly announced cellular partnership with IBM has been greeted through a few analysts and pundits as being each "no longer that massive a deal," or conversely, the dramatic reversal of an extended standing contention. each are incorrect, right here's why. No huge deal?

Piper Jaffray analyst Gene Munster provided one of the least enthusiastic views on the announcement, noting that Apple already has colossal business penetration whereas postulating that even "if half of the Fortune 500 had been to every buy an incremental 2,000 iPhones and 1,000 iPads above what they had been planning to buy on account of the IBM deal, it might mean a couple of half a percent to CY15 salary."

Munster also provided a broad interpretation of the "unique partnership" the two companies unique, writing, "we are expecting IBM to finally present equivalent options on Android over time."

"Robert X. Cringely" in a similar way offered a dim view of IBM's enterprise apps and flatly envisioned that "iOS cloud capabilities from IBM won't happen," concluding that "neither company should be significantly littered with the other. it be simply no longer that huge a deal."

IBM's current mobile enterprise apps and cloud functions actually don't seem to be able to dramatically boosting Apple's iOS earnings on their personal. but that is no longer what the corporations announced. instead, the two described "unique" plans to work together to "seriously change business mobility through a brand new class of company apps."

As referred to in greater detail under, the language each businesses use in describing their partnership shows that it isn't purely an effort to promote just a few corporations an additional thousand iPads. Apple and IBM have large goals in intellect.

Apple and IBM have loads of heritage as shut allies

on the identical time, Apple and IBM don't seem to be suddenly working together for the first time. We're a very long approaches from 1982, when IBM entered the new microcomputer market that Apple had ignited with the Apple II. Apple firstly "welcomed" IBM to the computing device market (below), as a a great deal larger competitor.

It subsequently portrayed massive Blue as a 1984 massive Brother in 1984 with its iconic original ad for the Macintosh. It then insulted IBM and its consumers much more explicitly in "Lemmings," a 2nd and even more provocative SuperBowl ad that portrayed blindfolded computing device users marching themselves off a cliff.

by way of the late 80s, IBM had misplaced manage of the laptop to Microsoft on its own, and failed to win it lower back with its proprietary design for brand new PS/2 techniques. whereas IBM bought notebooks and capsules that competed towards Apple's PowerBooks and Newton MessagePads within the Nineties, throughout that decade Apple and IBM truly aligned to work together in a few primary tasks.

The purpose Alliance between Apple, IBM and Motorola scaled down IBM's power RISC server chipset into the PowerPC processor that was utilized in Macs beginning in 1994 and continuing into 2006.

Apple additionally collaborated with IBM to strengthen "Macintosh application functions" to host PowerPC Mac software on IBM's AIX Unix workstations, and in parallel shipped IBM's AIX on its own excessive end Apple network Server in 1996.

In parallel with PowerPC, the Taligent mission teamed Apple's future plans for "pink," a brand new OS meant to substitute device 7, with IBM's parallel efforts for place of work OS. It intended to boost a new OS microkernel capable of supporting Macs, OS/2 and Unix, and developed object oriented frameworks pattered after Steve Jobs' next. Taligent primarily aimed to replica next and steal away Jobs' early supporters (including IBM, and later HP).

After the Taligent partnership collapsed, Apple decided to acquire subsequent as the foundation for its advanced new Mac OS X instead.

Kaleida Labs changed into a 3rd excessive profile partnership between Apple in IBM within the early Nineteen Nineties, aimed at making a cross platform, scriptable multimedia construction platform. The collaboration readily raided Apple's QuickTime group of ability and spent tens of thousands and thousands of bucks earlier than collapsing in failure in 1996. Its role was supplanted via Macromedia Director, after which by the web, in particular through plugins like Java and Flash.

Apple & IBM partnerships within the 2000s

Apple's acquisition of Jobs' next in 1996 additional helped to align the business with IBM as a co-competitor to Microsoft and an ally to Unix and open supply software. In 2005 IBM bought its notebook company to Lenovo. It more and more threw its support at the back of Linux, and in 2007 created a fork of OpenOffice that it bought as a Microsoft workplace competitor named IBM Lotus Symphony.

In 2007, IBM's research information functions conducted a examine that supplied employees with MacBook execs in preference to windows machines. worker remarks cited feedback including, "this can free us from the home windows stranglehold," and "I have been a real notebook stalwart for 2+ many years, but after making an attempt Vista, i'm in a position for a change."

The subsequent year, IBM ported its Informix records Server to OS X Server and introduced plans to carry Lotus Notes (IBM's competitor to Microsoft's change) and the Symphony workplace app suite to Apple's Mac and iOS platforms.

IBM now has a portfolio of dozens of business apps for iOS, and became basically one of the most first App save builders to embrace the platform in 2008 earlier than Apple had even launched its iPhone SDK and App save.

IBM goals large data on the massive platform

The massive news of the brand new partnership between Apple and IBM for this reason is neither that they are now working together for the primary time, nor that IBM presents some apps for iOS gadgets. What's new is the evidently emphasized exclusivity of the connection, and the future path for brand new iOS apps, management tools and cloud services.

IBM already gives Android cellphone help roughly on par with iPhone, and Android tablet guide it's just about the identical as its iPad's. It also presents guide for BlackBerry, PlayBook, BB10, home windows cell, home windows RT and even Symbian. IBM's new apps will solely target iOS despite the fact.

That makes experience as a result of IBM can be selling and leasing iOS gadgets, but also as a result of IBM can now focal point on constructing native apps for the only platform that is already being widely used in the enterprise, with out spending loads of components testing and holding support for a wide array of OS models and APIs and a bewildering range of hardware instruments.

In parallel with the development of Apple's iOS platform over the last seven years, IBM has moved far from promoting workplace apps (forsaking its OpenOffice / Symphony suite) to in its place focal point on providing managed cloud infrastructure, consulting and administration functions, in addition to "huge data" evaluation.

IBM's SmartCloud hosts public cloud functions for shoppers (similar to Amazon net functions) and additionally offers private cloud features, the place IBM sells the client servers they then own and function. machine can alternatively be leased from and/or managed onsite by using IBM.

The partnership specifically outlined, "IBM's large facts and analytics capabilities, with the vigour of more than a hundred,000 IBM industry and area consultants and utility developers in the back of it," should be used to "create apps that can radically change certain points of how groups and employees work the usage of iPhone and iPad."

One style of IBM's huge statistics analytics has looked over the last two break searching seasons. In 2012, the IBM Digital Analytics Benchmark highlighted (under) that the majority shopping become being executed on iOS contraptions--even before the media changed into manipulated to document that Apple had run out of "innovation" and that Android and Samsung have been "taking on" cell gadgets.

here 12 months, IBM's analytics printed that the divide had grown even improved, with Apple's iOS clients now accounting for 5 times the orders of Android users. The media's handwringing about Apple throughout in 2013 had temporality affected the business's stock fee, however wasn't affecting the outcomes that matter in the equipment market.

The capability to accurately determine these forms of developments--devoid of the facts being contaminated by way of lack of expertise or wishful thinking--is critically important to business users. That explains why the partnership's announcement described new apps powered by means of such analytics as "allowing groups to obtain new stages of effectivity, effectiveness and consumer pride."

As Apple noted, IBM has "dependent the realm's deepest portfolio in huge statistics and Analytics consulting and expertise knowledge in accordance with experiences drawn from more than forty,000 information and analytics customer engagements. This analytics portfolio spans analysis and building, solutions, application and hardware, and comprises greater than 15,000 analytics consultants, 4,000 analytics patents, 6,000 industry answer enterprise companions, and four hundred IBM mathematicians who're assisting purchasers use big facts to transform their organizations."

iWork business

Apple has its personal iWork apps for small enterprise and training users, it lately received Microsoft's workplace cellular apps (at present solely) on iPad, and is now working with IBM to enhance "a new classification of 'made-for-business apps' focused on selected industry considerations or opportunities in retail, healthcare, banking, go back and forth and transportation, telecommunications and assurance, amongst others, in an effort to turn into obtainable beginning q4 and into 2015."

instead of simply being some new App store titles listed by IBM, the corporations have outlined that IBM might be promoting Apple's iOS as part of its personal MobileFirst platform, as a way to "bring the capabilities required for an conclusion-to-conclusion business potential, from analytics, workflow and cloud storage, to fleet-scale device management, security and integration."

additionally, "better cellular administration contains a personal app catalog, facts and transaction safety capabilities, and productiveness suite for all IBM MobileFirst for iOS solutions. moreover on-premise utility solutions, all these services could be purchasable on Bluemix--IBM's building platform on the IBM Cloud industry."IBM is proposing all the issues Apple hasn't ever been very first rate at or shown a great deal pastime in doing itself

That skill IBM is proposing the entire issues Apple hasn't ever been very respectable at or proven a lot interest in doing itself, from selling session and assist features, to constructing and conserving server infrastructure and custom apps for customers. That includes bettering AppleCare for enterprise clients with "on-web site service delivered with the aid of IBM."

IBM is also proposing "equipment deliver, activation and management capabilities for iPhone and iPad, with leasing options." those once again are the forms of capabilities that HP and Dell had been traditionally an awful lot stronger than Apple at presenting for the computer business.

With BYOD, Apple obtained its foot within the door and iOS contraptions grew to become widely adopted via enterprise and government clients. Partnering with IBM, Apple can work on turning its cellular devices into an enterprise volume play.

Apple, IBM are thinking large

to this point, the market seems to have viewed Apple and IBM as an obvious danger to BlackBerry, which actually does have much left to lose: seventy two million subscribers as of the first quarter of 2014. iPhones have taken a painful chew out of BlackBerry's commercial enterprise revenue, however iPads goal whatever different: popular PCs.

This makes Munster's estimates of Apple probably promoting handiest an extra '2,000 iPhones and 1,000 iPads' to half of the Fortune 500 via some new IBM apps certainly perplexing. Apple rather certainly plans to aggressively goal business workstation revenue--a substantial market--with its submit-laptop cell gadgets. Tim prepare dinner addresses the iPad's commonly acknowledged competencies to eclipse laptop earnings at every chance.

"We proceed to accept as true with that the tablet market will surpass the pc market in size inside the following few years and we agree with that Apple might be a major beneficiary of this vogue," prepare dinner cited in the business's April salary name."We proceed to accept as true with that the tablet market will surpass the laptop market in measurement within the following couple of years and we accept as true with that Apple may be a massive beneficiary of this fashion " - Tim cook dinner

Apple already has no problem selling fleets of tens of hundreds of iPhones and iPads to company, executive and education consumers. it could best need IBM's assist to goal the time-honored computing device for mass eradication all through the enterprise, driven using imaginative, exclusive native apps in a position to radically altering how businesses use expertise. Apple's description of IBM makes it very clear this is precisely what each companies plan to obtain.

On its new iPad business web site, the enterprise states "Apple and IBM are working collectively to convey iPhone, iPad, and IBM MobileFirst for iOS apps to agencies around the globe. Our unique world partnership will carry a brand new type of apps that connect users to big records and analytics correct on their iOS instruments with greater ease and effectivity than ever earlier than. Apple and IBM are redefining the cell business by combining the exponential vigour of corporate statistics with the realm's superior cellular know-how."

In its long-established press free up Apple brought up, "IBM's 5,000 cellular consultants have been at the forefront of mobile enterprise innovation. IBM has secured greater than four,300 patents in cell, social and safety, that have been included into IBM MobileFirst options that permit enterprise shoppers to radically streamline and accelerate cellular adoption, help organizations have interaction greater americans and catch new markets."

moreover, "IBM has made a dozen acquisitions in safety during the past decade, has greater than 6,000 protection researchers and developers in its 25 security labs worldwide that work on constructing business-classification options."

Apple's own method in acquisitions (in addition to in patents) has generally targeted the swift implementation of differentiating features and technologies (akin to touch identification, the custom silicon in the A7 chip, and features starting from Siri to face awareness to iTunes Radio to App shop enhancements).

with the aid of partnering with IBM, Apple can leverage outdoor skills in safety, social and cellular deployment devoid of distracting itself from its core competency in building hardware, application and structures.

And now, a warning

on reflection, the ancient partnerships between Apple and IBM didn't have a fine song checklist. Taligent and Kaleida had been total screw ups, whereas PowerPC failed to sustain with the tempo of the more suitable market. IBM Lotus Notes and Symphony did not precisely seriously change the trade on any platform.

but present day Apple and IBM share little in typical with their previous incarnations within the 1990s. Apple is now no longer handiest very successful and profitable, but has a virtual lock on cellular enterprise items, and in selected gadgets with a sophisticated native app development platform (as adversarial to BlackBerry's messaging-centric platform constructed as an easy Java VM).

where Microsoft as soon as ruled the commercial enterprise and partnered with a series of groups that shut Apple out, it is now frantically making an attempt to maintain the fame quo for windows (even as its clients reject Microsoft's existing course) because it flip flops between strategic instructions in other markets.

From remaining year's "instruments and capabilities" plan, which above all failed to promote devices, to its newest nebulous cloud method that did not basically articulate a specific approach at all, Microsoft is presently presiding over a stagnant market for everyday PCs that just about every market research company sees as being overtaken with the aid of tablets, and specially Apple's iPad.

That truth highlights one other fact: considering the iPad's debut in 2010, advertising and marketing groups have intentionally framed it as a gap device without a feasible have an impact on on laptop market, the usage of chosen information teased into conclusions that consistently flattered Microsoft despite the information concerned.

With an incredible ally in IBM assisting to sell its items, Apple will doubtless face less openly misleading media insurance denying the now clear and obtrusive shift occurring as regularly occurring PCs are changed and augmented by means of greater cellular--and a great deal less complicated to control--post notebook gadgets.


000-834 Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)

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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 2 (Design)

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Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (Part 4) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

This is the last article in four part series. Here I will discuss some non-technical issues that I faced in my object-oriented design and programming journey. If you're new to the series, feel free to check out Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3! 

Why Your Last Design Attempt Failed

Many developers have attempted to design a software project properly but have failed or could not continue. Therefore, I have put together a list of problems or misconceptions about object-oriented analysis and design and how to tackle them.

If You Could Just Learn How to Design Perfectly

Perfect design at the start of the project is a myth. Your design will evolve, change, be corrected and modified over time. Many people think that they have to design perfectly at the beginning and then consider that design document as a sacred scripture. The truth is no one can come up with a perfect design at the start.

Software design is a heuristic process. It's something that you update over the lifetime of your project. There is no formula that you can use to produce best object-oriented design every time. It involves trials and painful errors from which you can learn and then apply what you've learned to your future projects.

You Have to Do Complete Analysis and Design Before Coding

Many developers and students believe that analyzing all requirements and all designing should be done before coding starts and during construction, one cannot change or extend it.

This is not true. If during coding, a team or developer realizes that the design can be extended or reduced, then it should be.

Similarly, when working in iterative development, usually 10 percent of all the requirements are tackled during one iteration. Therefore, you have to design for only 10 percent of all the requirements or user stories. If you have 10 user stories, then tackle the most important story (as indicated by the customer) in the first iteration and design for that only.

You Have to Give Enough Time to Design

When I started to become seriously interested in object-oriented design, I was spending weeks on design, thinking about how to come up with a perfect and complete design. But during coding, things did not work out as they were supposed to and I was disappointed.

The rule of thumb is that you should not give more than one day for a three-week iteration. I only give 2 to 4 hours to design before jumping to code. This does not mean you cannot go back to designing for a couple of hours during construction. You can meet with your teammates and discuss design decisions during construction as well.

You Believe UML (Unified Modeling Language) is Everything

If someone told you that UML modeling is everything and recommends some expensive CASE (Computer-Aided Software Engineering) tool, then you should come and look at my journal. Most of my designs never get to the CASE tool that our company has. When designing in teams, we use whiteboards and take a picture of them and then post these pictures in the project directory.

UML Diagrams

I believe design is not something that you draw using beautiful boxes of colors and properly align them. A rough diagram on paper is as effective as a diagram drawn using a CASE tool. OOAD is about getting a big picture and communicating this with your peers and with yourself when you are writing the code.

UML is just a tool that you can use to translate your design ideas and which can be shared with other developers. Simply learning UML will not make you a good designer.

You Have to Apply All the Patterns and Principles

If you know about all the object-oriented design principles and patterns, then you might have realized that you want to apply all of these principles and patterns before moving to construction. If you do this, then you will not be successful. Use the principles and patterns according to the situation or problem at hand and you will be able to design a good piece of software.

I suggest that you develop your own priority list of patterns and principles that you fully understand. Then, apply these patterns according to the problem that is in front of you.

You Don’t Know How to Handle Your Boss / Manager

It is possible that your boss may resist while you come up with the idea of object-oriented analysis and design. In your boss's eyes, it looks like an additional task which will not add any lines of code to your software. Also, it is also possible that your boss is not from a programming background and will not realize the importance of OOAD. 

object oriented design

There are two kinds of bosses:

  • Quality driven.
  • Schedule driven.
  • Identify what influences your boss or manager. If your boss is quality driven, then you can show him the benefits of an object-oriented analysis and design and how it help him achieve the better quality features like modularity, readability, and reliability.

    If your boss is schedule driven, then the first thing that you can do is show him that analysis and design activities will not take much time (only 2-8 hours in a 3 weeks iteration). You can also show them how other time-saving benefits, such as a good design, can save time later in the project, like when you have to update or change some features of a piece of code.

    What Next?

    Write what you like about the post in the comments section. You can visit www.objectorienteddesign.org for a small report that discussed applying object-oriented principles to real life examples.

    Topics:

    object-oriented design ,object-oriented programming ,agile 2018 ,agile application delivery


    Object-Oriented Analysis And Design — Introduction (Part 1) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The Concept Of Object-Orientation

    Object-orientation is what’s referred to as a programming paradigm. It’s not a language itself but a set of concepts that is supported by many languages.

    If you aren’t familiar with the concepts of object-orientation, you may take a look at The Story of Object-Oriented Programming.

    If everything we do in these languages is object-oriented, it means, we are oriented or focused around objects.

    Now in an object-oriented language, this one large program will instead be split apart into self contained objects, almost like having several mini-programs, each object representing a different part of the application.

    And each object contains its own data and its own logic, and they communicate between themselves.

    These objects aren’t random. They represent the way you talk and think about the problem you are trying to solve in your real life.

    They represent things like employees, images, bank accounts, spaceships, asteroids, video segment, audio files, or whatever exists in your program.

    Object-Oriented Analysis And Design (OOAD)

    It’s a structured method for analyzing, designing a system by applying the object-orientated concepts, and develop a set of graphical system models during the development life cycle of the software.

    OOAD In The SDLC

    The software life cycle is typically divided up into stages going from abstract descriptions of the problem to designs then to code and testing and finally to deployment.

    The earliest stages of this process are analysis (requirements) and design.

    The distinction between analysis and design is often described as “what Vs how”.

    In analysis developers work with users and domain experts to define what the system is supposed to do. Implementation details are supposed to be mostly or totally ignored at this phase.

    The goal of the analysis phase is to create a model of the system regardless of constraints such as appropriate technology. This is typically done via use cases and abstract definition of the most important objects using conceptual model.

    The design phase refines the analysis model and applies the needed technology and other implementation constrains.

    It focuses on describing the objects, their attributes, behavior, and interactions. The design model should have all the details required so that programmers can implement the design in code.

    They’re best conducted in an iterative and incremental software methodologies. So, the activities of OOAD and the developed models aren’t done once, we will revisit and refine these steps continually.

    Object-Oriented Analysis

    In the object-oriented analysis, we …

  • Elicit requirements: Define what does the software need to do, and what’s the problem the software trying to solve.
  • Specify requirements: Describe the requirements, usually, using use cases (and scenarios) or user stories.
  • Conceptual model: Identify the important objects, refine them, and define their relationships and behavior and draw them in a simple diagram.
  • We’re not going to cover the first two activities, just the last one. These are already explained in detail in Requirements Engineering.

    Object-Oriented Design

    The analysis phase identifies the objects, their relationship, and behavior using the conceptual model (an abstract definition for the objects).

    While in design phase, we describe these objects (by creating class diagram from conceptual diagram — usually mapping conceptual model to class diagram), their attributes, behavior, and interactions.

    In addition to applying the software design principles and patterns which will be covered in later tutorials.

    The input for object-oriented design is provided by the output of object-oriented analysis. But, analysis and design may occur in parallel, and the results of one activity can be used by the other.

    In the object-oriented design, we …

  • Describe the classes and their relationships using class diagram.
  • Describe the interaction between the objects using sequence diagram.
  • Apply software design principles and design patterns.
  • A class diagram gives a visual representation of the classes you need. And here is where you get to be really specific about object-oriented principles like inheritance and polymorphism.

    Describing the interactions between those objects lets you better understand the responsibilities of the different objects, the behaviors they need to have.

    — Other diagrams

    There are many other diagrams we can use to model the system from different perspectives; interactions between objects, structure of the system, or the behavior of the system and how it responds to events.

    It’s always about selecting the right diagram for the right need. You should realize which diagrams will be useful when thinking about or discussing a situation that isn’t clear.

    System modeling and the different models we can use will be discussed next.

    System Modeling

    System modeling is the process of developing models of the system, with each model representing a different perspectives of that system.

    The most important aspect about a system model is that it leaves out detail; It’s an abstract representation of the system.

    The models are usually based on graphical notation, which is almost always based on the notations in the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Other models of the system like mathematical model; a detailed system description.

    Models are used during the analysis process to help to elicit the requirements, during the design process to describe the system to engineers, and after implementation to document the system structure and operation.

    Different Perspectives

    We may develop a model to represent the system from different perspectives.

  • External, where you model the context or the environment of the system.
  • Interaction, where you model the interaction between components of a system, or between a system and other systems.
  • Structural, where you model the organization of the system, or the structure of the data being processed by the system.
  • Behavioral, where you model the dynamic behavior of the system and how it respond to events.
  • Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    The unified modeling language become the standard modeling language for object-oriented modeling. It has many diagrams, however, the most diagrams that are commonly used are:

  • Use case diagram: It shows the interaction between a system and it’s environment (users or systems) within a particular situation.
  • Class diagram: It shows the different objects, their relationship, their behaviors, and attributes.
  • Sequence diagram: It shows the interactions between the different objects in the system, and between actors and the objects in a system.
  • State machine diagram: It shows how the system respond to external and internal events.
  • Activity diagram: It shows the flow of the data between the processes in the system.
  • You can do diagramming work on paper or on a whiteboard, at least in the initial stages of a project. But there are some diagramming tools that will help you to draw these UML diagrams.


    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, part 2 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    June 7, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    In the first part of this analysis we looked at how the polymorphic side of object-oriented programming was implemented in the Linux kernel using regular C constructs. In particular we examined method dispatch, looked at the different forms that vtables could take, and the circumstances where separate vtables were eschewed in preference for storing function pointers directly in objects. In this conclusion we will explore a second important aspect of object-oriented programming - inheritance, and in particular data inheritance.

    Data inheritance

    Inheritance is a core concept of object-oriented programming, though it comes in many forms, whether prototype inheritance, mixin inheritance, subtype inheritance, interface inheritance etc., some of which overlap. The form that is of interest when exploring the Linux kernel is most like subtype inheritance, where a concrete or "final" type inherits some data fields from a "virtual" parent type. We will call this "data inheritance" to emphasize the fact that it is the data rather than the behavior that is being inherited.

    Put another way, a number of different implementations of a particular interface share, and separately extend, a common data structure. They can be said to inherit from that data structure. There are three different approaches to this sharing and extending that can be found in the Linux kernel, and all can be seen by exploring the struct inode structure and its history, though they are widely used elsewhere.

    Extension through unions

    The first approach, which is probably the most obvious but also the least flexible, is to declare a union as one element of the common structure and, for each implementation, to declare an entry in that union with extra fields that the particular implementation needs. This approach was introduced to struct inode in Linux-0.97.2 (August 1992) when

    union { struct minix_inode_info minix_i; struct ext_inode_info ext_i; struct msdos_inode_info msdos_i; } u;

    was added to struct inode. Each of these structures remained empty until 0.97.5 when i_data was moved from struct inode to struct ext_inode_info. Over the years several more "inode_info" fields were added for different filesystems, peaking at 28 different "inode_info" structures in 2.4.14.2 when ext3 was added.

    This approach to data inheritance is simple and straightforward, but is also somewhat clumsy. There are two obvious problems. Firstly, every new filesystem implementation needs to add an extra field to the union "u". With 3 fields this may not seem like a problem, with 28 it was well past "ugly". Requiring every filesystem to update this one structure is a barrier to adding filesystems that is unnecessary. Secondly, every inode allocated will be the same size and will be large enough to store the data for any filesystem. So a filesystem that wants lots of space in its "inode_info" structure will impose that space cost on every other filesystem.

    The first of these issues is not an impenetrable barrier as we will see shortly. The second is a real problem and the general ugliness of the design encouraged change. Early in the 2.5 development series this change began; it was completed by 2.5.7 when there were no "inode_info" structures left in union u (though the union itself remained until 2.6.19).

    Embedded structures

    The change that happened to inodes in early 2.5 was effectively an inversion. The change which removed ext3_i from struct inode.u also added a struct inode, called vfs_inode, to struct ext3_inode_info. So instead of the private structure being embedded in the common data structure, the common data structure is now embedded in the private one. This neatly avoids the two problems with unions; now each filesystem needs to only allocate memory to store its own structure without any need to know anything about what other filesystems might need. Of course nothing ever comes for free and this change brought with it other issues that needed to be solved, but the solutions were not costly.

    The first difficulty is the fact that when the common filesystem code - the VFS layer - calls into a specific filesystem it passes a pointer to the common data structure, the struct inode. Using this pointer, the filesystem needs to find a pointer to its own private data structure. An obvious approach is to always place the struct inode at the top of the private inode structure and simply cast a pointer to one into a pointer to the other. While this can work, it lacks any semblance of type safety and makes it harder to arrange fields in the inode to get optimal performance - as some kernel developers are wont to do.

    The solution was to use the list_entry() macro to perform the necessary pointer arithmetic, subtracting from the address of the struct inode its offset in the private data structure and then casting this appropriately. The macro for this was called list_entry() simply because the "list.h lists" implementation was the first to use this pattern of data structure embedding. The list_entry() macro did exactly what was needed and so it was used despite the strange name. This practice lasted until 2.5.28 when a new container_of() macro was added which implemented the same functionality as list_entry(), though with slightly more type safety and a more meaningful name. With container_of() it is a simple matter to map from an embedded data structure to the structure in which it is embedded.

    The second difficulty was that the filesystem had to be responsible for allocating the inode - it could no longer be allocated by common code as the common code did not have enough information to allocate the correct amount of space. This simply involved adding alloc_inode() and destroy_inode() methods to the super_operations structure and calling them as appropriate.

    Void pointers

    As noted earlier, the union pattern was not an impenetrable barrier to adding new filesystems independently. This is because the union u had one more field that was not an "inode_info" structure. A generic pointer field called generic_ip was added in Linux-1.0.5, but it was not used until 1.3.7. Any file system that does not own a structure in struct inode itself could define and allocate a separate structure and link it to the inode through u.generic_ip. This approach addressed both of the problems with unions as no changes are needed to shared declarations and each filesystem only uses the space that it needs. However it again introduced new problems of its own.

    Using generic_ip, each filesystem required two allocations for each inode instead of one and this could lead to more wastage depending on how the structure size was rounded up for allocation; it also required writing more error-handling code. Also there was memory used for the generic_ip pointer and often for a back pointer from the private structure to the common struct inode. Both of these are wasted space compared with the union approach or the embedding approach.

    Worse than this though, an extra memory dereference was needed to access the private structure from the common structure; such dereferences are best avoided. Filesystem code will often need to access both the common and the private structures. This either requires lots of extra memory dereferences, or it requires holding the address of the private structure in a register which increases register pressure. It was largely these concerns that stopped struct inode from ever migrating to broad use of the generic_ip pointer. It was certainly used, but not by the major, high-performance filesystems.

    Though this pattern has problems it is still in wide use. struct super_block has an s_fs_info pointer which serves the same purpose as u.generic_ip (which has since been renamed to i_private when the u union was finally removed - why it was not completely removed is left as an exercise for the reader). This is the only way to store filesystem-private data in a super_block. A simple search in the Linux include files shows quite a collection of fields which are void pointers named "private" or something similar. Many of these are examples of the pattern of extending a data type by using a pointer to a private extension, and most of these could be converted to using the embedded-structure pattern.

    Beyond inodes

    While inodes serve as an effective vehicle to introduce these three patterns they do not display the full scope of any of them so it is useful to look further afield and see what else we can learn.

    A survey of the use of unions elsewhere in the kernel shows that they are widely used though in very different circumstances than in struct inode. The particular aspect of inodes that is missing elsewhere is that a wide range of different modules (different filesystems) each wanted to extend an inode in different ways. In most places where unions are used there are a small fixed number of subtypes of the base type and there is little expectation of more being added. A simple example of this is struct nfs_fattr which stores file attribute information decoded out of an NFS reply. The details of these attributes are slightly different for NFSv2 and NFSv3 so there are effectively two subtypes of this structure with the difference encoded in a union. As NFSv4 uses the same information as NFSv3 this is very unlikely to ever be extended further.

    A very common pattern in other uses of unions in Linux is for encoding messages that are passed around, typically between the kernel and user-space. struct siginfo is used to convey extra information with a signal delivery. Each signal type has a different type of ancillary information, so struct siginfo has a union to encode six different subtypes. union inputArgs appears to be the largest current union with 22 different subtypes. It is used by the "coda" network file system to pass requests between the kernel module and a user-space daemon which handles the network communication.

    It is not clear whether these examples should be considered as the same pattern as the original struct inode. Do they really represent different subtypes of a base type, or is it just one type with internal variants? The Eiffel object-oriented programming language does not support variant types at all except through subtype inheritance so there is clearly a school of thought that would want to treat all usages of union as a form of subtyping. Many other languages, such as C++, provide both inheritance and unions allowing the programmer to make a choice. So the answer is not clear.

    For our purposes it doesn't really matter what we call it as long as we know where to use each pattern. The examples in the kernel fairly clearly show that when all of the variants are understood by a single module, then a union is a very appropriate mechanism for variants structures, whether you want to refer to them as using data inheritance or not. When different subtypes are managed by different modules, or at least widely separate pieces of code, then one of the other mechanisms is preferred. The use of unions for this case has almost completely disappeared with only struct cycx_device remaining as an example of a deprecated pattern.

    Problems with void pointers

    Void pointers are not quite so easy to classify. It would probably be fair to say that void pointers are the modern equivalent of "goto" statements. They can be very useful but they can also lead to very convoluted designs. A particular problem is that when you look at a void pointer, like looking at a goto, you don't really know what it is pointing at. A void pointer called private is even worse - it is like a "goto destination" command - almost meaningless without reading lots of context.

    Examining all the different uses that void pointers can be put to would be well beyond the scope of this article. Instead we will restrict our attention to just one new usage which relates to data inheritance and illustrates how the untamed nature of void pointers makes it hard to recognize their use in data inheritance. The example we will use to explain this usage is struct seq_file used by the seq_file library which makes it easy to synthesize simple text files like some of those in /proc. The "seq" part of seq_file simply indicates that the file contains a sequence of lines corresponding to a sequence of items of information in the kernel, so /proc/mounts is a seq_file which walks through the mount table reporting each mount on a single line.

    When seq_open() is used to create a new seq_file it allocates a struct seq_file and assigns it to the private_data field of the struct file which is being opened. This is a straightforward example of void pointer based data inheritance where the struct file is the base type and the struct seq_file is a simple extension to that type. It is a structure that never exists by itself but is always the private_data for some file. struct seq_file itself has a private field which is a void pointer and it can be used by clients of seq_file to add extra state to the file. For example md_seq_open() allocates a struct mdstat_info structure and attaches it via this private field, using it to meet md's internal needs. Again, this is simple data inheritance following the described pattern.

    However the private field of struct seq_file is used by svc_pool_stats_open() in a subtly but importantly different way. In this case the extra data needed is just a single pointer. So rather than allocating a local data structure to refer to from the private field, svc_pool_stats_open simply stores that pointer directly in the private field itself. This certainly seems like a sensible optimization - performing an allocation to store a single pointer would be a waste - but it highlights exactly the source of confusion that was suggested earlier: that when you look at a void pointer you don't really know what is it pointing at, or why.

    To make it a bit clearer what is happening here, it is helpful to imagine "void *private" as being like a union of every different possible pointer type. If the value that needs to be stored is a pointer, it can be stored in this union following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern. If the value is not a single pointer, then it gets stored in allocated space following the "void pointers for data inheritance" pattern. Thus when we see a void pointer being used it may not be obvious whether it is being used to point to an extension structure for data inheritance, or being used as an extension for data inheritance (or being used as something else altogether).

    To highlight this issue from a slightly different perspective it is instructive to examine struct v4l2_subdev which represents a sub-device in a video4linux device, such as a sensor or camera controller within a webcam. According to the (rather helpful) documentation it is expected that this structure will normally be embedded in a larger structure which contains extra state. However this structure still has not just one but two void pointers, both with names suggesting that they are for private use by subtypes:

    /* pointer to private data */ void *dev_priv; void *host_priv;

    It is common that a v4l sub-device (a sensor, usually) will be realized by, for example, an I2C device (much as a block device which stores your filesystem might be realized by an ATA or SCSI device). To allow for this common occurrence, struct v4l2_subdev provides a void pointer (dev_priv), so that the driver itself doesn't need to define a more specific pointer in the larger structure which struct v4l2_subdev would be embedded in. host_priv is intended to point back to a "parent" device such as a controller which acquires video data from the sensor. Of the three drivers which use this field, one appears to follow that intention while the other two use it to point to an allocated extension structure. So both of these pointers are intended to be used following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern, where a void pointer is playing the role of a union of many other pointer types, but they are not always used that way.

    It is not immediately clear that defining this void pointer in case it is useful is actually a valuable service to provide given that the device driver could easily enough define its own (type safe) pointer in its extension structure. What is clear is that an apparently "private" void pointer can be intended for various qualitatively different uses and, as we have seen in two different circumstances, they may not be used exactly as expected.

    In short, recognizing the "data inheritance through void pointers" pattern is not easy. A fairly deep examination of the code is needed to determine the exact purpose and usage of void pointers.

    A diversion into struct page

    Before we leave unions and void pointers behind a look at struct page may be interesting. This structure uses both of these patterns, though they are hidden somewhat due to historical baggage. This example is particularly instructive because it is one case where struct embedding simply is not an option.

    In Linux memory is divided into pages, and these pages are put to a variety of different uses. Some are in the "page cache" used to store the contents of files. Some are "anonymous pages" holding data used by applications. Some are used as "slabs" and divided into pieces to answer kmalloc() requests. Others are simply part of a multi-page allocation or maybe are on a free list waiting to be used. Each of these different use cases could be seen as a subtype of the general class of "page", and in most cases need some dedicated fields in struct page, such as a struct address_space pointer and index when used in the page cache, or struct kmem_cache and freelist pointers when used as a slab.

    Each page always has the same struct page describing it, so if the effective type of the page is to change - as it must as the demands for different uses of memory change over time - the type of the struct page must change within the lifetime of that structure. While many type systems are designed assuming that the type of an object is immutable, we find here that the kernel has a very real need for type mutability. Both unions and void pointers allow types to change and as noted, struct page uses both.

    At the first level of subtyping there are only a small number of different subtypes as listed above; these are all known to the core memory management code, so a union would be ideal here. Unfortunately struct page has three unions with fields for some subtypes spread over all three, thus hiding the real structure somewhat.

    When the primary subtype in use has the page being used in the page cache, the particular address_space that it belongs to may want to extend the data structure further. For this purpose there is a private field that can be used. However it is not a void pointer but is an unsigned long. Many places in the kernel assume an unsigned long and a void * are the same size and this is one of them. Most users of this field actually store a pointer here and have to cast it back and forth. The "buffer_head" library provides macros attach_page_buffers and page_buffers to set and get this field.

    So while struct page is not the most elegant example, it is an informative example of a case where unions and void pointers are the only option for providing data inheritance.

    The details of structure embedding

    Where structure embedding can be used, and where the list of possible subtypes is not known in advance, it seems to be increasingly the preferred choice. To gain a full understanding of it we will again need to explore a little bit further than inodes and contrast data inheritance with other uses of structure embedding.

    There are essentially three uses for structure embedding - three reasons for including a structure within another structure. Sometimes there is nothing particularly interesting going on. Data items are collected together into structures and structures within structures simply to highlight the closeness of the relationships between the different items. In this case the address of the embedded structure is rarely taken, and it is never mapped back to the containing structure using container_of().

    The second use is the data inheritance embedding that we have already discussed. The third is like it but importantly different. This third use is typified by struct list_head and other structs used as an embedded anchor when creating abstract data types.

    The use of an embedded anchor like struct list_head can be seen as a style of inheritance as the structure containing it "is-a" member of a list by virtue of inheriting from struct list_head. However it is not a strict subtype as a single object can have several struct list_heads embedded - struct inode has six (if we include the similar hlist_node). So it is probably best to think of this sort of embedding more like a "mixin" style of inheritance. The struct list_head provides a service - that of being included in a list - that can be mixed-in to other objects, an arbitrary number of times.

    A key aspect of data inheritance structure embedding that differentiates it from each of the other two is the existence of a reference counter in the inner-most structure. This is an observation that is tied directly to the fact that the Linux kernel uses reference counting as the primary means of lifetime management and so would not be shared by systems that used, for example, garbage collection to manage lifetimes.

    In Linux, every object with an independent existence will have a reference counter, sometimes a simple atomic_t or even an int, though often a more explicit struct kref. When an object is created using several levels of inheritance the reference counter could be buried quite deeply. For example a struct usb_device embeds a struct device which embeds struct kobject which has a struct kref. So usb_device (which might in turn be embedded in a structure for some specific device) does have a reference counter, but it is contained several levels down in the nest of structure embedding. This contrasts quite nicely with a list_head and similar structures. These have no reference counter, have no independent existence and simply provide a service to other data structures.

    Though it seems obvious when put this way, it is useful to remember that a single object cannot have two reference counters - at least not two lifetime reference counters (It is fine to have two counters like s_active and s_count in struct super_block which count different things). This means that multiple inheritance in the "data inheritance" style is not possible. The only form of multiple inheritance that can work is the mixin style used by list_head as mentioned above.

    It also means that, when designing a data structure, it is important to think about lifetime issues and whether this data structure should have its own reference counter or whether it should depend on something else for its lifetime management. That is, whether it is an object in its own right, or simply a service provided to other objects. These issues are not really new and apply equally to void pointer inheritance. However an important difference with void pointers is that it is relatively easy to change your mind later and switch an extension structure to be a fully independent object. Structure embedding requires the discipline of thinking clearly about the problem up front and making the right decision early - a discipline that is worth encouraging.

    The other key telltale for data inheritance structure embedding is the set of rules for allocating and initializing new instances of a structure, as has already been hinted at. When union or void pointer inheritance is used the main structure is usually allocated and initialized by common code (the mid-layer) and then a device specific open() or create() function is called which can optionally allocate and initialize any extension object. By contrast when structure embedding is used the structure needs to be allocated by the lowest level device driver which then initializes its own fields and calls in to common code to initialize the common fields.

    Continuing the struct inode example from above which has an alloc_inode() method in the super_block to request allocation, we find that initialization is provided for with inode_init_once() and inode_init_always() support functions. The first of these is used when the previous use of a piece of memory is unknown, the second is sufficient by itself when we know that the memory was previously used for some other inode. We see this same pattern of an initializer function separate from allocation in kobject_init(), kref_init(), and device_initialize().

    So apart from the obvious embedding of structures, the pattern of "data inheritance through structure embedding" can be recognized by the presence of a reference counter in the innermost structure, by the delegation of structure allocation to the final user of the structure, and by the provision of initializing functions which initialize a previously allocated structure.

    Conclusion

    In exploring the use of method dispatch (last week) and data inheritance (this week) in the Linux kernel we find that while some patterns seem to dominate they are by no means universal. While almost all data inheritance could be implemented using structure embedding, unions provide real value in a few specific cases. Similarly while simple vtables are common, mixin vtables are very important and the ability to delegate methods to a related object can be valuable.

    We also find that there are patterns in use with little to recommend them. Using void pointers for inheritance may have an initial simplicity, but causes longer term wastage, can cause confusion, and could nearly always be replaced by embedded inheritance. Using NULL pointers to indicate default behavior is similarly a poor choice - when the default is important there are better ways to provide for it.

    But maybe the most valuable lesson is that the Linux kernel is not only a useful program to run, it is also a useful document to study. Such study can find elegant practical solutions to real problems, and some less elegant solutions. The willing student can pursue the former to help improve their mind, and pursue the latter to help improve the kernel itself. With that in mind, the following exercises might be of interest to some.

    Exercises
  • As inodes now use structure embedding for inheritance, void pointers should not be necessary. Examine the consequences and wisdom of removing "i_private" from "struct inode".

  • Rearrange the three unions in struct page to just one union so that the enumeration of different subtypes is more explicit.

  • As was noted in the text, struct seq_file can be extended both through "void pointer" and a limited form of "union" data inheritance. Explain how seq_open_private() allows this structure to also be extended through "embedded structure" data inheritance and give an example by converting one usage in the kernel from "void pointer" to "embedded structure". Consider submitting a patch if this appears to be an improvement. Contrast this implementation of embedded structure inheritance with the mechanism used for inodes.

  • Though subtyping is widely used in the kernel, it is not uncommon for a object to contain fields that not all users are interested in. This can indicate that more fine grained subtyping is possible. As very many completely different things can be represented by a "file descriptor", it is likely that struct file could be a candidate for further subtyping.

    Identify the smallest set of fields that could serve as a generic struct file and explore the implications of embedding that in different structures to implement regular files, socket files, event files, and other file types. Exploring more general use of the proposed open() method for inodes might help here.

  • Identify an "object-oriented" language which has an object model that would meet all the needs of the Linux kernel as identified in these two articles.

  • (Log in to post comments)


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