|Exam Name||:||IBM Tivoli Monitoring For Transaction Perf V5.2 Implementation|
|Questions and Answers||:||116 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||February 14, 2019|
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000-798 exam Dumps Source : IBM Tivoli Monitoring For Transaction Perf V5.2 Implementation
Test Code : 000-798
Test Name : IBM Tivoli Monitoring For Transaction Perf V5.2 Implementation
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 116 Real Questions
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IBM and two other agencies will marry blockchain and IoT to help control groundwater utilization in an “at-chance” Californian aquifer.
Aimed to increase sustainable use of the important thing water resource, IBM introduced Friday that California’s Sacramento San Joaquin River Delta can be tracked in “precise-time” through a joint effort between the Freshwater have faith, a u.s.a.primarily based nonprofit working to preserve and restore freshwater ecosystems, and SweetSense, a provider of web of things (IoT) sensors for the construction sector.
The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta covers 1,one hundred rectangular miles and offers water to the San Francisco Bay area and coastal and southern California.
The task is being jointly funded through the Water foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore basis, and may also acquire analysis guide from the university of Colorado Boulder, IBM stated.
For the effort, IoT sensors will transmit water extraction data to satellites, after which it can be recorded on the IBM Blockchain Platform hosted in the IBM Cloud. It also uses wise contracts to automatically execute transactions when certain conditions are met.
“via a web-based mostly dashboard, water patrons, including farmers; financers and regulators will all be capable of display screen and song using groundwater to reveal how sustainable pumping ranges can be executed during the buying and selling of groundwater use shares within the State of California,” IBM explained.
for instance, if a farmer was not planning on watering their land for a season, they might exchange or sell water credits on the blockchain to an additional farmer.
SweetSense is already monitoring the groundwater substances for “over 1,000,000” people in Kenya and Ethiopia via IoT sensors and may be mirroring the identical gadget in California, its CEO Evan Thomas mentioned.
in line with Dr. Solomon Assefa, vp for emerging market options and director at IBM research – Africa:
“With the addition of the blockchain we are able to bridge crucial have confidence and transparency gaps making it viable to construct a robust, scalable and reasonably-priced platform for managing precious groundwater substances anyplace on this planet.”
IBM brought that the pilot undertaking comes as the influence of California’s Sustainable Groundwater management Act (SGMA), which changed into signed into law in 2014. The act mandated growing groups and groups to make certain a plan is in location to make local groundwater usage sustainable.
Sacramento San Joaquin River Delta photograph courtesy of IBM
IBM Tivoli utility is an commercial enterprise equipment management platform with really expert accessories personalized for IT directors that manage midsize and business statistics centers.
The Tivoli company of products contains dozens of software as a service applications for IT infrastructures. the most important and critical programs for equipment management are Tivoli Storage manager (TSM), Tivoli Monitoring and IBM Workload Automation.
TSM is an enterprise backup and information safety application. Its modular product structure offers data storage and safety flexibility for different environments. Smaller organizations birth with Storage manager, while greater organizations typically opt for the Storage supervisor prolonged version with greater catastrophe healing and tape and disk help. Storage manager can also interface with VMware for virtual environments through its vStorage API, and may again up to VMware's vCloud. It additionally interfaces with digital servers operating Microsoft's Hyper-V.
The utility can be managed either from the TSM Operations core or from VMware vCenter.
Tivoli Monitoring utility, like Storage supervisor, has varied options for implementation. where Storage supervisor ensures information security, Tivoli Monitoring ensures infrastructure efficiency via presenting a single, quick-glance view of potential utilization, performance and fitness. The application's built-in analytics engine permits administrators to tune a given workload's aid consumption to steer clear of inefficient provisioning.
Tivoli Monitoring for virtual Environments is a version of the application principally tailor-made to digital systems, and it consists of a unique predictive analytics algorithm. The what-if analysis function allows IT specialists to run models the usage of specific efficiency statistics to check how most desirable to install their virtual infrastructure.
IBM Workload Automation rounds out the main systems administration suite with software that combines Tivoli Workload Scheduler with a cloud-useful resource supervisor to create better automation and streamline administrative tasks. Like Tivoli Monitoring, Workload Automation has a simulation and forecasting add-on so administrators can model workflows to gauge resource consumption and time final touch. Workload Automation integrates with Tivoli carrier Automation supervisor to installation and control cloud computing services.Budgeting for Tivoli
When it comes to pricing and availability, every product is as entertaining because the provider it offers. Tivoli Storage supervisor is a household of products, with Storage supervisor as its flagship application. a knowledge coverage and recovery edition -- Storage supervisor FastBack -- is available for a free trial. the complete Storage manager utility is around $44.50 for a 10 processor price unit (PVU) license. however, a shopper license prices around $eighty three.seventy five.
IBM's Tivoli Monitoring suite additionally items various alternate options. The Tivoli Monitoring product is a seize-all monitoring equipment for a company's IT infrastructure, and fees around $437 per useful resource cost unit (RVU) license. An RVU license is corresponding to a PVU license, however relies upon the number of processors used. Tivoli Monitoring for virtual Environments is selected to virtual servers and hypervisors, and fees $511 per RVU license.
In distinction to the other two, Tivoli Workload Automation is a single software equipment, and starts at around $54.50 for a ten-job license.
IBM is neatly favourite for its advancements in high-performance computing, eco-friendly computing, enterprise server and cloud computing alike. huge Blue does not appear to be taking any breaks and, not lengthy after disclosing plans for the introduction of yet a different incredibly potent and environmentally pleasant supercomputer (the Blue Waters), it has now presented yet one other progress, this time within the enviornment of cloud computing functions. This advancement, frequent as the Tivoli monitoring platform, will permit medium-sized organisations to greater successfully handle as many as 500 monitored substances.
"With digital counsel because the lifeblood of more organizations, even the smallest organizations or divisions believe the information middle's functionality mission-important," Al Zollar, widely wide-spread supervisor of IBM Tivoli, observed. "With this new carrier, IBM is providing our smartest facts center application wherein businesses select and pay for what they want. it's so handy that we are expecting most businesses can sign in for it on Monday and have it running by means of Friday. The simplicity is a beautiful addition to our carrier management portfolio."
The respective components that the Tivoli monitoring platform can deal with are every thing from operating programs to purposes and devices at once related to the monitored network. The Tivoli is an on-demand service that immediately detects vigour outages and bottlenecks, immediately notifying the IT supervisor and infrequently even resolving pointed out considerations with out the need for user involvement. The carrier supports Linux, AIX, HP-UX and Microsoft home windows operating programs, and all Tivoli Monitoring services may be committed and preconfigured.
adventure though the carrier would require a monthly price, no utility licensing is required. The set-up fee charges $6,500 and contracts can also cover time periods of ninety days to three years. The "touchless" agent-much less Tivoli Monitoring 6.2.1. (which displays instruments and equipment utility) starts at $44 monthly per node, with the agent-primarily based OS and application monitoring alternative costing $58 per node every month.
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In-DepthManage Java apps for premium performance
Companies are turning to Java applications not only because they deliver benefits in terms of performance and scalability, but because they also link applications and services over multiple platforms and generations of technology, from the creakiest legacy systems to the shiniest new Web services. And because Java applications are closely tied to business processes, they can help maximize their efficiency.
But Java applications are complicated. As Valerie O'Connell, managing director of enterprise systems management for Boston research firm Aberdeen Group, put it, they ''have a truckload of moving parts.'' To see how a Java application is behaving, an administrator must understand how all these moving parts fit together.
And if a Java application is behaving badly, there are so many possible causes -- the response time of an EJB, the availability of Java database connections, a dawdling servlet, a JVM leaking memory or even the application infrastructure itself -- that customers are ''no longer satisfied with a simple availability-type metric,'' said Jim Byrd, a senior product manager with BMC Corp., an enterprise management software company based in Houston. ''They need a comprehensive understanding of what's happening inside the application and its components.''
Unfortunately, Java applications often do behave badly. According to DD Ganguly, a technology strategist in Computer Associates' Office of the CTO, the inclusion of J2EE application servers in enterprise application architectures took one set of complexities out of the picture -- messaging, clustering and database connectivity -- but introduced ''a new set of technologies that we need to learn and manage.'' The very complexity of these Java applications is responsible for stressing their performance at a time when application performance is more critical than ever.
As a result, traditional ''best practices don't cover a lot of the newer situations out there'' related to Java, said Thomas Murphy, senior program director for application delivery strategies at Meta Group in Stamford, Conn.
A new generation of management tools provides the visibility into Java applications needed to diagnose a performance problem, and offers up possible solutions. Unlike traditional test and load balancing solutions, these products can diagnose application problems in the production phase as well as the QA phase. But the makers of these products prescribe doing proactive management before the application is rolled out. Once Java apps are scaled out to large numbers of users, figuring out what is causing a problem is a ''major bitch,'' according to one observer.
That is because few of the tiers inside a J2EE application server environment -- the main server, the operating system, the Web servers, the application server and the database servers that feed data to the application server -- are likely to be instrumented for performance measurement. Then there is the enigmatic Java virtual machine itself, which allows Java applications to run natively on any machine. ''JVM is like a black box,'' said Tom Mulvehill, senior product marketing manager at Precise Software Solutions, Westwood, Mass. ''It's hard to understand what's going on in there.''
''The big problem is being able to understand where the problem is,'' said Phil Buckellew, product line manager for transaction performance in the Performance and Availability Group at IBM Tivoli.
And the more tiers, the more time it takes to resolve a performance problem. ''In a large company, it takes a lot of pull and tug to make the changes of uncovering and resolving problems,'' said Kevin Gallagher, vice president of research and reporting at Newport Group Inc., a research firm in South Yarmouth, Mass. Newport is about to release a study that puts the average time of resolving a performance problem, from the time the trouble ticket is pulled, at 25.8 hours.
Providing the right level of management information without degrading the performance of the system the app is running on is like walking a tightrope. The challenge for management vendors is to strike a balance between collecting useful information and not imparting a lot of overhead on the system the app is running on. According to Precise's Mulvehill, using probes, debugging tools and load balancing tools affects the application whose performance you are trying to monitor.
The trick is to collect the detailed information you need to monitor the performance of your app in a way that does not affect overhead. One solution, said Meta Group's Murphy, would be for the tools to let the customer do a rough analysis; if the customer then sees a problem, instrument everything below that level.
At Fannie MaeFirms cannot afford to wait for consumers to report performance problems. That would be fatal for Nexstar Financial Corp., Creve Coeur, Mo., which, like most mortgage lenders, relies on online technology to speed up the approval process. When a customer applies for a mortgage online, Nexstar processes the information and sends it via a gateway to computers at Fannie Mae, a source of financing for home mortgages, which then sends back the findings needed to approve the mortgage.
Once mortgage lenders reach a certain size, they need more functionality than packaged loan applications can provide, and so develop their own software to communicate with the sites of underwriting engines such as Fannie Mae. Three years ago, Nexstar contracted with EoTek, an Evergreen, Colo., Java development house serving the mortgage industry, to develop a Java application that could bridge Nexstar's online forms applications and data formats with the back-end mortgage approval system operated by Fannie Mae.
The gateway's service levels were critical, but performance was slowed because the Fannie Mae site employed a proprietary protocol. To determine how many mortgage applications it could send through to Fannie Mae, and how fast it could do so, Nexstar needed more visibility into how the distributed components of its Java application were performing.
Because of all their moving parts, Java application performance usually needs to be managed in real-time. ''In some industries you may not need to worry about every second's worth of performance, but in a Web enterprise, if you don't manage in real-time, you're going to miss a lot of changes,'' said Bob Ure, director of marketing for Altaworks, a Nashua, N.H., developer of performance management software for Web enterprises.
Nexstar needed to add instrumentation to its app, ''so that we could know how the gateway was performing and whether it was experiencing difficulties, such as communication circuits,'' said Mark Carlson, Nexstar's VP of technology. And, he noted, Nexstar ''needed to know about all these things in real-time.''
Carlson had several options. Nexstar's IT department could attain some of that information by running queries -- ''analyzing log files after the fact'' is how he described it -- but it would not have been in real-time, nor would it have provided visibility into the application components. Another option was to use SNMP, the most often-used method for adding management to Java applications, to create custom Management Information Base (MIB) extensions to look into application data. But even though SNMP requires little code to implement, ''we wanted to standardize on something current, rather than adding an older MIB that we would hand-code ourselves,'' said Carlson.
A third possibility was to use the Application Response Measurement (ARM) API. ARM is a spec proposed by Hewlett-Packard and IBM that can be used by developers who want to collect performance information by instrumenting the business logic of their apps. It does this by embedding function calls that can be captured by an agent in the software. However, the technique is still quite complex and requires too much hand-coding for most developers' taste.
Hewlett-Packard has been delving deeper and deeper into crossplatform enterprise systems management, through a series of technology investments in OpenView. Now, users and analysts are definitely feeling the impact.
When it comes to heterogenous environments, OpenView is a strong player, according to Bill Emmett, solutions manager at HP. "OpenView compares favorably to IBM Tivoli and CA-Unicenter on the basis of both cost effectiveness and modular, plug-and-play architecture," he contends. Aside from its myriad API interfaces, Emmett emphasizes OpenView's support for myriad operating systems and multiple "open standards."
Emmett's enthusiasm isn't surprising, since vendors typically tout their own products. Some users and analysts, though, are equally gung-ho.
Tim Hagan, VP of IT operations and engineering for Zurich Life, says it took him and a couple of other people less than 90 days to deploy OpenView in a complex call center environment.
Zurich Life is using OpenView to manage about 110 servers and 65 databases in two physical locations. The systems are running HP-UX, Sun Solaris, IBM AIX, and Microsoft Windows 2000, NT, and XP. Zurich is operating OpenView on HP-UX servers, but the systems management platform runs on Sun Solaris and Microsoft Windows servers, too.
No Longer "Just a Network Node Manager"When Hagan first came to Zurich Life in January of 2000, the insurance firm was still using HP's old Network Node Manager. "That was one of the reasons I was hired. It didn't hurt that I'd had prior success with OpenView in an earlier job. I knew that OpenView has a very open architecture, and that it would very quickly tie in with our (other) existing platforms and tools," according to Hagan.
The current OpenView product does include Network Node Manager as one of its myriad optional modules. Used for network element discovery, layout, inventory and performance, it connects with HP OpenView Operations for cross-discipline administration.
"The old Network Node Manager (alone) was a very reactive environment, though. We kept hearing about outages from our internal customers. We'd get the symptoms and descriptions after the events had already happened. We'd end up looking not so good, and sometimes we'd need to bring in a bunch of people to help fix the problem," Hagan says..
"With OpenView, however, we've become instantly proactive. We can prevent problems, and we're aware of problems that do occur before the users even know about them. If a customer calls, we can say, 'A trouble ticket has already been created, and a page has been sent out. Such-and-such application will be up in an hour or two.'"
HP needs to be a software playerSome critics argue that OpenView can't be all that important to HP, since HP's hardware revenues far outweigh the software side. However, industry analyst Jasmine Noel disputes that conclusion.
Noel points to a number of industry trends affecting HP, as well as other industry providers. "Margins on computing hardware keep declining; computing-based business services are now critical to enterprise success; and successful delivery of business services requires management of the entire compting stack," she says.
"The computing stack in every large enterprise continues to be heterogenous," adds Noel, who is principal at JNoel Associates. "This combination of trends requires HP to have a heterogenous management solution (in order to present) a credible software story to enterprise customers."
Noel also likes the investments HP is making in "intelligent" management, for more efficient administration, and in industry partnerships, for better interoperability with other vendors' products.
OpenView's EvolutionEmmett notes that HP first moved into systems management with Network Node Manager in 1988. "We used what technology was available at the time, including SNMP. We then started adding more and more capabilities," he adds. Acquisitions helped HP to build up OpenView. In 1997, for instance, HP bought Prolin, the Netherlands-based maker of the IT Service Manager suite.
At this point, HP's large OpenView family revolves largely around Operations Monitor and Performance Monitor. Each monitoring product has agents running on all major platforms, ranging from Linux to MVS.
Operations Manager is the central enterprise console, for an end-to-end view of the enterprise that includes client PCs, the network, applications, and database. Performance Monitor provides tools such as a graphing function and reports for monitoring and analyzing resource utilization.
For better interoperability, OpenView complies with standards ranging from SNMP and RMON to OMI. "We often sit on standards committees, in fact," according to Emmett.
HP also offers a set of templates, known as Smart Plug-Ins (SPIs), for configuring third-party tools. "The Smart Plug-In knows where to find the log files in Oracle, for instance," Emmett illustrates.
The HP Operations Manager can also be combined with OpenView Service Navigator, Service Information Portal, Service Desk, and Internet Services, as well as with Network Node Manager, for example.
Service Navigator uses information captured in the SPIs to let administrators drill down to discover root causes for potential problems. If a warning flashes because application performance is degrading, the administrator can drill down through the database and storage system to find out that a disk is overheating, for instance, according to Emmett.
Service Navigator also includes "impact analysis" capabilities for determining which databases and applications are likely to suffer, and the level of severity of the impending hit. OpenView uses color coding to indicate six different severity states.
Administrators can automate response sequence, such as paging an administrator or failing over to a backup server, for example. An optional add-on known as Advanced Security provides authentication and data encryption.
As Emmett sees it, OpenView has two main sets of competitors: "framework vendors" (such as IBM Tivoli and CA) and "point tool vendors." BA Patrol, he says, "falls somewhere in between."
Deployment in 88 days"My company granted us 180 days for OpenView deployment. I set up a much more aggressive schedule of 90 days, but we were able to finish up in 88 days," Hagan says. Hagan worked on the rollout at Zurich Life with one fulltime consultant, plus one employee. The employee spent 50 percent of his time on the OpenView rollout, and the other half of his time on Unix administration.
"One important piece was to make sure we got the requirements for alarms monitors and thresholds from all of the associated systems managers. We didn't want to be paging someone at 3 am, just because server capacity had reached 90 percent," Hagan recalls.
Hagan claims that he's gotten extensive cooperation from all across his company. "Our e-commerce team thinks OpenView is wonderful. What you can do with OpenView is limited only by your imagination."
Zurich Life has already used HP's SPIs to integrate Oracle, Sybase SQL Server, and several third-party management tools. Hagan says the company is now testing SPIs for Lotus Notes and Ciscoworks, for instance.
Zurich did consider other systems management products, such as Tivoli, Unicenter, and Patrol. "Some products, though, don't provide data that's as meaningful, and some have longer implementation times. We didn't have a huge staff to roll this out," Hagan points out.
More automation on the way"Windows, Solaris, and HP-UX. Those are the server environments that systems management products typically run on, although sometimes you get one or two others, depending on the vendor's partnerships," Noel observes..
Beyond that, Noel doesn't want to compare OpenView with other systems management products. "Each one is too different," she maintains.
The analyst is especially impressed, though, with HP's future plans for simplifying systems and automating service level management with OpenView.
"HP's message it their target market is that corporate IT departments that operate as business partners will be more successful, less prone to costcutting measures, and less likely to be outsourced," according to Noel.
"HP has two overall messages about its solutions. The first is (that) HP solutions help corporate IT deliver better services with fewer resources and lower costs. The proverbial silver bullet HP OpenView offers is service level management. HP expands the definition of service level management from the current understanding of monitoring and alerting on SLA violations to one of a process of defining,provisioning, managing, and optimizing the resources delivering the service," according to Noel.
"HP's second message is (that) their solution set is both comprehensive and innovative. (The message) is comprehensive in that HP has solutions for every aspect of service level management and continues to add capabilities. (It is) innovative in that HP's newest products address how new technologies change the management requirements."
HP's three-year roadmap calls for further improvements to integration, infrastructure, and storage management; development of a Service Level Object Model; and delivery of products "that aid in the diagnostic process," the analyst notes.
On the integration side, for instance, HP is now in the process of consolidating its multiple integration APIs into a single toolkit for third party vendors.
With the Service Level Object Model, HP is looking to "grab all the information, and put it into a common format, so it's easier to share information as you move from one step in the process to the other," according to Noel.
In terms of infrastructure coverage, HP is working on Web Services standards and protocols such as J2EE, WebMethods' OMI initiative, and Microsoft's .NET servers.
Some of OpenView's latest products, such as OpenView Transaction Manager, can monitor J2EE and .NET services and applications. For the future, though, HP plans to build in more intelligence.
"You can monitor 100 things in J2EE, but which ones are most important? Right now, you only get that by using (OpenView) for a while. Also, you can trace the path a transaction took through .NET, but you can only do this after-the-fact. HP wants to bring this into realtime," she says.
HP now offers SPIs for WebMethods, Microsoft .NET, and SunOne Web Services - SOAP Engine, for example. At least 40 SPIs are provided, all told.
Other recently added OpenView products include Service Activator, for automating the delivery of services offered by hosting providers; and Data Protector, a replacement for OpenView Omniback II.
Data Protector is designed for integrated management of disk-based and tape-based recovery across multiple OS, applications, and storage architectures. Administrators can manage both recovery time and recovery point objectives.
HP integrates CompaqWith the Compaq acquisition, HP is now working on integrating Compaq's products into its systems administration mix. Compaq Insight Manager will continue to be used only in Wintel environments, since its administration capabilities are hardware-oriented, Emmett says.
However, Compaq's TeMIP product for telco administration is now being ported by HP from Tru64 - which was originally DEC Unix - to HP-UX and Solaris, Emmett adds.
Essentially, editions of OpenView for HP-UX, Solaris and Windows offer the same capabilities. "But we're also taking advantage of the characteristics of each platform. The Windows version was designed for Windows from the ground up. It makes use of Windows drag-and-drop, for instance," Emmett says.
OpenView is Windows 2000-certified. On he Windows side, the product also uses Microsoft technologies that include MMC, WMI, CIM, DCOM, Visual Basic scripting, HTML/XML, HTTP/SOAP, Internet Explorer, and IIS.
"Meanwhile, we're also keeping our eyes open for other potential server platforms, including Linux," adds HP's Emmett.
» See All Articles by Columnist Jacqueline Emigh
Performance engineering has a rather long and fascinating history, especially if considered in the context of changing computing paradigms. While not everything in the past may be applied to every new technology, the underlying principles often remain the same—and knowledge of history keeps us from reinventing the wheel when it is unnecessary. Unfortunately, statements referring to the past are not often completely correct. The history of performance engineering is not well-known, so here is some information that I find to be quite interesting. The approach was to find the first mature appearance of still-relevant performance concepts (without diving into the in-depth history of each notion). It is not scientific research, and not much information is available overall—so a lot of important information may still be missed.
We will start by listing the following computing paradigms:
Performance expertise related to a paradigm usually materializes later when the technology is more mature.Mainframes
Performance went beyond single-user profiling when mainframes started to support multiprogramming. In the early mainframe years, processing was concerned mainly with batch loads. Mainframes, however, had sophisticated scheduling and could ration consumed resources. They also had pretty powerful OS-level instrumentation allowing the engineers to track down performance issues. The cost of mainframe resources was high; therefore, capacity planners and performance analysts were needed to optimize mainframe usage.
While not everything in the past may be applied to every new technology, the underlying principles often remain the same—and knowledge of history keeps us from reinventing the wheel when it is unnecessary.
We can definitely say that performance engineering became a distinct discipline when instrumentation was introduced with SMF (System Management Facilities), released as part of OS/360 in 1966 (still in use in IBM z/OS mainframes today).
In 1968, Robert Miller (IBM) in his Response Time in Man-Computer Conversational Transactions paper described several threshold levels of human attention. The paper was widely cited by many later researchers and remains mostly relevant now.
In 1974, monitoring was introduced with RMF (Resource Measurement Facility) as part of MVS (still in use). OMEGAMON for MVS by Candle (acquired by IBM in 2004), released in 1975, is often claimed to be the first real-time monitor.
A performance community, the Computer Measurement Group (CMG), was created in 1974, holding annual conferences ever since—now across a wide spectrum of technologies.
In 1977, BEST/1 was released by BGS Systems (acquired by BMC in 1998), the first commercial package for computer performance analysis and capacity planning to be based on analytic models.Distributed Systems
When the paradigm changed to client-server and distributed systems, the available operating systems at the time didn't have much instrumentation or workload management capabilities. Load testing and system-level monitoring became the primary ways to handle multi-user performance. Deploying across multiple machines was more difficult, and the cost of rollback was significant, especially for Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software that might be deployed by hundreds or even thousands of customers. Thus, there was more of a need for performance design to be correct from the beginning.
"Fix-it-later was a viable approach in the 1970s, but today, the original premises no longer hold - and fix-it-later is archaic and dangerous. The original premises were:
Performance problems are rare.
Hardware is fast and inexpensive.
It's too expensive to build responsive software.
You can tune software later, if necessary."
Have you heard something like this recently? That is a quote from Dr. Connie Smith's Performance Engineering of Software Systems, published in 1990. The book presented the foundations of software performance engineering, and already had 15 pages of bibliography on the subject.
The most known load testing tool, LoadRunner, was released in 1991 by Mercury Interactive (acquired by HP in 2006, now part of Micro Focus). For a while, load testing became the main way to ensure high performance of distributed systems, and performance testing groups became the centers of performance-related activities in many organizations.
"Fix-it-later was a viable approach in the 1970s, but today, the original premises no longer hold - and fix-it- later is archaic and dangerous."
The term Application Performance Management (APM) was coined by Programart Corp. (acquired by Compuware in 1999) in 1992 (in the mainframe context, as a combination of their STROBE and APMpower tools). However, STROBE, which they refer to as an application performance measurement tool, had been on the market since the '70s. Still, there is an opinion that the first APM tool—as we know them now—was Introscope by Wily Technology, founded by Lew Cirne in 1998 (acquired by CA in 2006).
The history of End-User Monitoring (EUM)/Real-User Monitoring (RUM) can be traced at least to ETEWatch (End-to-End Watch), an application response time monitor released in 1998 by Candle (acquired by IBM in 2004, then a part of Tivoli). However, EUM/RUM gained popularity later with development of web and mobile technologies.Web and Mobile
Most existing expertise was still applicable to the back-end. The first books to apply existing knowledge and techniques to the web were published in 1998—for example, Web Performance Tuning and Capacity Planning for Web Performance.
In 2007, Steve Souders published High Performance Web Sites: Essential Knowledge for Front-End Engineers, stating that 80-90% of user response time is spent in the browser, which started a movement of Web Performance Optimization (WPO) centered on the client-side.
The WPO community was built around the Velocity Conference (first held in 2008) and Web Performance meetups. Velocity was a very popular performance conference—at least until Steve Souders stepped off as an organizer, O'Reilly merged Web Performance into the Fluent conference, and Velocity became more of a DevOps conference. Maybe it was an indication that WPO had become more mature and integrated with other aspects of technology.
Mobile technologies supported the further development of web performance, as client-side performance was even more important on mobile devices.Cloud
In the last ten years, we saw another paradigm shift to the cloud. While the term "cloud computing" was popularized when Amazon released its Elastic Compute Cloud in 2006, references to "cloud computing" have appeared as early as 1996. Technologies mature more quickly nowadays—for example, Amazon's own monitoring solution CloudWatch was released only three years later, in 2009. Of course, many established performance products started to support cloud, and new products still enter the market.
While the cloud looks much different than mainframes, there are many similarities between them, especially from a performance point of view. They both provide:
Availability of computer resources to be allocated.
An easy way to evaluate the cost associated with these resources and implement chargeback.
Isolation of systems inside a larger pool of resources.
Easier ways to deploy a system and pull it back if needed without impacting other systems.
However, there are notable differences that make managing performance in the cloud more challenging. First of all, there is no instrumentation on the OS level, and even resource monitoring becomes less reliable due to the virtualization layer. So, instrumentation must be on the application level. Second, systems are not completely isolated from the performance point of view, and they could impact each other, and we mostly have multi-user interactive workloads, which are difficult to predict and manage. That means that such performance risk mitigation approaches like APM, performance testing, and capacity management become very important in a cloud environment.What Lies Ahead?
While performance is the result of all design and implementation details, the performance engineering area remains very siloed—maybe due to historic reasons, maybe due to the huge scope of expertise. People and organizations trying to condense all performance-related activities together are rather few and far apart. Attempts to span different silos (for example, DevOps) often leave many important performance engineering areas out.
Technologies mature more quickly nowadays—for example, Amazon's own monitoring solution CloudWatch was released only three years later, in 2009.
The main lesson of the history is that the feeling that we are close to solving performance problems has existed for the last 50+ years, and it will probably stay with us for a while—so instead of hoping for a silver bullet, it is better to understand different existing approaches to mitigating performance risks and find an optimal combination of them to address performance risks in your particular context.
This article is featured in the new DZone Guide to Performance: Testing and Tuning. Get your free copy for more insightful articles, industry statistics, and more!
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