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February four, 2019 Michael Sansoterra
within the tip, Arranging question good judgment in DB2 for i Routines, I addressed a reader’s question about how to create a person-defined desk feature (UDTF) in DB2 for i that might return the same influence set as an latest saved system. The intention of getting the UDTF would be to do additional processing on a outcomes set, akin to becoming a member of the outcomes set with a further query or dumping the outcomes set to a temporary table for evaluation. to accomplish this, I suggested moving the saved procedure question common sense into a UDTF and then substitute the query in the saved procedure with the brand new UDTF.
besides the fact that children, there can be a case when that suggestion can’t be carried out for a rationale, corresponding to when the saved process is a component of a vendor-supplied software kit that may’t be modified. one more chance is that the kept method was written in a language unfamiliar to you, comparable to C, and the task of rewriting the good judgment as UDTF is time-ingesting and mistake-prone. In circumstances like these, a UDTF can also be written to execute the process, consume the outcomes set, and layout the statistics in a fashion that the table characteristic can make the most of.
This story includes code, which which you could download right here.
using this wrapper method is potent, as it will permit a saved method outcome set to be used within different DML statements. This method can also be carried out using many high-degree languages, including Java and RPG. i will be able to display this system using an “external” Java UDTF. take into account a efficiency tax is imposed with a wrapper similar to this, so cautiously weigh the charge of convenience vs. performance.The saved process And effect Set
For simplicity, the usage of the instance from the ultimate tip, let’s say there is a saved manner named GetOrders and it accepts CustomerId (INT) as a parameter. For the sake of argument, we’ll expect this method is supplier-supplied and shouldn’t be modified, yet we need to use its effect set in a DML remark equivalent to choose or replace.
The system can also be invoked as follows:call GetOrders (11091);
When finished, the procedure returns a result set consisting of the following 5 columns:Column statistics classification SalesOrderId INT CustomerId INT OrderDate DATE ShipDate DATE SubTotal DECIMAL(19,4) The UDTF Wrapper
An “external” consumer-described table function (UDTF) named GetOrdersJava might be used to capture the kept process’s influence set. This classification of function is known as exterior because the code is written in a high-degree language, instead of SQL. The function can be invoked in an easy choose as follows:select * FROM table(GetOrdersJava(11091)) X;
The GetOrders.java supply code for the GetOrdersJava UDTF is connected right here. This tip assumes you be aware of a way to bring together Java code. observe that as a way to be used by using DB2 for i, standalone Java classes should be compiled or positioned in right here particular IFS course:/qibm/userdata/os400/sqllib/feature
eventually, don't confuse the Java source code and sophistication identify (GetOrders.java) with the UDTF name GetOrdersJava.
if you’re now not typical with external desk capabilities, I’ll in short highlight how they work. exterior desk capabilities (as adversarial to SQL desk capabilities) are coded in a excessive-degree language and have to observe a particular protocol demanded by DB2.
the first difficulty when coding a desk function is the parameter checklist. The variety of parameters can fluctuate counting on the language and parameter vogue distinct on the CREATE characteristic observation (more on this in a minute). In accepted, the parameter listing for an RPG software, subprocedure or, during this case, a Java formula, should still contain an enter parameter for every UDTF enter parameter and extra output parameters for each and every column the UDTF returns.
The next problem when coding a table function is DB2’s skill to speak to the function what name type (i.e. processing stage) it's in. The record of the five feasible name types is shown under and includes an outline of what GetOrders.java is doing all over every call category:call type UDTF’s assignment GetOrders.java Implementation First function initialization Get JDBC reference to latest database connection. Open Open any materials required to do the paintingsUse JDBC to call the GetOrders kept process and return a outcomes set inner to the Java software. Fetch supply DB2 a row of records via populating the output parameters (i.e. UDTF columns) and exit. If no facts continues to be, set the SQLCode to ‘02000’ (conclusion of data). DB2 will perpetually call the UDTF with the fetch name type except it receives the end of statistics indicator. read one row from kept procedure result set and populate output parameters (i.e. construct one row and provides it lower back to DB2). proceed this manner except there are no greater rows from the influence set. close shut materials shut JDBC effect set, connection, and many others. ultimate function last cleanup Nothing
In different phrases, DB2 will name the feature a couple of instances and give it the choice to initialize information and open or allocate resources. Thereafter, it'll normally name the feature with a “Fetch” request. every Fetch invocation represents one row of data to be back from the desk function.
observe that the state of the desk feature variables may also be maintained across invocations (depending on how the feature is written). within the Java program, the saved process outcome set is left open in between fetch calls and superior one row with each fetch call. it might be a nasty factor if we needed to call the system, open the outcome set and reposition the effect set with every type of fetch call!
When the UDTF suggests to DB2 that there are no extra rows (this varies with the aid of language however in Java it's performed via environment the SQLState as ‘02000’ (end of statistics)), DB2 will call the feature a number of greater instances to give it a chance to clean up elements.
Coding a desk function in Java using the DB2GENERAL parameter fashion has an competencies over the usage of different languages since it inherits a bunch of “plumbing” code from an IBM supplied Java type named UDF. hence references to issues just like the call category, set the SQL state, observe nulls on primitive kinds, etc. are already provided and there's less probability of creating a coding mistake. besides the fact that children, Java can raise some additional overhead, in particular on the first invocation of a Java activities, as DB2 have to take time to create a Java digital laptop instance to run the code.
once the Java code has been compiled as a class (see supply code header for a sample javac QShell command), it will also be registered for use with DB2 as a UDTF the use of the CREATE function statement. The CREATE characteristic definition for GetOrdersJava is proven here:CREATE OR replace feature GetOrdersJava (@CustomerID INT) RETURNS table ( SalesOrderId INT, CustomerId INT, OrderDate DATE, ShipDate DATE, SUBTOTAL DEC(19,four)) external identify 'GetOrders.orders' LANGUAGE JAVA PARAMETER style DB2GENERAL DISALLOW PARALLEL FENCED SCRATCHPAD final call RETURNS NULL ON NULL enter MODIFIES SQL information
I even have bolded just a few of the alternatives that benefit consideration. First, external identify specifies the Java classification name (GetOrders) and formulation name (orders) to be invoked when the UDTF is called.
second, PARAMETER fashion DB2GENERAL is linked to a particular method of coding the Java feature. the usage of this choice gives DB2 the expectation that the Java code provided will inherit from IBM’s UDF type.
Third, MODIFIES SQL records may also or may additionally now not be required. If the UDTF calls a resource reminiscent of yet another UDTF or saved method that DB2 believes has the potential to adjust facts, then MODIFIES SQL statistics is required. If the stored procedure GETORDERS was defined as READS SQL records then this UDTF may also be described as READS SQL statistics. What’s the change? Nothing other than DB2 can also ought to be a bit more cautious about the way it runs code if it believes facts will also be modified the usage of SQL and that implies additional overhead. besides the fact that your saved technique usually are not updating facts, if it has not been marked as READS SQL records, then the UDTF will likely deserve to be developed with MODIFIES SQL data.
eventually, now not proven in this example is the CARDINALITY alternative. Specifying CARDINALITY followed by an estimated number of rows (e.g. CARDINALITY 5000) lets DB2 be aware of how many rows, on normal, the table characteristic will return. This counsel can help DB2 make a extra effective query plan when the desk characteristic participates in a fancy query involving different services, tables or views. in case your UDTF will return a relatively consistent ordinary number of rows, then the CARDINALITY choice should still be protected. If the number of rows again through the feature will range drastically, then this alternative can also be omitted.
For extra suggestions on constructing external desk capabilities, see the references at the conclusion of the article.
After the Java UDTF GetOrdersJava has been created, when run it's going to name the GetOrders stored method, read its outcomes set one row at a time (and provides DB2 one row at a time), after which clear up after itself. because it is wrapped by a UDTF, the saved manner result set can now participate in a wide array of SQL DML statements.A Caveat
This UDTF is tightly coupled to the underlying outcomes set. The column names and information kinds back from the system should still no longer trade lest the table feature probably wreck as neatly. whereas a greater dynamic strategy can also be taken to get column names and facts types from a stored manner outcome set, within the end, the coding trouble can also not be value the difficulty as finally, the column definitions within the table feature can by no means be dynamic (except you’re inclined to continually DROP and CREATE a table characteristic to healthy a outcome set on a session by using session basis.)
writer’s notice: here are a few positive references.
The vigour of user-defined desk capabilities: a great overview of SQL and exterior UDTFs through Birgitta Hauser. in case you’re new to UDTFs, here is a great area to beginning.
DB2 for i: technique stored technique effect sets as Cursors: For ideas on the way to enforce this characteristic in RPG as an alternative of Java, you are going to should comprehend how to catch and manipulate a kept technique influence set in RPG the usage of embedded SQL.
IBM Developer package for Java: This reference e-book carries a section entitled “Java SQL Routines” that describes the intricacies of creating Java code that DB2 can run (including scalar capabilities, table services and kept processes). I left fairly a bit of unsaid on precisely how all of this works and here is the IBM documentation for the subject. Don’t be discouraged in case you don’t digest all of the alternate options right away.
the following is an excerpt from knowing DB2: researching visually with examples, 2nd edition, through Raul Chong,...
Xiaomei Wang, Michael Dang and Dwaine Snow. it is reprinted here with permission from overseas company Machines organisation; Copyright 2008. read the book excerpt below or download a free .pdf of the chapter: "knowing IBM DB2: Product historical past and strategy."
Database 2 (DB2) for Linux, UNIX, and home windows is a knowledge server developed through IBM. edition 9.5, purchasable on account that October 2007, is essentially the most current edition of the product, and the one on which we center of attention in this book.
during this chapter you'll be trained about the following:
1.1 brief history of DB2
since the Seventies, when IBM analysis invented the Relational model and the Structured question Language (SQL), IBM has developed an entire family unit of facts servers. construction all started on mainframe systems similar to virtual computer (VM), virtual Storage prolonged (VSE), and dissimilar digital Storage (MVS). In 1983, DB2 for MVS edition 1 became born. "DB2" turned into used to point out a shift from hierarchical databases—such because the counsel administration system (IMS) normal on the time—to the brand new relational databases. DB2 construction persevered on mainframe platforms in addition to on allotted platforms.1 determine 1.1 suggests probably the most highlights of DB2 historical past.
figure 1.1 DB2 timeline
In 1996, IBM introduced DB2 accepted Database (UDB) version 5 for dispensed structures. With this version, DB2 become able to shop all kinds of electronic records, together with traditional relational statistics, as well as audio, video, and text files. It turned into the primary version optimized for the web, and it supported various disbursed structures—for example, OS/2, windows, AIX, HP-UX, and Solaris—from dissimilar vendors. in addition, this everyday database turned into in a position to run on quite a lot of hardware, from uniprocessor techniques and symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) programs to vastly parallel processing (MPP) systems and clusters of SMP techniques.
even if the relational mannequin to store information is probably the most accepted in the trade today, the hierarchical model certainly not misplaced its importance. in the past few years, because of the recognition of eXtensible Markup Language (XML), a resurgence within the use of the hierarchical model has taken area. XML, a flexible, self-describing language, depends on the hierarchical model to store records. With the emergence of new internet technologies, the deserve to keep unstructured kinds of records, and to share and change counsel between agencies, XML proves to be the highest quality language to satisfy these wants. these days we see an exponential increase of XML documents usage.
IBM recognized early on the magnitude of XML, and massive investments have been made to convey pureXML technology; a expertise that offers for better support to keep XML files in DB2. After five years of construction, the trouble of 750 builders, architects, and engineers paid off with the free up of the first hybrid data server out there: DB2 9. DB2 9, available due to the fact that July 2006, is a hybrid (also known as multi-structured) facts server since it allows for storing relational records, in addition to hierarchical records, natively. whereas other statistics servers in the market, and previous models of DB2 could keep XML documents, the storage method used changed into no longer most advantageous for efficiency and suppleness. With DB2 9's pureXML expertise, XML documents are kept internally in a parsed hierarchical manner, as a tree; therefore, working with XML documents is vastly more suitable. In 2007, IBM has long past even extra in its guide for pureXML, with the free up of DB2 9.5. DB2 9.5, the latest version of DB2, not best enhances and introduces new aspects of pureXML, however it also brings advancements in installing, manageability, administration, scalability and efficiency, workload management and monitoring, regulatory compliance, issue choice, help for software development, and help for enterprise companion purposes.
DB2 is accessible for a lot of platforms together with system z (DB2 for z/OS) and device i (DB2 for i5/OS). until otherwise stated, once we use the time period DB2, we are relating to DB2 version 9.5 running on Linux, UNIX, or home windows.
DB2 is part of the IBM assistance management (IM) portfolio. table 1.1 indicates the diverse IM products attainable.
desk 1.1 tips management itemstips administration items Description Product choices statistics servers provide software features for the cozy and productive management of information and permit the sharing of tips across numerous platforms IBM DB2IBM IMSIBM InformixIBM U2 statistics warehousing and company intelligence assist customers assemble, prepare, manage, analyze, and extract beneficial counsel from all statistics varieties to support them make quicker, more insightful business choices. DB2 AlphabloxDB2 dice ViewsDB2 Warehouse EditionDB2 query management Facility business content material management & discovery manage content, manner, and connectivity. The content material contains both structured and unstructured statistics, akin to e-mails, electronic types, images, digital media, be aware processing documents, and net content. operate business search and discovery of tips. DB2 content ManagerDB2 ordinary StoreDB2 CM OnDemandDB2 statistics ManagerFileNet P8 and its add-on suitesOmniFind counsel integration compile allotted assistance from heterogeneous environments. businesses view their guidance as if it were all dwelling in one location. IBM suggestions Server integration software platform, which include:- WebSphere Federation Server- WebSphere Replication Server- WebSphere DataStage- WebSphere ProfileStage- WebSphere QualityStage- WebSphere tips-services Director- WebSphere Metadata Server- WebSphere business word list- WebSphere records event writer
1.2 The function of DB2 in the suggestions on demand world
IBM's direction or approach is according to some key ideas and applied sciences:
On-Demand BusinessInformation On Demand (IOD)service-Oriented structure (SOA)web ServicesXML
in this part we describe each of these concepts, and we clarify the place DB2 matches in the approach.
1.2.1 On-Demand company
We reside in a fancy world with complicated computing device methods the place exchange is a relentless. at the identical time, shoppers are getting extra disturbing and fewer tolerant of blunders. In a challenging ambiance like this, groups need to react rapidly to market changes; otherwise, they can be left behind through competitors. with a view to react instantly, a enterprise needs to be built-in and flexible. In different phrases, a business these days needs to be an on-demand company.
An on-demand business, as described by IBM, is "an business whose company techniques -- built-in conclusion to conclusion throughout the company and with key partners, suppliers and customers -- can respond with velocity to any client demand, market opportunity, or exterior chance."
IBM's on-demand company mannequin is in keeping with this definition. To support the on-demand mannequin, IBM uses the e-enterprise framework shown in determine 1.2.
figure 1.2 The IBM e-business framework
In figure 1.2 the dotted line divides the logical ideas on the appropriate with the physical implementation at the backside. Conceptually, the IBM e-business framework is in keeping with the on-demand company model operating ambiance, which has four basic traits: it's integrated, open, virtualized, and autonomic. These characteristics are explained later in this area. The enviornment beneath the dotted line illustrates how this atmosphere is applied via the suite of IBM utility products.
The IBM DB2 application performs a vital position within the on-demand operating atmosphere. All aspects of the tips administration portfolio, together with DB2, are developed with the four standard features of the on-demand business mannequin in mind.
The backside of determine 1.2 shows the working techniques through which the IBM utility suite can operate: Linux, UNIX, home windows, i5/OS, and z/OS. beneath that, the servers, storage, and community An on-demand business is dependent upon having assistance attainable on demand, on every occasion it is required, by using individuals, tools, or purposes. suggestions On Demand is mentioned in the subsequent area.
1.2.2 tips On Demand
counsel On Demand, as its name implies, is making tips purchasable on every occasion individuals, tools, or purposes demand or request it. This will also be made possible by way of proposing information as a provider. IBM frequently uses the illustration in figure 1.three to clarify what "information as a provider" potential. Let's use the following instance to clarify this idea in a more interesting manner. expect you are the conventional supervisor of a grocery store, and your main intention is to make this enterprise profitable. to achieve this, you ought to make respectable decisions, such as how to monitor gadgets on shelves so that they sell extra. in order to make good decisions, you should have up-todate, respectable assistance.
determine 1.three counsel as a service
As depicted on the bottom of figure 1.three, many organizations nowadays have a large number of heterogeneous sources of information. For this certain illustration let's count on your suppliers use SAP and DB2, your sales branch makes use of an internally developed application, your smaller grocery store purchasers use Peoplesoft, and Oracle, and so forth. for that reason, you see several heterogeneous applications with semi-uncooked facts, with the intention to only be positive to you if you can integrate all of them. in an effort to integrate the data, it needs to be provided as a carrier, and here's feasible by using standards corresponding to JDBC and ODBC, and wrapping each and every of these applications as an internet provider. as soon as the information are built-in, you can also get a hold of decisions that may not were logical in any other case, akin to placing beer and diapers within the same aisle as a way to sell greater of each items.
With the facts integrated which you can extra therapeutic massage it to function some further analysis and get insightful relationships. This further massaging of the statistics may also be performed by way of other software, akin to entity analytics, grasp facts, etc as proven on the appropriate facet of the determine. finally, this integrated statistics can be passed to other methods, equipment and applications, and individuals for extra analysis.
1.2.3 carrier-Oriented structure
carrier-Oriented architecture (SOA), as its name implies, is an structure in response to features -- primarily internet services. SOA is not a product, however a methodology, a method to design systems that allow for integration, flexibility, loosely coupled components, and superior code reuse. With this architecture, enterprise activities are treated as features that can also be accessed on demand in the course of the network.
figure 1.4, which is additionally used in lots of IBM displays, depicts the SOA lifecycle. It contains four iterative steps or degrees—model, assemble, installation, control—and a fifth step that gives suggestions throughout the cycle: Governance & tactics.
figure 1.four The SOA Lifecycle
A more unique explanation of every stage within the SOA lifecycle is equipped in desk 1.2.SOA degreeDescription IBM tools That can be Used collectThis stage is set constructing new features and/or reusing existing ones, and assembling them to form composite functions. WebSphere Integration DeveloperRational application Developer install during this stage your services and functions are deployed into a cozy ambiance that integrates individuals, techniques, and advice inside your business. WebSphere technique ServerWebSphere Message BrokerWebSphere accomplice GatewayWebSphere PortalWebSphere Everyplace DeploymentWorkplace Collaboration ServicesWebSphere assistance IntegratorWebSphere application Server controlIn this stage, you should control and monitor your equipment, discover and correct inefficiencies and issues, cope with protection, first-rate of provider, and accepted device administration. DB2 content ManagerWebSphere enterprise MonitorTivoli Composite ApplicationManager for SOATivoli id supervisor Governance Governance underpins all of the lifecycle tiers. It ensures that all the functions from inside and out of doors the corporation arecontrolled so the equipment doesn't spin out of manage. Governance gives each route and handle. N/A
1.2.4 net functions
an internet provider, as its name implies, is a provider made accessible through the net. A extra formal, however still simple definition states that an internet provider is a way for an utility to name a feature over the network; besides the fact that children, there is not any should know
net capabilities are powerful as a result of they enable corporations to exchange guidance with minimal or no human intervention. Let's go back to the grocery store illustration to look the power of internet features in a greater functional scenario:
as an example you order 100,000 cookies from a company, anticipating all of them to be sold in one month. After the month passes most effective 60,000 are bought, so you are left with 40,000. as a result of these are cookies of a special type, they will break in two weeks. You should act quickly and promote them to different smaller supermarkets or internet organizations comparable to Amazon.com or eBay. you can grab the cell and spend an entire morning calling every of the smaller supermarket valued clientele, providing them as many cookies as they might want to buy from you; or you may take a more "technical" method and enhance a simple utility that could do this for you automatically. Assuming each and every of those smaller grocery store valued clientele supply net functions, you may boost an software (in any programming language) that allows you to SQL insert overstocked gadgets, such because the 40,000 cookies, into a DB2 database table overstock. You could then define a set off on this table which invokes a DB2 saved system (greater about triggers and kept processes in Chapter 7, Working with Database Objects) that might devour net functions offered via the internet agencies or the smaller supermarket shoppers. This situation is depicted in determine 1.5.
figure 1.5 the usage of a web provider
As that you may see from determine 1.5, the primary act of inserting forty,000 cookies through your application into the desk overstock within the DB2 server permits the methods of many smaller supermarkets and internet groups, through the use of their internet features, to make the cookies obtainable on their techniques at once, opening new income channels. In determine 1.5, DB2 is behaving as a web service consumer, since it is using or "ingesting" the net functions, while the smaller grocery store valued clientele and internet corporations are behaving as the web carrier suppliers, because they're making these net capabilities obtainable for others to use. For simplicity purposes, we have unnoticed in figure 1.5 the name to a saved procedure. This situation indicates the vigour of web capabilities: company-to-enterprise exchange of tips using purposes. There is no want for human intervention. DB2 and internet services could be mentioned in more aspect in Chapter 10, studying the DB2 pureXML help.
XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language. XML's popularity and use has grown exponentially during the past few years, because it is a core element of many new technologies. The easiest method to take into account how XML works is with the aid of evaluating it to HTML, considering that many individuals nowadays are established with HTML. Let's take a glance at the following line in an HTML doc:RaulIn the above line, the tag shows the manner you would want to display the textual content, during this case, Raul in bold. Now Let's take a look at the following line in an XML doc: Raul in the above line, the tag describes the text Raul. The tag is announcing that Raul is really a name. See the difference? In HTML, tags are used to point out the way you would want to reveal the information; in XML, tags are used to definitely describe the data. table 1.3 describes the traits of XML. table 1.three features of XML XML characteristic Description flexibleXML is a flexible language since it is handy to modify or adapt. XML is in accordance with a hierarchical mannequin, which is most applicable to store unstructured styles of assistance similar to economic information, life sciences guidance (as an example Genome, DNA), and the like. effortless to expandXML is handy to prolong; it truly is, that you may create your personal tags. for instance, besides the tag within the instance above, you may create new tags akin to , , and so forth. This means that you could create your own language or protocol in keeping with XML. Describes itself XML can describe itself; a further doc called an XML Schema (which itself is an XML doc) is used to provide suggestions and descriptions as to what each and every of the tags in a doc imply and restrict the classification of facts the tags can include. An older formulation, but nonetheless favourite today, is to use DTD files. within the above example, an XML Schema or DTD doc can indicate that the tag can only be used to shop characters. will also be transformed to other formats GXML will also be changed to other formats like HTML, the usage of Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT), a language used for the transformation of XML documents. impartial of the platform or supplier XML is unbiased of the platform or dealer; after all, XML documents can also be stored in textual content files containing tags. text files are supported all over. easy to shareXML is convenient to share with other functions, businesses, and approaches on the grounds that it can be kept as a text doc. since it is easy to share, or not it's acceptable as the core of internet functions. XML is also at the core of net 2.0 building technologies. net 2.0, as defined in Wikipedia. org "refers to a perceived 2nd technology of net-based communities and hosted capabilities -- reminiscent of social-networking websites, wikis, and folksonomies -- which facilitate collaboration and sharing between clients". Wikis, blogs, mash-ups, RSS or atom feeds, and so on, which can be a part of web 2.0 building applied sciences, are all in line with or involving XML. This makes DB2 9.5 the most suitable statistics server platform for net 2.0 building. table 1.four describes the diverse applied sciences which are part of internet 2.0. (to peer desk 1.4 and to examine more, download the free .pdf of this chapter.)XML is discussed in more detail in Chapter 10, getting to know the DB2 pureXML help.more informationContinue reading about IBM DB2 by downloading a free .pdf of the chapter: "realizing IBM DB2: Product heritage and approach."read other excerpts from records management books in the Chapter download Library.listen to a podcast about IBM DB2 9 certifications with Roger Sanders.
IBM's direction or method is in accordance with some key concepts and technologies:
during this section we describe each of these ideas, and we explain where DB2 matches in the method.1.2.1 On-Demand enterprise
We live in a fancy world with complicated computing device techniques the place alternate is a constant. at the same time, consumers have become extra worrying and fewer tolerant of errors. In a challenging ambiance like this, organizations need to react rapidly to market alterations; in any other case, they should be left in the back of via rivals. in an effort to react directly, a company has to be integrated and versatile. In different words, a company nowadays must be an on-demand business.
An on-demand business, as described with the aid of IBM, is "an business whose company techniques—built-in end to conclusion across the enterprise and with key companions, suppliers and purchasers—can respond with speed to any client demand, market opportunity, or exterior hazard."
IBM's on-demand company mannequin is in line with this definition. To guide the on-demand model, IBM uses the e-business framework shown in determine 1.2.
In figure 1.2 the dotted line divides the logical concepts at the properly with the physical implementation on the bottom. Conceptually, the IBM e-company framework is in response to the on-demand enterprise mannequin operating environment, which has four primary features: it's built-in, open, virtualized, and autonomic. These characteristics are defined later in this part.
The area beneath the dotted line illustrates how this atmosphere is applied through the suite of IBM utility products.
The IBM DB2 application performs a vital function within the on-demand operating atmosphere. All aspects of the counsel administration portfolio, together with DB2, are developed with the four primary features of the on-demand business mannequin in mind.
The backside of determine 1.2 suggests the operating programs during which the IBM application suite can operate: Linux, UNIX, windows, i5/OS, and z/OS. under that, the servers, storage, and network represent the specific hardware used to guide the framework.
An on-demand company depends upon having tips accessible on demand, each time it is needed, by means of americans, equipment, or purposes. advice On Demand is discussed within the next section.1.2.2 assistance On Demand
assistance On Demand, as its identify implies, is making suggestions attainable each time individuals, tools, or functions demand or request it. This may also be made possible by way of presenting assistance as a provider. IBM often makes use of the illustration in figure 1.three to clarify what "guidance as a carrier" ability. Let's use here instance to clarify this concept in a extra enjoyable method. count on you're the universal supervisor of a supermarket, and your leading goal is to make this enterprise profitable. to achieve this, you should make respectable selections, similar to the way to reveal objects on shelves in order that they sell more. in order to make respectable selections, you should have updated, authentic assistance.
As depicted on the backside of determine 1.three, many companies today have a large number of heterogeneous sources of information. For this certain instance let's anticipate your suppliers use SAP and DB2, your sales branch uses an internally developed utility, your smaller grocery store shoppers use Peoplesoft, and Oracle, and so forth. as a consequence, you see a couple of heterogeneous applications with semi-raw records, so that you can most effective be effective to you if you can integrate all of them. in an effort to integrate the information, it needs to be provided as a provider, and here is feasible by utilizing requisites reminiscent of JDBC and ODBC, and wrapping every of these functions as a web provider. as soon as the statistics are built-in, you may come up with selections that may now not were logical otherwise, equivalent to inserting beer and diapers within the same aisle with a view to sell extra of each products.
With the records built-in that you may further massage it to perform some further analysis and get insightful relationships. This extra massaging of the records may also be performed by way of different utility, such as entity analytics, master information, etc as shown on the right facet of the determine. finally, this integrated statistics can be passed to other processes, tools and functions, and people for additional evaluation.1.2.3 service-Oriented structure
provider-Oriented structure (SOA), as its name implies, is an structure in line with capabilities—certainly web features. SOA isn't a product, however a technique, a method to design programs that enable for integration, flexibility, loosely coupled accessories, and superior code reuse. With this structure, company activities are treated as capabilities that can also be accessed on demand in the course of the network.
determine 1.4, which is also used in lots of IBM displays, depicts the SOA lifecycle. It includes 4 iterative steps or levels—mannequin, gather, install, manage—and a fifth step that offers information right through the cycle: Governance & approaches.
A more particular rationalization of every stage in the SOA lifecycle is supplied in table 1.2.table 1.2. The SOA Lifecycle levels
IBM equipment That may also be Used
This stage is used to model and optimize your company processes. it is additionally used to determine the styles of functions crucial and the class of data these services would access.
WebSphere business Integration Modeler
Rational utility Architect
This stage is about building new functions and/ or reusing latest ones, and assembling them to kind composite applications.
WebSphere Integration Developer
Rational application Developer
in this stage your features and purposes are deployed into a comfy atmosphere that integrates individuals, tactics, and advice inside your business.
WebSphere manner Server
WebSphere Message broker
WebSphere accomplice Gateway
WebSphere Everyplace Deployment
place of work Collaboration capabilities
WebSphere advice Integrator
WebSphere utility Server
during this stage, you should control and video display your gadget, locate and correct inefficiencies and complications, deal with safety, excellent of provider, and usual gadget administration.
WebSphere business computer screen
Tivoli Composite utility manager for SOA
Tivoli identification supervisor
Governance underpins all the lifecycle tiers. It ensures that the entire capabilities from interior and out of doors the company are controlled so the device does not spin out of control. Governance provides each route and handle.
N/A1.2.4 net features
a web carrier, as its identify implies, is a service made obtainable through the web. A more formal, however nonetheless essential definition states that an internet carrier is a method for an software to name a feature over the network; youngsters, there isn't any need to recognize
net capabilities are potent as a result of they enable corporations to alternate tips with minimal or no human intervention. Let's go lower back to the supermarket illustration to peer the energy of internet functions in a greater sensible state of affairs:
for instance you order one hundred,000 cookies from a corporation, expecting all of them to be sold in one month. After the month passes only 60,000 are offered, so you are left with 40,000. because these are cookies of a unique kind, they are going to destroy in two weeks. You deserve to act speedy and sell them to other smaller supermarkets or cyber web groups similar to Amazon.com or eBay. you could grab the phone and spend a whole morning calling every of the smaller supermarket shoppers, offering them as many cookies as they would need to purchase from you; or you might take a greater "technical" approach and enhance a simple application that would try this for you automatically. Assuming every of those smaller grocery store valued clientele give web services, you could advance an utility (in any programming language) that permits you to SQL insert overstocked gadgets, such as the forty,000 cookies, into a DB2 database desk overstock. You could then define a set off on this table which invokes a DB2 saved method (extra about triggers and saved strategies in Chapter 7, Working with Database Objects) that may consume internet capabilities supplied by way of the information superhighway organizations or the smaller grocery store customers. This situation is depicted in determine 1.5.
As you could see from determine 1.5, the simple act of inserting 40,000 cookies via your utility into the desk overstock in the DB2 server permits the techniques of many smaller supermarkets and internet agencies, by using their web features, to make the cookies obtainable on their systems directly, opening new revenue channels. In figure 1.5, DB2 is behaving as an internet service purchaser, since it is the use of or "consuming" the internet capabilities, whereas the smaller supermarket consumers and information superhighway corporations are behaving because the web service suppliers, as a result of they are making these net features purchasable for others to make use of. For simplicity purposes, we have omitted in figure 1.5 the name to a stored manner. This scenario suggests the vigour of web services: business-to-company alternate of information the use of purposes. There is not any want for human intervention. DB2 and net functions might be mentioned in more element in Chapter 10, learning the DB2 pureXML support.1.2.5 XML
XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language. XML's popularity and use has grown exponentially in the past few years, because it is a core part of many new technologies. The easiest way to understand how XML works is by way of evaluating it to HTML, given that many people these days are familiar with HTML. Let's take a glance on the following line in an HTML document:<b>Raul</b>
within the above line, the tag <b> suggests the manner you may like to screen the textual content, during this case, Raul in daring. Now Let's take a look at the following line in an XML document:<name>Raul</identify>
in the above line, the tag <name> describes the text Raul. The tag is saying that Raul is basically a name. See the difference? In HTML, tags are used to indicate how you would want to screen the data; in XML, tags are used to basically describe the statistics. table 1.three describes the traits of XML.table 1.3. qualities of XML
XML is a flexible language since it is handy to regulate or adapt. XML is in response to a hierarchical mannequin, which is most acceptable to shop unstructured kinds of information akin to financial counsel, existence sciences information (for instance Genome, DNA), and so on.
easy to extend
XML is convenient to lengthen; it truly is, that you may create your personal tags. for example, apart from the <identify> tag within the illustration above, you might create new tags reminiscent of <handle>, <electronic mail>, <cellphone>, and the like. This capacity you can create your own language or protocol in keeping with XML.
XML can describe itself; an additional document called an XML Schema (which itself is an XML doc) is used to give guidelines and descriptions as to what each and every of the tags in a document mean and restrict the category of records the tags can include. An older components, but nevertheless familiar these days, is to use DTD documents. in the above example, an XML Schema or DTD doc can point out that the tag <identify> can best be used to keep characters.
can be modified to different formats
XML can be modified to different codecs like HTML, using Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT), a language used for the transformation of XML files.
impartial of the platform or dealer
XML is independent of the platform or supplier; in spite of everything, XML documents can also be kept in text information containing tags. textual content files are supported far and wide.
handy to share
XML is convenient to share with other applications, companies, and methods seeing that it may also be kept as a text doc. because it is convenient to share, or not it's acceptable because the core of internet features.
XML is also on the core of web 2.0 construction technologies. internet 2.0, as defined in Wikipedia.org "refers to a perceived 2d era of net-primarily based communities and hosted functions—similar to social-networking sites, wikis, and folksonomies—which facilitate collaboration and sharing between users". Wikis, blogs, mash-ups, RSS or atom feeds, and the like, which are part of web 2.0 building applied sciences, are all in accordance with or regarding XML. This makes DB2 9.5 the premier records server platform for internet 2.0 building. table 1.4 describes the distinctive applied sciences which are part of web 2.0.desk 1.four. internet 2.0 technologies
net 2.0 technology
here is an commercial serving program where web web page homeowners can enable textual content, photograph, and video commercial on their web site, and ads will seem in line with the web website content material, the consumer's geographic place, and other components.
often known as a web log, this is an internet-based e-book of periodic articles in journal trend displayed in chronological order. it is frequently used to deliver personal commentaries on a discipline or as own on-line diaries.
Representational State transfer: An architectural trend for disbursed hypermedia systems like the all over internet.
RSS and Atom
RSS (actually primary Syndication) and Atom are XML file codecs for net syndication, which provides a way to distribute counsel.
Bookmarks that deliver a method to attach key terms to pages or photos on the internet, assisting categorize and making issues less demanding to find (i.e, metadata).
a sort of web web site that enables for neighborhood authoring (add/delete/edit content).
XML is discussed in more aspect in Chapter 10, studying the DB2 pureXML help.1.2.6 DB2 and the IBM method
Now that you just bear in mind the important thing concepts of the usual IBM strategy, you can be asking your self, how do these ideas relate to every different? the place does DB2 fit in the standard method? To reply these questions, let's take a glance at determine 1.6.
As shown in figure 1.6, an on-demand enterprise depends upon information On Demand, which depends upon carrier-Oriented structure, which depends on web functions, which depends upon XML. The figure indicates why XML is so important: XML is at the base of all of those ideas; with out it, they'd be difficult to enforce.
XML documents should be saved in a secure place that permits for storing, managing, and retrieving large volumes of those files. Persistency, scalability, safety, restoration, and respectable efficiency are all critical elements to agree with when deciding on a repository to your XML documents. All of these features have already been supplied for decades in databases; hence, a database is likely the most reliable repository for XML documents. DB2 has been offering support to work with XML files for several years. starting in edition 9, as described prior in this chapter, pureXML expertise is made attainable, which tremendously enhances performance by means of internally storing XML files in a parsed-hierarchical method, as a tree. thus, in summary, the role of DB2 within the assistance On Demand world is to be the repository of XML documents. this is why DB2 is proven on the backside of the determine, supporting all of the other technologies.
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February 4, 2019 Michael Sansoterra
In the tip, Arranging Query Logic in DB2 for i Routines, I addressed a reader’s question about how to create a user-defined table function (UDTF) in DB2 for i that would return the same result set as an existing stored procedure. The purpose of having the UDTF would be to do additional processing on a result set, such as joining the result set with another query or dumping the result set to a temporary table for analysis. To accomplish this, I suggested moving the stored procedure query logic into a UDTF and then replace the query within the stored procedure with the new UDTF.
However, there may be a case when that suggestion can’t be implemented for a reason, such as when the stored procedure is part of a vendor-supplied application package that can’t be modified. Another possibility is that the stored procedure was written in a language unfamiliar to you, such as C, and the task of rewriting the logic as UDTF is time-consuming and error-prone. In cases like these, a UDTF can be written to execute the procedure, consume the result set, and format the data in a fashion that the table function can utilize.
This story contains code, which you can download here.
Using this wrapper technique is powerful, as it will allow a stored procedure result set to be used within other DML statements. This technique can be implemented using many high-level languages, including Java and RPG. I will demonstrate this method using an “external” Java UDTF. Keep in mind a performance tax is imposed with a wrapper such as this, so carefully weigh the cost of convenience vs. performance.The Stored Procedure And Result Set
For simplicity, using the example from the last tip, let’s say there is a stored procedure named GetOrders and it accepts CustomerId (INT) as a parameter. For the sake of argument, we’ll assume this procedure is vendor-supplied and shouldn’t be modified, yet we want to use its result set in a DML statement such as SELECT or UPDATE.
The procedure can be invoked as follows:CALL GetOrders (11091);
When executed, the procedure returns a result set consisting of the following five columns:Column Data Type SalesOrderId INT CustomerId INT OrderDate DATE ShipDate DATE SubTotal DECIMAL(19,4) The UDTF Wrapper
An “external” user-defined table function (UDTF) named GetOrdersJava will be used to capture the stored procedure’s result set. This type of function is called external because the code is written in a high-level language, rather than SQL. The function can be invoked in a simple SELECT as follows:SELECT * FROM TABLE(GetOrdersJava(11091)) X;
The GetOrders.java source code for the GetOrdersJava UDTF is attached here. This tip assumes you know how to compile Java code. Note that in order to be used by DB2 for i, standalone Java classes should be compiled or placed in the following special IFS path:/qibm/userdata/os400/sqllib/function
Finally, do not confuse the Java source code and class name (GetOrders.java) with the UDTF name GetOrdersJava.
If you’re not familiar with external table functions, I’ll briefly highlight how they work. External table functions (as opposed to SQL table functions) are coded in a high-level language and must follow a specific protocol demanded by DB2.
The first concern when coding a table function is the parameter list. The number of parameters can vary depending on the language and parameter style specified on the CREATE FUNCTION statement (more on this in a minute). In general, the parameter list for an RPG program, subprocedure or, in this case, a Java method, should contain an input parameter for each UDTF input parameter and additional output parameters for each column the UDTF returns.
The next concern when coding a table function is DB2’s ability to communicate to the function what call type (i.e. processing stage) it is in. The list of the five possible call types is shown below and includes a description of what GetOrders.java is doing during each call type:Call Type UDTF’s Task GetOrders.java Implementation First Perform initialization Get JDBC reference to current database connection. Open Open any resources required to do the work Use JDBC to call the GetOrders stored procedure and return a result set internal to the Java program. Fetch Give DB2 a row of data by populating the output parameters (i.e. UDTF columns) and exit. If no data remains, set the SQLCode to ‘02000’ (end of data). DB2 will continually call the UDTF with the fetch call type until it receives the end of data indicator. Read one row from stored procedure result set and populate output parameters (i.e. build one row and give it back to DB2). Continue this process until there are no more rows from the result set. Close Close resources Close JDBC result set, connection, etc. Last Perform final cleanup Nothing
In other words, DB2 will call the function a few times and give it the option to initialize data and open or allocate resources. Thereafter, it will continually call the function with a “Fetch” request. Each Fetch invocation represents one row of data to be returned from the table function.
Note that the state of the table function variables can be maintained across invocations (depending on how the function is written). In the Java program, the stored procedure result set is left open in between fetch calls and advanced one row with each fetch call. It would be a bad thing if we had to call the procedure, open the result set and reposition the result set with each type of fetch call!
When the UDTF indicates to DB2 that there are no more rows (this varies by language but in Java it is done by setting the SQLState as ‘02000’ (end of data)), DB2 will call the function a few more times to give it a chance to clean up resources.
Coding a table function in Java using the DB2GENERAL parameter style has an advantage over using other languages because it inherits a bunch of “plumbing” code from an IBM provided Java class named UDF. Therefore references to things like the call type, methods to set the SQL state, detect nulls on primitive types, etc. are already supplied and there is less chance of making a coding mistake. However, Java can carry some additional overhead, especially on the first invocation of a Java routine, as DB2 must take time to create a Java Virtual Machine instance to run the code.
Once the Java code has been compiled as a class (see source code header for a sample javac QShell command), it can be registered for use with DB2 as a UDTF using the CREATE FUNCTION statement. The CREATE FUNCTION definition for GetOrdersJava is shown here:CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION GetOrdersJava (@CustomerID INT) RETURNS TABLE ( SalesOrderId INT, CustomerId INT, OrderDate DATE, ShipDate DATE, SUBTOTAL DEC(19,4)) EXTERNAL NAME 'GetOrders.orders' LANGUAGE JAVA PARAMETER STYLE DB2GENERAL DISALLOW PARALLEL FENCED SCRATCHPAD FINAL CALL RETURNS NULL ON NULL INPUT MODIFIES SQL DATA
I have bolded a few of the options that merit attention. First, EXTERNAL NAME specifies the Java class name (GetOrders) and method name (orders) to be invoked when the UDTF is called.
Second, PARAMETER STYLE DB2GENERAL is associated with a specific way of coding the Java function. Using this option gives DB2 the expectation that the Java code provided will inherit from IBM’s UDF class.
Third, MODIFIES SQL DATA may or may not be required. If the UDTF calls a resource such as another UDTF or stored procedure that DB2 believes has the ability to modify data, then MODIFIES SQL DATA is required. If the stored procedure GETORDERS was defined as READS SQL DATA then this UDTF could also be defined as READS SQL DATA. What’s the difference? Nothing other than DB2 may have to be a little more cautious about how it runs code if it believes data can be modified using SQL and that implies additional overhead. Even if your stored procedure will not be updating data, if it has not been marked as READS SQL DATA, then the UDTF will likely need to be built with MODIFIES SQL DATA.
Finally, not shown in this example is the CARDINALITY option. Specifying CARDINALITY followed by an estimated number of rows (e.g. CARDINALITY 5000) lets DB2 know how many rows, on average, the table function will return. This information can help DB2 make a more efficient query plan when the table function participates in a complex query involving other functions, tables or views. If your UDTF will return a relatively consistent average number of rows, then the CARDINALITY option should be included. If the number of rows returned by the function will vary greatly, then this option can be omitted.
For more information on building external table functions, see the references at the end of the article.
After the Java UDTF GetOrdersJava has been created, when run it will call the GetOrders stored procedure, read its result set one row at a time (and give DB2 one row at a time), and then clean up after itself. Because it is wrapped by a UDTF, the stored procedure result set can now participate in a wide array of SQL DML statements.A Caveat
This UDTF is tightly coupled to the underlying result set. The column names and data types returned from the procedure should not change lest the table function potentially break as well. While a more dynamic approach can be taken to get column names and data types from a stored procedure result set, in the end, the coding hassle may not be worth the trouble as ultimately, the column definitions in the table function can never be dynamic (unless you’re willing to continually DROP and CREATE a table function to match a result set on a session by session basis.)
Author’s Note: Here are a few helpful references.
The power of user-defined table functions: A great overview of SQL and external UDTFs by Birgitta Hauser. If you’re new to UDTFs, this is a great place to start.
DB2 for i: Process Stored Procedure Result Sets as Cursors: For ideas on how to implement this function in RPG instead of Java, you will need to know how to capture and manipulate a stored procedure result set in RPG using embedded SQL.
IBM Developer Kit for Java: This reference guide contains a section entitled “Java SQL Routines” that describes the intricacies of creating Java code that DB2 can run (including scalar functions, table functions and stored procedures). I left quite a bit unsaid on exactly how all of this works and this is the IBM documentation for the topic. Don’t be discouraged if you don’t digest all of the options right away.
This chapter introduced DB2 and its history, discusses the types of clients and servers available with DB2, and covers the types of clients and servers available with DB2.This chapter is from the book
DATABASE 2 (DB2) for Linux, UNIX, and Windows is a data server developed by IBM. Version 9.5, available since October 2007, is the most current version of the product, and the one on which we focus in this book.
In this chapter you will learn about the following:
Since the 1970s, when IBM Research invented the Relational Model and the Structured Query Language (SQL), IBM has developed a complete family of data servers. Development started on mainframe platforms such as Virtual Machine (VM), Virtual Storage Extended (VSE), and Multiple Virtual Storage (MVS). In 1983, DB2 for MVS Version 1 was born. "DB2" was used to indicate a shift from hierarchical databases—such as the Information Management System (IMS) popular at the time—to the new relational databases. DB2 development continued on mainframe platforms as well as on distributed platforms.1Figure 1.1 shows some of the highlights of DB2 history.
In 1996, IBM announced DB2 Universal Database (UDB) Version 5 for distributed platforms. With this version, DB2 was able to store all kinds of electronic data, including traditional relational data, as well as audio, video, and text documents. It was the first version optimized for the Web, and it supported a range of distributed platforms—for example, OS/2, Windows, AIX, HP-UX, and Solaris—from multiple vendors. Moreover, this universal database was able to run on a variety of hardware, from uniprocessor systems and symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) systems to massively parallel processing (MPP) systems and clusters of SMP systems.
Even though the relational model to store data is the most prevalent in the industry today, the hierarchical model never lost its importance. In the past few years, due to the popularity of eXtensible Markup Language (XML), a resurgence in the use of the hierarchical model has taken place. XML, a flexible, self-describing language, relies on the hierarchical model to store data. With the emergence of new Web technologies, the need to store unstructured types of data, and to share and exchange information between businesses, XML proves to be the best language to meet these needs. Today we see an exponential growth of XML documents usage.
IBM recognized early on the importance of XML, and large investments were made to deliver pureXML technology; a technology that provides for better support to store XML documents in DB2. After five years of development, the effort of 750 developers, architects, and engineers paid off with the release of the first hybrid data server in the market: DB2 9. DB2 9, available since July 2006, is a hybrid (also known as multi-structured) data server because it allows for storing relational data, as well as hierarchical data, natively. While other data servers in the market, and previous versions of DB2 could store XML documents, the storage method used was not ideal for performance and flexibility. With DB2 9's pureXML technology, XML documents are stored internally in a parsed hierarchical manner, as a tree; therefore, working with XML documents is greatly enhanced. In 2007, IBM has gone even further in its support for pureXML, with the release of DB2 9.5. DB2 9.5, the latest version of DB2, not only enhances and introduces new features of pureXML, but it also brings improvements in installation, manageability, administration, scalability and performance, workload management and monitoring, regulatory compliance, problem determination, support for application development, and support for business partner applications.
DB2 is available for many platforms including System z (DB2 for z/OS) and System i (DB2 for i5/OS). Unless otherwise noted, when we use the term DB2, we are referring to DB2 version 9.5 running on Linux, UNIX, or Windows.
DB2 is part of the IBM information management (IM) portfolio. Table 1.1 shows the different IM products available.Table 1.1. Information Management Products
Information Management Products
Provide software services for the secure and efficient management of data and enable the sharing of information across multiple platforms.
Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence
Help customers collect, prepare, manage, analyze, and extract valuable information from all data types to help them make faster, more insightful business decisions.
DB2 Cube Views
DB2 Warehouse Edition
DB2 Query Management Facility
Enterprise Content Management & Discovery
Manage content, process, and connectivity. The content includes both structured and unstructured data, such as e-mails, electronic forms, images, digital media, word processing documents, and Web content. Perform enterprise search and discovery of information.
DB2 Content Manager
DB2 Common Store
DB2 CM OnDemand
DB2 Records Manager
FileNet P8 and its add-on suites
Bring together distributed information from heterogeneous environments. Companies view their information as if it were all residing in one place.
IBM Information Server integration software platform, consisting of:
What is the architecture of DB2?
That is a short question that requires a very long answer. The following overview is adapted from my book, DB2 Developer's Guide (http://www.craigsmullins.com/cm-book.htm). Conceptually, DB2 is a relational database management system. Physically, DB2 is an amalgamation of address spaces and intersystem communication links that, when adequately tied together, provide the services of a relational database management system.
Each DB2 subsystem consists of from three to five tasks started from the operator console. Each of these started tasks runs in a portion of the CPU called an address space.
The first address space is the DBAS, or Database Services Address Space. DBAS provides the facility for the manipulation of DB2 data structures. The default name for this address space is DSNDBM1. (The address spaces may have been renamed at your shop.) This component of DB2 is responsible for the execution of SQL and the management of buffers, and it contains the core logic of the DBMS. The DBAS consists of three components, each of which performs specific tasks: the Relational Data System (RDS), the Data Manager (DM), and the Buffer Manager (BM).
Next is the SSAS, or System Services Address Space. SSAS coordinates the attachment of DB2 to other subsystems (CICS, IMS/TM, or TSO). SSAS is also responsible for all logging activities (physical logging, log archival, and BSDS). DSNMSTR is the default name for this address space. DSNMSTR is the started task which contains the DB2 log.
The third address space required by DB2 is the IRLM, or Intersystem Resource Lock Manager. The IRLM is responsible for the management of all DB2 locks (including deadlock detection). The default name of this address space is IRLMPROC.
The next DB2 address space, DDF, or Distributed Data Facility, is optional. The DDF is required only when you want distributed database functionality. If your shop must enable remote DB2 subsystems to query data between one another, the DDF address space must be activated.
The final address space (or series of address spaces) is devoted to the execution of stored procedures and user-defined functions. These address spaces are known as the Stored Procedure Address Spaces, or SPAS. If you're running DB2 V4, only one SPAS is available. For Under DB2 V5 and later releases, however, if you're using the MVS WorkLoad Manager (WLM), you can define multiple SPAS. These five address spaces contain the logic to handle all DB2 functionality effectively.
This response is continued.
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