|Exam Name||:||DB2 9 DBA for Linux, UNIX and Windows|
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|Updated On||:||February 15, 2019|
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SPSS is a data science and analysis tool constructed by means of IBM. in case you’re the use of SPSS, listed below are some explanations to choose Db2 as a backend database to your initiatives.1. It’s free
SPSS is frequently used via students or impartial consultants. And so, you may also like free things in case you use SPSS. The Db2 on Cloud Lite plan is free. no longer simply free for 1 year, like some other databases out there. It’s free always. despite the fact, you’ll deserve to reactivate your free tier every 30 days, so that we will retain resources open for others.2. It’s standard to run, however..
You don’t need to be a DBA to use Db2 on Cloud. Db2 on Cloud is utterly managed. center of attention on statistics science, and not running databases.
youngsters, I may still point out that the setup system for Db2 on Cloud with SPSS may be a bit longer. however, once you do installation the database connection, managing your database should be fundamental. right here’s a video on YouTube which walks through establishing Db2 with SPSS on windows that could be constructive.
Having main issue? Don’t be a stranger! reach out to me in the feedback below and that i’ll assist get you begun.3. Scale on-demand
if you are able for a paid plan, you could choose Flex. From there, you only need to pay for what you use. that you may scale up and down the usage of sliderbars. So, which you could scale up to run your analysis, and then scale lower back down. if you would like much more vigor, take a look at Db2 Warehouse on Cloud. Its large parallel processing engine (MPP) can analyze terabytes of statistics all of a sudden.four. Analyze as much as 100X quicker with BLU in-reminiscence acceleration
IBM’s BLU acceleration is a massive talents over the open source options nowadays. It uses in-reminiscence columnar expertise to research information lots faster. The BLU engine makes use of lots of other patented IBM speedups, like actionable compression. That allows you to query statistics whereas it’s compressed, which each saves compute time from decompression and maximizes RAM for a double-whammy of energy.
Jul 30, 2018Joyce Wells
DBI software, a issuer of Db2 LUW efficiency options, has brought new capabilities in its pureFeat V7 performance management Suite for IBM Db2 LUW.
With this liberate, DBI is elevating efficiency monitoring to support DBAs and management teams to take care of the volatility of agile environments, stated Scott Hayes, president and founding father of DBI.
Agentless colour option - IBM has carried out a lot of work in the newest unencumber of Db2 (edition 11) to make pureScale more straightforward to make use of, put into effect, and administer and, as a result, DBI has seen better adoption of pureScale over the last one year, said Hayes. To aid consumers get extra from pureScale, DBI’s newest release provides effective Db2 pureScale performance reporting and trending, including new performance displays for global Bufferpools, CF Wait instances, CF Processing instances, the Cluster Facility, and Member efficiency.
Agentless Collector option - besides DBI's agent-based mostly collector, the unlock adds a brand new agentless collector option for monitoring cloud databases the place a server login instant is not accessible. The agentless collector makes it more convenient to computer screen assorted databases with minimal overhead and administration and is specially critical for monitoring cloud databases however additionally for convenience in light-weight monitoring of non-critical databases, referred to Hayes.
Database ranking Calculations - in keeping with DBI, many valued clientele admire that the database ranking provided by using pureFeat helps them right now triage databases to center of attention on the worst complications first. The rating, starting from 0-10,000, is cost based mostly, helping DBA groups to find hidden or emerging future complications.
prior to now, the "analyze database rating" function highlighted complications and offered suggestions for resolution, but there changed into no indicator for the severity of the complications recognized. The remarks from purchasers, observed Hayes, become that they preferred the tool nonetheless it was now not clear what the worst complications have been.
in the new unlock, the variety of facets subtracted for each issue is printed so that DBAs can take note what the worst problems are.
"Index Design Workbench" - DBI’s Predictive Index influence evaluation (PIIA) helps Db2 users be mindful the have an impact on of including new indexes given SQL workloads for any timeframe, helping DBA teams to tune Db2 databases with self assurance and also helping them benefit change handle approvals extra readily.
building on the success of this capability, the brand new unlock adds the ability for DBAs to regulate indexes suggested with the aid of the Design consultant (add, get rid of, or reorder columns, and alter style sequences) or invent their personal new index that will also be handed into the affect evaluation.
Now, valued clientele have the capability to remove columns in a recommended index or reorder columns, and in the event that they feel they're smarter than the software, spoke of Hayes, they could create their personal index and put it through the predictive impact analysis tool to peer if it will even have the a good option impact that they expect.
greater trend Charts - probably the most favorite capabilities offered with the aid of DBI is the fashion charts with exchange event indications plotted on them. youngsters, prior to now, it turned into best feasible to graph certain similarly scaled metrics across time on an X and Y axis. during this free up, a new Z axis option has been added, making it possible to graph assorted metrics across time, assisting to establish trigger and impact.
for instance, DBAs can now graph the average transaction response time together with the number of latest and lively database connections. A DBA might see that after the database is operating 30 concurrent energetic connections, response instances birth to slow down, stated Hayes.
The want for speed
With the improved center of attention on DevOps, there is further pressure to take changes straight away and that creates work and stress for DBA groups, accompanied Hayes, pointing out that “exchange is an invitation for brand new issues.” through featuring the new capabilities in this unencumber, he mentioned, DBI is offering people with extra insight into what is occurring inside their Db2 environments.For extra suggestions, goto www.dbisoftware.com/pureFeat-70-DB2-LUW-efficiency-tools.phpand DBI utility pureFeat V7 information.
newsIBM DB2 Will target Oracle Database developers
IBM this week introduced a new version of its flagship DB2 database with utility with the intention to provide compatibility with functions developed for Oracle databases.
Embedded in IBM's imminent DB2 9.7, code-named "Cobra" and slated for unlock in June, is application that gives compatibility with EnterpriseDB Corp.'s Postgres Plus advanced Server database, which helps all Oracle statistics kinds, SQL syntax, semantics and different functions developed with Oracle PL/SQL kept processes. Postgres superior Server is constructed on the open supply PostgreSQL database.
"The set of applied sciences we have introduced will aid builders of custom applications and packaged functions installation to DB2," spoke of Bernie Spang, director of approach, analytics and records management for IBM's utility community.
For IBM, or not it's the first time the enterprise has licensed expertise from a company of open source database software, even though EnterpriseDB founder Andy Astor spoke of the software embedded in DB2 is in keeping with proprietary code.
"here's no longer an open supply play," Astor observed. "every thing else we do is open supply however that is one of the techniques we make our cash, by using selling that compatibility know-how both to carriers like IBM, in this case, and to clients within the type of Postgres Plus advanced Server."
EnterpriseDB elements to a couple of shoppers including FTD and Sony on-line leisure which have migrated applications developed for Oracle databases to Postgres Plus. The take care of IBM "gives them with proven performance for enabling compatibility between DB2 and functions written for Oracle," mentioned 451 community analyst Matthew Aslett in an email.
"Database migrations are complicated, time-drinking, costly and infrequent, so any performance that makes the manner less difficult is going to be welcomed by way of those businesses that are prepared to make the soar," he added.
The licensing pact is the primary by EnterpriseDB, but Astor talked about others are being negotiated.
IBM is hoping the circulate will inspire greater customers to migrate to its InfoSphere Warehouse 9.7 enterprise version, a knowledge-cleaning and company analytics platform in response to DB2 and expertise IBM bought from Cognos.
the new release is centered at bringing statistics mining, analytics and cubing to departments of organisations and smaller corporations, Spang observed. additionally new in DB2 is aid for performing simultaneous transactions throughout XML and relational statistics.
Jeffrey Schwartz is government editor, features, for Redmond Developer information. which you could contact him at email@example.com.
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DB2 provides a variety of options for connecting to other DB2 and non-DB2 data servers:
DB2 Connect™—This add-on product provides support for applications executing on Linux, UNIX, and Windows to transparently access DB2 data servers on i5/OS, VM/VSE, and z/OS environments. DB2 Connect provides much more than just connectivity; more details of its capabilities are provided later in this chapter.
DB2 Replication—This feature provides replication capabilities for DB2 data servers. There are two kinds of replication, SQL-based replication and Queue-based replication (also know as Q-replication). Both are sometimes referred to as Data Propagator (DPROPR).
SQL-based replication is included in all of the DB2 mainstream editions that run on Linux, UNIX, and Windows. It's made up of two components, CAPTURE and APPLY. It uses SQL to replay data on target servers.
Q-Replication is built on the IBM WebSphere MQSeries® technology and is generally thought to be a more available and powerful replication technology. You can add this capability to a DB2 environment through one of the WebSphere Information Integrator products.
Once a DB2 application has been developed, you need to install connectivity software on each client workstation in a two-tier environment. If you are deploying a Web-based application in a three-tier environment, you need to, at a minimum, install the DB2 client connectivity software on the application server. In DB2 9 there are basically two types of clients, the DB2 Runtime Client and the DB2 Client.
A DB2 Runtime Client provides the minimum client footprint (about 20–30 MB) to support connectivity to DB2 9 data servers (the exception to this is if you choose to support communication via specific API drivers, covered later in this section). When you install a DB2 Runtime Client, you install a driver to support all the common programming methodologies, including ADO.NET, ADO, OLE DB, ODBC, JDBC, SQLJ, static SQL, and more.
Using a DB2 Runtime Client you can perform basic functions, such as running any DB2 commands or SQL statements from a DB2 CLP or CLP session; however, for the most part, this client comes with no other capabilities than supporting data connectivity. For example, there are no graphical-based management tools, documentation, and so on. You can download a DB2 Runtime Client at www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/iwm/web/preLogin.do?lang=en_US&source=swg-dm-db2rtcl.
A special DB2 Runtime Client is made available as Windows Merge Modules (.msi files), which makes the installation of this software within Windows applications more natural. You can download these files at http://www-304.ibm.com/jct03002c/software/data/db2/runtime.html.
In contrast, the DB2 Client includes all the functions found in the DB2 Runtime Client plus functions for client-server configuration, tools for database administration and application development, samples, and more. For example, this client includes the Configuration Assistant that provides graphically administration and connectivity tools, as well as a host of programming samples, and so on. The DB2 9 Client replaces the functions found in both the DB2 8 Application Development and DB2 8 Administration clients.
A DB2 Client's footprint is directly correlated to the components you select to install and can take between 200 MB and 800 MB depending on the options you select. The process to install a DB2 Client is very similar to a DB2 data server. You can download a DB2 Client at http://www-304.ibm.com/jct03002c/software/data/db2/runtime.html.
The choice of which DB2 client to install should be based on the requirements of the application on the client machine. For example, if you have a database application developed for Linux, UNIX, or Windows and you do not require the DB2 administration or application development tools from a Windows workstation, yet want to support applications written in multiple programming languages like .NET and Java, you should install the DB2 Runtime Client on that workstation.
Some enterprises prefer to deploy the DB2 Runtime Client code remotely on a dedicated server. In these environments, remote workstations need to access the DB2 Runtime Client code remotely from a code server before accessing to DB2. This type of configuration is known as a thin client. A thin-client configuration can provide many benefits, such as a central catalog directory of all database connections and a single footprint of code to manage. The trade-off is that clients must load the client .dlls from the code server before accessing the remote data server. It should be noted however that this performance hit is only "noticed" on the initial connection. Once the client code is loaded on the client workstation, subsequent calls to the code server are not needed.
When you want to deploy your DB2 application, you only need to ensure that a DB2 Runtime Client is installed on each workstation executing the application. Figure 1-10 shows the relationship between an application, a DB2 Runtime Client, and the DB2 data server. If the application and database are installed on the same server, connectivity is considered to come from a local client. If the application is installed on a system other than the DB2 data server, its connectivity is considered to come from a remote client.
Figure 1-10 Accessing a DB2 data server using the DB2 Runtime Client
DB2 client connectivity can be configured using various supported communication protocols. The supported protocols vary according to operating system:
Some larger enterprises and independent software vendors (ISVs) want to deploy their applications written in single language without the overheard of installing and maintaining a DB2 client on each client workstation. Despite the much smaller footprint of the DB2 Runtime Client in DB2 9, IBM makes available two drivers that can be deployed for connectivity on their own, outside of a DB2 Runtime Client or DB2 Client installation.
The IBM Driver for JDBC and SQLJ can be deployed to support Java-based connectivity to a DB2 data server. This driver is about 2 MB in size and can easily be embedded within your application. In fact, it comes with a royalty-free distribution license for this very purpose.
You should note however that although this driver can connect to the entire DB2 family, if you're connecting to a DB2 for i5/OS, DB2 for VM/VSE, or DB2 for z/OS data server, you need to additionally license this connectivity with DB2 Connect (covered in the next section) to ensure you are compliant with respect to licensing.
It's important to note that the IBM Driver for JDBC and SQLJ solely supports Java applications. Aside from not including tooling and documentation, this driver doesn't support data server connectivity using other APIs. For example, you can't support a .NET application using this driver. You can download this driver at www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/download/preconfig.jsp?id=2004-09-20+10%3A09%3A21.003415R&cat=database&fam=&s=c&S_TACT=105AGX11&S_CMP=DB2.
DB2 9 includes a new standalone driver for CLI and ODBC applications called the IBM DB2 Driver for ODBC and CLI. This driver delivers the same benefits and restrictions as the IBM Driver for JDBC and SQLJ to your DB2 environment, except it solely supports CLI/ODBC connections. You can download this driver at www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/download/preconfig.jsp?id=2004-09-20+13%3A44%3A48.813589R&cat=database&fam=&s=c&S_TACT=105AGX11&S_CMP=SPLT.
The main benefits of the IBM DB2 Driver for ODBC and CLI are:
DB2 Connect is a separate product family that licenses client connectivity from distributed platforms to the DB2 family running on i5/OS, VM/VSE, and z/OS operating systems (hereafter referred to as mainframe). Although communications between any members of the DB2 family use the Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA), you have to explicitly license access from DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows clients to these data servers.
A client accessing DB2 running on the mainframe is generally referred to as a DRDA Application Requester (DRDA AR) and the DB2 server that manages the client connection as a DRDA Application Server (DRDA AS). DB2 Connect only uses TCP/IP as the transport protocol between a DRDA AR and DRDA AS.
Some of the major capabilities provided by DB2 Connect include:
DB2 Connect is often used to enable mainframe resources for Web access, better integrate legacy and heritage systems with new deployments on distributed platforms, modernize the application development experience for mainframe development (for example, moving from COBOL to Java), and off-loading development cycles to lower-cost operational environments.
Depending on the DB2 Connect edition you purchase, you can create a connectivity architecture for single- or multi-tier environments.
You can see in Figure 1-11 that there are many ways to implement a DB2 Connect product. In a multi-tier environment, you use DB2 client software to connect to the DB2 Connect gateway (in a client/server model) passing the connection context to to the mainframe resource. In a Web-based deployment, you may have DB2 Connect on its own or collocated with the application server. Depending on your configuration, you may or may not need to install a DB2 client.
Figure 1-11 Using DB2 Connect is a single-tier or multi-tier environment
DB2 Connect products can be added on to an existing DB2 data server installation, or act as a standalone gateway. Either way, it's purchased separately from DB2. If you are using one of drivers discussed earlier in this chapter, technically you can make the connection to a mainframe DB2 resource, but you still need to purchase a valid DB2 Connect license. There are a number of DB2 Connect editions available and each is suited for a particular implementation of the DB2 Connect software. With the exception of DB2 Connect PE, all of the DB2 Connect editions offer the same function and features; they are merely differentiated by capability. All editions of DB2 Connect PE are considered gateways since they provide client/server access to workstations. To connect to a DB2 Connect gateway, you simply use a DB2 client.
DB2 Connect Personal Edition (DB2 Connect PE) is similar to DB2 Personal Edition in that it is used for single workstations and doesn't provide its users with any server capabilities. Using DB2 Connect PE, you can make direct connections to DB2 running on the mainframe. In Figure 1-11, the desktop users likely have DB2 Connect PE installed in their workstations. DB2 Connect PE can also act as a regular DB2 client and connect to distributed versions of the data server as well. Some environments deploy DB2 Connect with both direct and gateway connectivity. For example, a developer may make direct connections using the DB2 Connect PE software for certain stages of the development cycle. But once the application is in production, they may use the DB2 Connect PE software to connect to a DB2 Connect gateway to take advantage of the features it provides, such as load balancing, connection optimization, high-availability, and more. DB2 Connect PE is licensed on a per-workstation basis.
DB2 Connect Enterprise Edition (DB2 Connect EE) can be licensed using two different user-based options: the number of Authorized Users or the number of Concurrent Users. DB2 Connect EE provides the ability to implement a three-tier connectivity architecture that allows you to isolate connectivity to mainframe resources to a specific tier in your architecture. Again, DB2 clients (or drivers) are used to connect to the gateways, and then the DB2 Connect software manages the connection context to the mainframe.
DB2 Connect Application Server Edition (DB2 Connect ASE) is licensed by the total VU rating of all the applications servers that connect to the mainframe. The VUs that you purchase have nothing to do with how many DB2 Connect servers you set up, or what their rating is. For example, if your Web server farm was rated at 1,000 VUs and you set up a DB2 Connect gateway farm rated at 5,000 VUs, you would have to buy 1,000 VUs of DB2 Connect ASE. DB2 Connect ASE is well suited for environments where you expect to see more growth of mainframe resource than your Web tier because its costs are directly linked to the VU rating of the Web serving tier.
DB2 Connect Unlimited Edition (DB2 Connect UE) is available for i5/OS and z/OS. DB2 Connect UE for i5/OS is licensed by the number of managed processors attached to the i5/OS partition while DB2 Connect UE for z/OS is licensed with a base server license plus a per-unit charge for the MSU rating of the System z server you are connecting to. DB2 Connect UE is well suited for environments that have flat mainframe cycle growth and heavy Web tier growth as the costs of DB2 Connect UE are directly correlated with the capacity of the mainframe resource. DB2 Connect UE comes with a free copy of Mobility on Demand to move mainframe data to occasionally connected devices, as well as DB2 Connect PE. Essentially, this edition of DB2 Connect, as its name would imply, allows for unlimited deployments.
There's so much more to the DB2 Connect product than what's detailed in this section. In fact, the name DB2 Connect is misleading because connectivity is just a small part of what this product can do; however, these details are outside the scope of this book.DB2 Replication
DB2 Replication allows for data to be propagated from one location to another. SQL-based replication, also know as Data Propagator (DPROPR) replication, is a free component of the DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows data servers (it's a paid feature on the mainframe). You can also extend this replication capability to support a wide variety of data servers, including DB2, Oracle, Microsoft, Sybase, Informix, IMS, Lotus Notes, and flat files with WebSphere Replication Server.
An example of SQL-based replication is shown in Figure 1-12. SQL-based replication has been around for over a decade and has proven itself to be extremely flexible, resilient, easy to set up, and scalable.
Figure 1-12 SQL-based replication extended with WebSphere Replication Server
In Figure 1-12 you can see the broad reach of the SQL-based replication technology when it is extended with the WebSphere Replication Server product. As you may recall, distributed versions of DB2 come with the DPROPR technology built in and can support replication subscriptions across the DB2 family. The core capabilities of a distributed data server with respect to replication are shown in the top-left and top-right portions of Figure 1-12.
When you buy WebSphere Replication Server, you also get Q-based replication (Figure 1-13). In Q-based replication, each message represents a transaction that is placed on a WebSphere MQ Series message queue. This replication is known for its highly parallel apply process and rich conflict detection and resolution services.WebSphere Federation Server and WebSphere Information Server
WebSphere Information Server provides features and functions to place, publish, integrate, find, cleanse, and access data. The federation capabilities are worth mentioning as they relate to data access. WebSphere Federation Server contains a subset of the functionality found in WebSphere Information Server, namely the federation capabilities (and hence will be the focus of this section). You can learn more about WebSphere Federation Server and WebSphere Information Server at www.ibm.com/software/data/integration/.
A federated system is a distributed database environment that appears as a single virtual database to end users and applications. The WebSphere Federation Server technology (some of which is built into DB2) allows SQL statements to transparently access, join, or update data located across heterogeneous data sources. Federated support enables the DB2 data server to evaluate global statistics on all data sources in order to optimize requests for the remote data. For example, the global optimizer can use knowledge of source statistics, source indexes, source functions, server and network speeds, and so on.
The SQL support in a DB2 federated environment supports the same SQL as a non-federated environment, including advanced object-relational SQL operations across the federated data sources, such as recursive SQL, common table expressions (CTEs), and more. If the remote data source doesn't have this capability, DB2 will compensate for the missing functions.
Perhaps the greatest benefit to a federated system is that developers only have to learn a single dialect of SQL; namely, the DB2 ANSI-compliant SQL API. If an external data source has different data types or non-standard SQL, DB2 will transparently compensate for missing functions and convert data types. For example, SQL Server 2005 has a MONEY data type whereas DB2 uses a DECIMAL data type to support currency. Without the WebSphere Federation Server technology, a developer would have to know the differences between these data servers, or cast them to like data types using OLE DB. With WebSphere Federation Server, developers just code as if they were always accessing DB2 data, and the rest is taken care of.
An example of federated access is shown in Figure 1-14.
Figure 1-14 The power of federation—any data, one API
In Figure 1-15 you can see the technology components that make up a federated database. Nicknames are used to implement a low form of granularity with respect to the data sources you want to make available. Nicknames essentially are local aliases on remote tables, although they can be mapped to specific rows and columns. A collection of nicknames is located within a server that represents that actual data source. For example, in Figure 1-15 Oracle is one such data source, so the server component would represent a specific Oracle database. All the SQL eventually flows through a wrapper, which is a library of code that allows access to a particular class of data servers. Connections made to these servers use their native protocol; for example, the Oracle connection will use the Net8 client.
You can see in Figure 1-14 that with WebSphere Federation Server you can pretty much extend the reach of DB2 to any data source in your environment. For example, in the life sciences industry, scientists need access to specialized data to support their research related to drug discovery. IBM offers a set of Life Sciences wrappers that can be used to build a federated system that can access data useful to scientists, including Excel spreadsheets, image data, flat files, and BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool).
If a wrapper is not available for purchase, there is a software developer's kit (SDK) that you can use to build your own.Database Enterprise Developer's Edition
IBM offers a special discounted suite of Information Management products that you can purchase at a discount for development, evaluation, demonstration, and testing of your application programs; this edition is called Data Enterprise Developer Edition (DEDE).
Some of the products included in this comprehensive developer offering are:
Most of the products within DEDE are available for all the platforms that DB2 Enterprise supports (unless of course a product doesn't exist on a specific platform). The data server where you install DEDE can be on a platform that is different from the one on which the application will eventually be deployed or tested because of the common code base used in the distributed DB2 environment. In fact, almost any applications developed using DEDE can be executed on any system that has DB2 client software (or specific drivers for which the application is written) installed.
The application development environment provided with DEDE allows application developers to write programs using today's most popular methodologies, including:
DEDE also includes the necessary programming libraries, header files, code samples, and pre-compilers for all of the supported programming languages.DB2 Developer Workbench
The DB2 9 Developer Workbench (DB2 DWB) replaces the DB2 8 Development Center. The DB2 DWB is an Eclipse-based graphical environment that supports the rapid development of DB2 SQL and Java stored procedures, SQL scalar and table user defined functions (UDFs), SQL statements, XQuery statements, and Web Services. However, there's so much more to this list. For example, the DB2 DWB includes an SQL editor that's enriched with syntax colorization and code assistants, as well as teaming support, compare utilities, and more.
The DB2 DWB is a separate tool and is maintained separate from a DB2 data server. You can download it from www-304.ibm.com/jct03001c/software/data/db2/ad/dwb.html.
The DB2 DWB is really meant for power DBAs that aren't coding experts but require rapid development assistance for building business logic for their data servers. Depending on your environment, you may elect to use another tool like Toad for DB2 or Visual Studio. Pure developers will likely choose to use the plug-ins provided with DB2 9 into their respective IDEs, although they are free to use the DB2 DWB. For the most part, you can perform the same tasks in any of the tools that IBM ships or the integration points in specific IDEs.
A snapshot of the Developer Workbench screen is shown in Figure 1-16.DB2 Extenders
DB2 Extenders offer the ability to manipulate data outside of conventional rows and columns to include the manipulation of special data types (for example, spatial types that have associated LAT/LONG coordinates and SQL-based functions to operate on them), searching services, and more. The purpose of the DB2 Extenders is to provide for the management of this data through the familiar DB2 SQL API.
The DB2 Extenders encapsulate the attributes, structure, and behavior of these unstructured data types and stores this information in DB2. From the developer's perspective, the DB2 Extenders appear as seamless extensions to the database and enable the development of multimedia-based applications. In other words, a spatial data type is no different than a built-in data type that they may be accustomed to. This section briefly details the DB2 Extenders that are provided by IBM.DB2 Spatial Extender
The DB2 Spatial Extender (DB2 SE) provides the ability to create spatially aware data objects and store them within your DB2 database, along with other spatially related objects like (LAT/LONG) coordinates and more. Almost all industries could benefit from this free technology in DB2. For example, the banking and finance industry could visually envelope customer segments for brand location identification. Municipal governments could use this technology for flood plain identification, the retail industry for billboard locations, and more. This seems apparent when you consider that almost all data has some sort of spatial component to it: we all have an address, merchandise in a warehouse has a stock location, and so on.
The business benefit of the DB2 SE lies in the notion that it's a lot easier to spot visually represented information than data reported in rows and columns.
When you enable your DB2 database for the DB2 SE, you can interact with your data using SQL or specialized spatial tools from other vendors. The point is that with the DB2 SE, DB2 understands the spatial "dialect" and the operations that you want to perform with it.
For example, a telematics application on a PDA may provide its users with a list of nearby Chinese restaurants that serve Peking Duck based on the dynamic request of this user. In this case, after the client's PDA creates a location box using Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates, it could generate SQL statements similar to the following:SELECT NAME, DESCRIPTION, ADDRESS FROM RESTAURANTS WHERE OVERLAPS (LOCATION, BOX(GETGPS(),2000,2000)) AND CATEGORY = 'CHINESE' AND DOC CONTAINS(MENU,'PEKING DUCK');
OVERLAPS is a spatial function that shows interested data in a binding box defined by the OVERLAPS boundary specification; there are many other spatial functions, including INTERSECTS, WITHIN, BUFFERS, and so on.DB2 Geodetic Extender
The DB2 Geodetic Extender builds upon capabilities available in the DB2 Spatial Extender and adds compensation for real-world objects like the curvature of the earth's surface. The algorithms in this extender seek to remove the inaccuracies introduced by projections and so on. This extender is available only for DB2 Enterprise as part of the Data Geodetic Management feature.DB2 Net Search Extender
The DB2 Net Search Extender (DB2 NSE) combines in-memory database technology with text search semantics for high-speed text search in DB2 databases. Searching with it can be particularly advantageous in Internet applications where performance is an important factor. The DB2 NSE can add the power of fast full-text retrieval to your DB2 applications. Its features let you store unstructured text documents of up to 2 GB in databases. It offers application developers a fast, versatile, and intelligent method of searching through such documents.
Additionally, the DB2 NSE provides a rich set of XML searching capabilities with advanced search features like sounds-like, stemming, and so on. It is shipped free in DB2 9 (it was a chargeable extender in DB2 8) to facilitate non-XML index searching of XML data stored in pureXML columns.DB2 XML Extender
The DB2 XML Extender is provided with DB2 and allows you to store XML documents in DB2; it also gives you the ability to shred and store XML in its component parts as columns in multiple tables. In either case, indexes can be defined over the elements or attributes of an XML document for fast retrieval. Furthermore, text and fragment search can be enabled on the XML column or its decomposed parts via the DB2 Net Search Extender. The DB2 XML Extender can also help you formulate an XML document from existing DB2 tables for data interchange in business-to-business environments.
You may recall that the pureXML add-on feature pack is available for all DB2 9 data servers. Indeed, this can cause confusion since the DB2 XML Extender is shipped for free in DB2 9. You should consider the DB2 XML Extender as stabilized technology. In other words, it is no longer being enhanced and shouldn't be considered for most XML applications. The DB2 XML Extender's approach to storing XML is to shred the XML to relational tables or stuff it into a large object. When you use this technology to persist XML data, you have to make serious trade-offs with respect to performance, flexibility, and so on. In addition, you have to use specialized functions to implement Spathe searches, and data types are abstracted from base DB2 data types. Quite simply, the way you interact with the DB2 XML Extender isn't natural for XML programmers and DBAs alike.
In contrast, the pureXML feature in DB2 9 provides services such that no compromises between flexibility (what XML was designed for) and performance (one of the reasons why you want the data server to store your XML) need to be made when storing your XML data. For example, to generate XML documents from relational tables, you simple use the SQL/XML API instead of the cumbersome DB2 XML Extender functions. You can validate XML documents against Sods instead of only document type definitions (Ds) as is the case with the DB2 XML Extender, and more. We strongly recommend this feature for most of your XML-based applications.
The following is a book excerpt from DB2 9 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows: DBA Guide, Reference, and Exam Prep, 6th Edition, by George Baklarz and Paul Zikopoulos. It is reprinted here with permission from International Business Machines Corporation; Copyright 2008. Read the chapter excerpt below to learn about the basics of DB2 tools and products or download a free .pdf of this chapter: "DB2 tools and products for Linux, UNIX and Windows: The basics."
In this chapter you will be introduced to the DB2 family of products that run on the Linux, UNIX, and Windows operating systems. This version of DB2 is often referred to as the distributed version to differentiate it from the DB2 for z/OS® version that runs on an IBM mainframe.
DB2 has the ability to store all kinds of electronic information. This includes traditional relational data, data encoded within XML as well as structured and unstructured binary information, documents and text in many languages, graphics, images, multimedia (audio and video), information specific to operations like engineering drawings, maps, insurance claims forms, numerical control streams, or any type of electronic information. This chapter illustrates some of the ways to access data in a DB2 database using some of the interfaces provided within the DB2 family. A description of each of the DB2 products are provided to illustrate some of DB2's features and functions.
Information as a Service
The DB2 Data Server is an important part of IBM's Information as a Service software portfolio that serves as the atomic level for the broader IBM On Demand architecture.
Figure 1-1 IBM Service Framework for an On Demand business
In Figure 1–1 you can see that the IBM software portfolio has really evolved into a collection of high value services provided by various IBM software portfolio offerings. The backbone fabric of this IBM reference architecture is the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) that is used to facilitate communications across this rich set of services.
IT Service Management is mostly provided by various Tivoli® products. The Tivoli portfolio is built around four key disciplines or pillars:
Services from these pillars can be used to collectively manage your entire IT framework. For example, Tivoli Storage Resource Manager services can be used enterprise-wide to monitor and report on heterogeneous storage resources to increase storage utilization, identify and resolve potential problems, and ensure application availability through policy-based automation.
Development Services are the culmination of various Rational-based products that are built on the open source Eclipse platform. For example, Rational® ClearCase® provides source control services, and Rational Application Development empowers application developers with a rich set of services that can be used to develop applications, Web pages, and extended custom services for implementation in a Services Oriented Architecture (SOA) or loosely coupled application framework.
Services that enable interaction are typically part of the Lotus® suite of products that enhance collaboration and idea sharing across the enterprise and beyond. Products like Lotus Sametime® Connect can be used for messaging and more.
A number of services in the framework illustrated in Figure 1-1 are provided by the WebSphere® portfolio. For example, a product like WebSphere Integration Developer helps you define business process flows in the standard Business Process Execution Language (BPEL), which are used to implement process services that in turn help you define, orchestrate, and automate business policies. The Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) is provided by the WebSphere ESB product that provides your enterprise services with transformation, transport switching, and routing remediation among other services. Perhaps the most famous product of the WebSphere brand is the WebSphere Application Server that provides a runtime framework for J2EE®-based operations that are part of the Infrastructure Services component.
Finally there's the Information Services which represent the superset of the capabilities you'll learn about in this book. The specific set of services that are typically found in this part of the IBM reference architecture are shown in Figure 1-2.
Figure 1-2 IBM Information Services defined
The services shown to the right in Figure 1-2 are hierarchical in nature. In other words, as you work from bottom to top, the services provided become richer and more business oriented.
For example, Master Data Management services are provided by the WebSphere Product Center and WebSphere Customer Center products. Master data are facts that describe your core business entities: customers, suppliers, partners, products, bill of materials, employees, and so on. The discipline of Master Data Management seeks to decouple master information from individual applications spread across the enterprise and create a central, application independent, resource. The end result is a simplification of ongoing integration tasks and new application development. This discipline addresses key issues such as data quality and consistency proactively rather than "after the fact"; for example, in a data warehouse (a lower service in this taxonomy). There is also a set of entity resolution services that fit within the Master Data Management service tier.
Business Intelligence services are provided by the DB2 Data Warehouse editions that you'll learn more about later in this chapter. Content Manager services are provided by the set of Content Management products and are used for document management, archiving, regulatory retention, and are a basis by which unstructured information (such as FAXes, video, voicemail, and so on) can be searched and folded into the information asset.
Information Integration services seek to provide enterprises with ways to share, place, publish, cleanse, and enrich data found in the lower-level data management services. WebSphere Federation Server and its parent WebSphere Information Server are two such products that help implement these services.
Finally, the Data Management services tier is the foundation upon which the other services are built. IBM has a number of data servers that fit into this tier, including DB2, Informix®, IBM Cloudscape™, U2, and IMS™.
This book is specifically about DB2 in this service tier. Specifically, you'll learn how DB2 can provide any number of the high-value data-centric services shown in Figure 1-3.
Figure 1-3 The data services provided by DB2, the focus of this book
For more information on the entire IBM software portfolio and how they are mapped to the illustrated services shown Figures 1-1 and 1-2, refer to the IBM Web site at www.ibm.com for more details.
The DB2 family of data servers executes on Windows, Linux (which can be run on the entire spectrum of IBM's hardware: System i™, System z™, System x™, and System p™), Solaris™ (both SPARC®-based and Intel®/AMD™-based installations), HP-UX™ (both PA-RISC™-based and Itanium-based installations), i5/OS®, VSE/VM, z/OS, and on pervasive platforms (like Windows Mobile Edition, Blue- Cat® Linux, Symbian®, Palm OS®, J2ME® platforms like the RIM® lackberry®, and more).
The DB2 code base is optimized for each platform to ensure maximum performance and integration. DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows shares about a 98 percent common code base with platform-specific optimizations at the operating system interface (OSI) level (Figure 1-4).
This means that once you've learned how to administer a DB2 for AIX system, for the most part you'll know how to manage DB2 for Linux or DB2 for Windows; this is the reason why there is a single DB2 certification for all the distributed platforms.
Figure 1-4 The DB2 code for Linux, UNIX, and Windows is virtually the same
DB2 for i5/OS and DB2 for z/OS are optimized for their respective environments. For example, DB2 for z/OS is based on a shared-everything disk architecture where the hardware-assisted Coupling Facility is used to serialize access to the shared disk. No such hardware exists for Linux, UNIX, and Windows, and therefore DB2 on these platforms uses a shared-nothing architecture. For this reason, administration tends to vary between these platforms (though many concepts and features are similar). However, the SQL API is 98% common to all the platforms where DB2 runs, allowing applications written on one platform to be easily ported to another. This means that you can build an application on DB2 for Windows and port it effortlessly to DB2 for z/OS. If you build your application according to the SQL Reference for Cross-Platform Development handbook, your application will be 100% portable across the DB2 family.
There are other synergies among DB2 running on Linux, UNIX, and Windows, as well as the other DB2 family members. For example, the JDBC driver used for DB2 for z/OS is exactly the same code as is used for DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows. So while there may be variations in specific data definition language (DDL)-based tasks, the data manipulation language (DML) and client APIs are similar.
The DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows Data Server
In the distributed environment, DB2 is available in a number of different packaging options, called editions. Furthermore, DB2 is also available as part of other packages that contain additional features and tooling rather than just the base data services provided by DB2.
The mainstream DB2 editions are shown in Figure 1-5:
Figure 1-5 The distributed DB2 family
For the most part, each edition builds on its child in this hierarchy. For example, if a feature or functionality is available in DB2 Workgroup Edition, it's likely that it's also a part of a higher-level edition, like DB2 Enterprise Edition.
DB2 Everyplace Edition
DB2 Everyplace (DB2e) is a tiny "fingerprint" database that's about 350K in size. It is designed for low-cost, low-power, small form-factor devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), handheld personal computers (HPCs), and embedded devices. DB2e runs on a wide variety of handheld devices, with support for Palm OS 5.x, Windows Mobile 2003 for Pocket PC, Windows Mobile 2005 for Pocket PC, Windows CE.NET, traditional Windows desktop platforms, Symbian OS Version 7/7s, QNX® Neutrino® 6.2, Linux distributions running with the 2.4 or 2.6 kernel, embedded Linux distributions (like BlueCat) running with the 2.4 or 2.6 kernel, and more.
The SQL API used to develop DB2e applications is a subset of that used for building full-fledged DB2 data server applications. This means that enterprise applications, for the most part, can be easily extended to include mobile devices. More importantly, it means that if you have DB2 skills, you have DB2e skills. In addition, DB2e is extremely flexible for developers, with support for Open Database Connectivity (ODBC), Java Database Connectivity (JDBC), .NET (including the ADO.NET 2.0 API), and the DB2 Call Level Interface (CLI) APIs.
DB2e is a very simple-to-use data server that requires virtually no maintenance. Typical database administrator (DBA) operations like reorganizations and statistics collection are all performed automatically. Another nice thing about developing DB2e applications is that the database engine is platform independent, so it provides flexibility: You can seamlessly move DB2e databases between devices. For example, you could move a DB2e database populated on a Pocket PC device to a Symbian smartphone, or whatever other supported device you have, without the need to do anything. This feature, coupled with the rich support for application development, enables developers to quickly build, deploy, and support mobile applications on all platforms.
DB2e is available in two editions: DB2 Everyplace Database Edition (DB2e DE) and DB2 Everyplace Enterprise Edition (DB2e EE). The database component of DB2e DE is the same as DB2e EE; however, DB2e DE has no synchronization middleware to extend or synchronize data to back-end enterprise data servers (although it does come with command line-based import and export utilities). DB2e DE is primarily used for applications that require an embedded database or a local relational storage facility that is exposed to endusers through some sort of application (they never really see the database) yet have stringent footprint requirements because of the device.
DB2e EE distinguishes itself from DB2e DE in that it comes with a data synchronization component called the DB2e Synchronization Server (DB2e Sync Server). The DB2e Sync Server allows you to manage subscriptions and security controls for data that is distributed wirelessly to your hand-held devices and manage data changes on the client devices back into the data center. The DB2e Sync Server also comes with facilities for conflict resolution, application deployment, device identification controls, management policies, and more.
The DB2e Sync Server can synchronize DB2e and Apache Derby/IBM Cloudscape data servers with back-end JDBC-enabled compliant data servers (for example, DB2, Oracle, Informix, SQL Server™, and so on). In addition, there is a special DB2 family synchronization adapter that uses the Data Propagator™ (DPROPR) SQL-based replication technology (which is included in the distributed version of DB2).
The number of concurrent synchronizations that the DB2e Sync Server can support is dependent on the hardware configuration of that server, the associated workload, and data change rates. If you need to scale to handle very large concurrent synchronizations, you can install any Java application server (like IBM WebSphere Application Server). DB2e also supports enhanced scalability and high-availability through its support for DB2e Sync Server farm configurations that allow you to cluster a number of DB2e Sync Servers to provide load balancing and high-availability services.
Figure 1-6 A DB2e Enterprise Edition environment
In Figure 1-6 you can see the flow of data in a DB2e EE environment. For example, data is pulled from a database in Tier 3 (the far right of the figure) and placed on a mobile device in Tier 1 (the far left). Tier 1 is typically composed of occasionally connected clients that operate on data and then use the services provided by Tier 2 (the middle of the figure where the DB2e Sync Server resides) to push those changes back to Tier 3. Tier 2 handles issues like conflict remediation and subscription management to ensure that the data quality is maintained throughout its lifecycle until it's at rest.
Apache Derby/IBM Cloudscape
In 2005, IBM donated $85 million worth of relational database management system (RDBMS) code to the open source community, and the Apache Derby database was born. Apache Derby and IBM Cloudscape are the same databases; the difference is that IBM Cloudscape is sold by IBM with IBM's award-winning 24*7 support and has some add-on features as well.
If you hadn't heard of IBM Cloudscape before the donation news, you'll probably be surprised to learn how many partners, customers, and software packages use this data server. In fact, more than 80 different IBM products use the IBM Cloudscape data server for its portability, easy deployment, open standards-based Java engine, small footprint, and more. IBM Cloudscape is a component that is transparent to products such as WebSphere Application Server, DB2 Content Manager, Web- Sphere Portal Server, IBM Director, Lotus Workplace, and many others.
IBM Cloudscape is a Java-based RDBMS that has a 2MB footprint. It's compatible with DB2, supports advanced functions (such as triggers and stored procedures), is easy to deploy, and requires no DBA effort. These same characteristics hold true for the open source Apache Derby as well.
We chose to include the Apache Derby/IBM Cloudscape data servers in this discussion because their SQL API is 100% compatible with the DB2 data server editions in Figure 1–5. This means that you can take any Apache Derby/IBM Cloudscape database and application and move it to a full-fledged DB2 data server if you need more scalability, or you need to take advantage of features that aren't found in these data servers. In fact, a component of DB2 9, called the DB2 Developer Workbench, provides a built-in facility to migrate Apache Derby/IBM Cloudscape schemas and data to a DB2 data server.
DB2 Personal Edition
DB2 Personal Edition (DB2 PE) is a full-function database that enables single users to create databases on their workstations. Since it's limited to single users (it doesn't support inbound client request for code), it's generally not referred to as a data server (although the DB2 engine behind DB2 PE is that same DB2 engine for all editions in Figure 1-5). This product is only available on Linux and Windows. DB2 PE can also be used as a remote client to a DB2 data server. Applications written to execute on DB2 PE are fully portable to the higher-level editions of the DB2 family in Figure 1-5.
DB2 PE is often used by end users requiring access to local and remote DB2 databases, or developers prototyping applications that will be accessing other DB2 databases. In addition, since it includes the pureXML™ technology free of charge, DB2 PE is also a good choice for those looking to acquire DB2 9 pureXML skills. In many cases, because it includes replication features, DB2 PE is used for occasionally connected applications (like field research, sales force automation, and so on) where a richer feature set is required than what's offered by DB2e or Apache Derby/IBM Cloudscape.
More information about IBM DB2
It was over the last holiday season that I wanted to take some time and play around a bit with data. The outcome was rather different than I initially expected. Rather than having worked with the data, I spent a lot of time trying to get some CSV data loaded into a database. I knew that there are great tools such as SQL Developer out there that make loading CSV data trivial, but I wanted something that I could execute via the command line, not requiring a GUI. The simple reason was that I wanted to script the loading part rather than having to execute some manual, potentially error-prone steps whenever loading some data again. Too late I found out, actually just last week, that SQLcl already had what I was after, a load command that does exactly what I wanted:SQL> help load LOAD ----- Loads a comma separated value (csv) file into a table. The first row of the file must be a header row. The columns in the header row must match the columns defined on the table. The columns must be delimited by a comma and may optionally be enclosed in double quotes. Lines can be terminated with standard line terminators for windows, unix or mac. File must be encoded UTF8. The load is processed with 50 rows per batch. If AUTOCOMMIT is set in SQLCL, a commit is done every 10 batches. The load is terminated if more than 50 errors are found. LOAD [schema.]table_name[@db_link] file_name
Unfortunately, back then, Google didn't offer me this insight when looking for "load csv data into oracle," so I was stuck with the methods I already knew and that I found as too cumbersome to deal with. After all, all I wanted was a simple tool that loaded data from CSV files into a table and matches the column names with the header of the file:cat people.csv "first_name","last_name","city" "Gerald","Venzl","San Francisco" "Andreas","Pumberger","New York City" SELECT * FROM PEOPLE FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME CITY ---------- --------- ------------- Gerald Venzl San Francisco Andreas Pumberger New York City
I knew that what I was after wasn't difficult at all and was probably just a few lines of code, so after hours and hours of trying to load that data, I wrote a little Python program to do exactly what I needed. Writing the program took me just about two hours and around 300 lines of code. After that, I was able to load the data in an easy and scriptable way into my database. Thinking of how much time I have spent looking for this and trying different means to no desired outcome, I thought that I might as well just help the world and provide this script to others as well. Of course, it's not difficult to write such a little program, but after all, if I can save somebody out there some time, why not? So I polished the code I have written, wrote some documentation around it, and named the program csv2db. It is now available under https://github.com/csv2db/csv2db and can load data into an Oracle, MySQL, PostgreSQL, and Db2 database.
In the meantime, I have added some nice little features to it, such as:
The last feature is nice since most CSV files come in compressed form and uncompressing them first adds no benefit but just fills up the disk unnecessarily.
The CREATE TABLE feature came out of an immediate need by myself. I had many CSV files (50+) and not all of them had the same structure (because their structure changed over time). I really didn't want to uncompress them one by one, copy/paste all the headers into a text file, and then figure out what columns I needed in my table. I just wanted to get the data into the database and then cleanse and process it further with SQL. So what I was after was something that just gave me a create table statement with all the columns from the CSV files, their data type being just string, no constraints or anything else. In other words, just allow me to load the data into a staging table and take it from there. While this isn't required anymore once the CSV column structure is known, it makes getting started with new, unknown CSV data just so easy.
Loading data from a CSV file into a database with csv2db is a simple one-line command:$ ./csv2db load --file 201811-citibike-tripdata.csv.gz \ --table citibikes --dbtype oracle --host dbserver1 \ --user csv_data --password csv_data --dbname ORCLPDB1 Loading file 201811-citibike-tripdata.csv.gz Done
This command will load all data from the file 201811-citibike-tripdata.csv.gz into the table CITIBIKES. The rest of the commands are database connections details. --dbtype tells csv2db which database driver to use, --host, --dbname, --user, and --password are the connection details to the database and the database user. By default, the default port for each database will be used, but this can be overwritten with the --port parameter, if required. The data type conversion is left to the implicit data type conversion of the database. That means that all inputs are sent as strings and it's up to the database to convert them into the respective data types of the individual columns.
If you get a new set of CSV files and want to create a staging table for them, you can do so again with a simple one-line command:$ ./csv2db generate -f *-citibike-tripdata.csv.gz \ --table STAGING --column-type VARCHAR2(1000) CREATE TABLE STAGING ( END_STATION_LATITUDE VARCHAR2(1000), GENDER VARCHAR2(1000), START_STATION_LATITUDE VARCHAR2(1000), END_STATION_NAME VARCHAR2(1000), BIRTH_YEAR VARCHAR2(1000), START_STATION_NAME VARCHAR2(1000), STOPTIME VARCHAR2(1000), END_STATION_ID VARCHAR2(1000), STARTTIME VARCHAR2(1000), START_STATION_LONGITUDE VARCHAR2(1000), START_STATION_ID VARCHAR2(1000), BIKEID VARCHAR2(1000), USERTYPE VARCHAR2(1000), TRIPDURATION VARCHAR2(1000), END_STATION_LONGITUDE VARCHAR2(1000) );
This command scans all files matching the pattern *-citibike-tripdata.csv.gz, extracts their headers, i.e. the first line of each file, and produces a CREATE TABLE statement with all the columns in the CSV headers. Spaces in the header columns are automatically replaced by _. The --table parameter allows you to specify a table name, and when omitted, you will get a CREATE TABLE <TABLE NAME> instead, and you can fill in the table name afterwards. The --column-type parameter allows you to specify the desired data type for all columns. Note, the goal for csv2db here is not to parse the entire CSV file and guess the data types for each column. Instead, it just gives you the syntax to create a staging table that will hold your data. It is up to you to figure out the data types you want to use or whether you want to load data into such a staging table and then do an INSERT AS SELECT * afterwards, etc. This command is just here to make it easy to get started with your CSV data.
You can find the entire set of parameters that csv2db provides in the ReadMe file as well as the User's Guide. I hope that csv2db will help some folks out there get their CSV data into their database easily. Bug reports, enhancement requests, ideas, comments, etc. are all welcome. Just submit them as issues on GitHub, preferably.
And, of course, please feel free to spread the word!
database ,sql ,csv ,tool ,command line ,script ,tutorial
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