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000-448 - IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2 - Dump Information

Vendor : IBM
Exam Code : 000-448
Exam Name : IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2
Questions and Answers : 142 Q & A
Updated On : April 18, 2019
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000-448 Questions and Answers

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000-448 IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2

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000-448 exam Dumps Source : IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2

Test Code : 000-448
Test Name : IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 142 Real Questions

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IBM to purchase purple Hat, a number one Java community Contributor
  • through John okay. Waters
  • 10/29/2018
  • IBM introduced on Sunday plans to purchase leading commercial enterprise open supply software company and longtime Java neighborhood method (JCP) leader crimson Hat in a $34 billion stock deal.

    Described by way of massive Blue as IBM's most tremendous acquisition and probably the most tremendous tech acquisition of 2018, the deal represents "a landmark moment for each groups and is a massive step ahead in IBM's ongoing focal point on excessive-value company, the transformation of our portfolio, and our leadership within the rising era of AI and cloud."

    IBM and pink Hat mentioned the deal, which has been authorized via their respective boards, is subject to purple Hat shareholder and regulatory approval, and will be achieved in the latter half of 2019.

    talking this morning with press and analysts on a conference name, Paul Cormier, pink Hat's EVP and president of products and technologies, talked about the merger will assist his company realize its imaginative and prescient for its Linux and open supply choices.

    "over the last 10 years or so, Linux has been the platform where lots of the innovation in the business has been happening," Cormier observed. "We constructed a purposeful portfolio round Linux and open source tailor-made for the hybrid cloud ... but we're still a relatively small enterprise. Our shoppers are seeing open hybrid cloud as the handiest way to carry public cloud into their IT infrastructure, and because of our measurement we can't diagnosed the knowledge of that demand. IBM helps us bring that approach to a hundred and seventy nations and speeds up our vision into the market."

    IBM has lengthy been a leading user and contributor to Linux, which undergirds pink Hat's properly items, including the crimson Hat commercial enterprise Linux (RHEL) OS.

    On that equal convention name, Arvind Krishna, IBM's SVP of Hybrid Cloud, observed this acquisition will make his enterprise the realm's main hybrid cloud issuer. IBM's goal, he pointed out, "is to win in hybrid cloud, and win on the groundwork of open applied sciences, and in the end to give a expertise that makes existence more straightforward [for companies] with less complexity and a future proof funding."

    To a question about the potential affect of the acquisition on crimson Hat-maintained open source tasks, akin to Fedora, Gnome, and CentOS, Cormier spoke back succinctly "None. No have an impact on," he mentioned. "The day after we shut [the acquisition], I don't intend to do anything diverse. For us, it would be company as usual. some thing we were going to do for our roadmaps as a stand-alone will proceed. We ought to do what's appropriate for the group upstream, our friends and our business."

    each executives claimed that the leading roles both agencies play in the JCP aren't affected by the merger. IBM and pink Hat are lively individuals of the Java community, however Raleigh, N.C.-based red Hat is without doubt one of the most energetic contributors, and has been for many years.

    "both IBM and purple Hat have been amazing voices in that neighborhood," Cormier spoke of, "and that i suppose so one can proceed. purple Hat will proceed to do what's right for the pink Hat portfolio, and that i would guess that IBM would do the same."

    crimson Hat is, really, the greatest contributor to the OpenJDK next to Oracle. red Hat executives have served on the JCP govt Committee and as Java spec leads or knowledgeable Working neighborhood individuals for greater than 35 Java Specification Requests (JSRs). the first Context and Dependency Injection spec (JSR 299), which become led by JBoss Fellow Gavin King, had a big effect on Java EE 6. The enterprise changed into additionally at the back of enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) three, JavaServer Faces, and the Java Persistence API. It collaborated on 4 JSRs for Java EE 7: Java API for RESTful web functions 2.0 (JSR-339); Java Message service 2.0 (JSR-343); Java Server Faces 2.2 (JSR-344); and Java content Repository API (JSR-333).

    purple Hat additionally spearheaded two OpenJDK tasks: Shenandoah (JEP 189), which goals to supply an extremely-low-pause-time rubbish Collector; and Thermostat , an instrumentation device for the Hotspot JVM.

    Martijn Verburg, CEO of jClarity, co-organizer of the London JUG, and a member of the Java neighborhood manner (JCP) government Committee, expects "a good outcome" from the acquisition.

    "IBM has basically shown red Hat-like qualities when it comes to Java and Open supply," Verburg noted in an e-mail. "They've lately OpenSourced their J9 VM (Eclipse OpenJ9) in addition to their WebSphere application Server (Open Liberty). They are also desirable tier supports of Microprofile, Jakarta EE and crucially undertake OpenJDK.

    Reza Rahman, SVP at AxonIQ, former Oracle Java developer evangelist, and co-founding father of the Java EE Guardians, is "of two minds" on the acquisition.

    "I totally take note the corporate intent at the back of this for each IBM and red Hat," he instructed ADTmag. "here's unequivocally decent for the shareholders and personnel of both groups. youngsters, the reality is that the outcomes for customers and the Java EE ecosystem may also no longer always be so rosy. it will likely imply less options for Java EE clients and fewer market competitiveness. for example, it might now not shock me if Websphere Liberty, Open Liberty, JBoss EAP, WildFly, and Thorntail now deserve to merge. i hope smaller and more moderen market entrants will fill in any competitive gaps, as they should still in a healthy financial house."

    "I additionally wish both the Java EE folks at IBM and red Hat all of the top of the line as long term colleagues," he brought. "with a bit of luck they can manage to make this a pretty good outcomes for Java EE."

    an extra Java EE Guardian, Kito Mann, who is a essential consultant at Virtua Inc., sees a particular synergy amongst Linux, Java, and cloud capabilities, however he issues about massive Blue.

    "IBM's track listing with acquisitions is questionable," he referred to in an e mail. "crimson Hat has completed a huge job championing open source and constructing amazing products. besides the fact that children IBM has numerous involvement with open supply, it be simply not on the same stage. My situation is that crimson Hat will get absorbed into one or greater huge IBM product lines after which fade into mediocrity or irrelevance (bear in mind Rational?)"

    about the Java connection, Mann has some questions: "when it comes to Java, does this mean pink Hat products will beginning delivery with the IBM Java VM?" he asked. "What about JBoss and WebSphere (Liberty)? What about the entire high-quality OSS items from purple Hat/JBoss, and the business's work lifestyle?"

    JNBridge CTO and co-founder Wayne Citrin, also has just a few considerations concerning the merger. "My feeling is that there's attending to be too a lot attention within the trade," he observed in an electronic mail, "and this doesn't support. crimson Hat appeared to be doing simply best and did not need to merge, however I can't blame them for cashing in."

    concerning the writer

    John has been overlaying the excessive-tech beat from Silicon Valley and the San Francisco Bay area for basically two many years. He serves as Editor-at-huge for utility building tendencies ( and contributes continuously to Redmond magazine, The technology Horizons in education Journal, and Campus technology. he is the creator of greater than a dozen books, including The every little thing guide to Social Media; The every little thing computing device book; Blobitecture: Waveform architecture and Digital Design; John Chambers and the Cisco manner; and Diablo: The legit method guide.

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    The Best Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) Tools and Techniques | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This article breaks down the best OSINT tools, techniques, resources and websites available online for every stage of intelligence gathering process. From background reading, to organising your research and getting the best out of search engines, Intelligence Fusion has created the ultimate list of open source intelligence tools.

    We’ll cover the following;

  • What is OSINT?
  • The Best OSINT Websites for Background Reading
  • OSINT Techniques to Organise your Thoughts
  • Setting up Automated Alerts using OSINT Tools
  • OSINT Tools for Social Media
  • OSINT Techniques: Getting the Best out of Search Engines
  • Platforms and Dashboards for Open Source Intelligence
  • OSINT Websites for Online News Media
  • Other Useful OSINT Tools
  • What is OSINT?

    Open source intelligence, or OSINT, is the collection and analysis of information that is gathered from public, or open, sources.

    The Best OSINT Websites for Background Reading


    This is a platform used to share papers, monitor their impact, and follow the research in a particular field. currently has over 21 million papers.

    2. CORE (COnnecting REpositories)

    CORE promotes free and unrestricted access to research outputs from repositories and journals worldwide. The public can search through a collection of over 125 millions of harvested research outputs which can be downloaded free of charge.

    3. Library of Congress

    The Library of Congress is the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, newspapers, maps and manuscripts in its collections.

    4. Open Knowledge Maps

    Open Knowledge Maps presents you with a topical overview of your search term. It’s based on the 100 most relevant documents for your search term, which allows you to easily identify useful, pertinent information.

    5. WolframAlpha

    WolframAlpha is an online service that answers factual queries directly by computing the answer from externally sourced “curated data”, unlike a search engine that provides a list of documents or web pages that might contain the answer the searcher is looking for.

    6. BASE

    BASE is one of the world’s most voluminous search engines especially for academic web resources. BASE provides more than 120 million documents from more than 6,000 sources. You can access the full texts of about 60% of the indexed documents for free.

    7. Google Scholar

    Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

    8. Disputed Territories

    This map identifies the locations and territories that are claimed by more than one country or occupying force.

    OSINT Techniques to Organise your Thoughts

    1. Microsoft OneNote

    Microsoft OneNote is a free-form information gathering and multi-user collaboration. It gathers users’ notes, drawings, screen clippings and audio commentaries and allows your OSINT resources to be easily shared amongst other users online.

    Setting up Automated Alerts using OSINT Tools

    1. Google Alerts

    Google Alerts is a content change detection and notification service that can be used as an open source intelligence tool. It will send emails to you when it finds new results matching your specified search term.

    2. Talkwalker Alerts

    Talkwalker is an alternative free alert system to Google Alerts that offers a higher level of customisation on alerts and notifications. Talkwalker can also monitor social media mentions of your specified search term.

    OSINT Tools for Social Media

    1. Seek A Tweet

    Seekatweet is designed to help you find relevant tweets in a specific location. You can use their tailored filtering as an OSINT tool to find Tweets near you or anywhere else in the world.

    2. One Million Tweet Map

    The one million tweet map is a social media tool that you can use to visualise tweets and aggregated Twitter data in a world map. It can be useful when conduction real-time OSINT investigations.

    3. Tweeplers

    Tweepler is a real time map of tweets coming from various locations. The tweets shown on the map are only the fresh tweets. They are displayed as soon as received. No tweet location is older than a fraction of a minute.

    4. is a social search engine for hashtags. You can search tags across all social media platforms, bringing everything relevant to your OSINT research to one place in real time.

    5. Mulpix

    An advanced Instagram search engine, Mulpix makes searching Instagram as an OSINT technique even easier through the leverage of searching via multiple hashtags.

    6. Picodash

    Picodash is another Instagram search engine OSINT tool to help you to search and analyse Instagram content by location and hashtags.

    7. Echosec

    Echosec is a location-based social media geofencing platform that analyses data in real-time to support retail, journalists, marketers and security teams as an open source intelligence tool.

    8. TweetDeck

    TweetDeck is a social media dashboard application for management of Twitter accounts. OSINT analysts can create live feeds of tweets to monitor specified hashtags, handles or mentions.

    OSINT Techniques: Getting the Best out of Search Engines

    1. Carrot²

    Carrot² is an open source search results clustering engine. It can automatically cluster small collections of documents, for example search results or document abstracts, into thematic categories

    2. is a news search engine, news headline, news feed and news services provider that crawls several thousand news media sites providing time based live run down of headlines by region, topic or person.

    3. Cluuz

    Cluuz is a search engine that can be used as a really useful OSINT tool. Cluuz shows not only links to related pages, but also entities and images that are extracted from within the search results. In addition to the results, Cluuz displays a tag cloud of the most relevant entities extracted from returned results.

    Platforms and Dashboards for Open Source Intelligence

    1. HealthMap

    HealthMap brings together disparate data sources to achieve a unified and comprehensive view of the current global state of infectious diseases.

    2. Investigative Database

    The Investigative Database allows open source analysts to browse their global index of public registries for companies, land registries and courts as well as search millions of documents and datasets, from public sources, leaks and investigations.

    3. IBM Watson News Explorer

    The IBM Watson News Explorer automatically constructs a news information network and presents large volumes of news results in an understandable fashion.

    4. Human Trafficking Search

    HTS produces a weekly blog, publishes research, and hosts a global resource database on human trafficking and modern-day slavery.

    5. Marine Traffic

    MarineTraffic is a provider of ship tracking and maritime intelligence. Monitoring vessel movements to build a base of data gathered from our network of coastal AIS-receiving stations, supplemented by satellite receivers.

    6. Iris

    Iris is an application developed by the World Customs Organisation that monitors open source information and presents this information in a graphic-style world map in real-time.

    7. ICC Live Piracy Report

    This live map from ICC shows all of the piracy and armed robbery incidents reported to IMB Piracy Reporting Centre.

    8. ACLED

    ACLED is a realtime data and analysis source on political violence and protest. As an OSINT tool, analysts and researched can use ACLED for the latest reliable information on current conflict and disorder patterns.

    OSINT Websites for Online News Media

    1. NewsNow

    NewsNow aims to be the world’s most accurate and comprehensive world news aggregator, bringing you the latest global current affairs headlines

    2. is the largest database of magazines and newspapers on the Internet, with listings for about 25,000 magazines, newspapers and top news sites from all over the world.

    3. Newspaper Map

    Newspaper map is a free webapp that helps you find over 10,000 of the world’s online newspapers, and in many cases get to their Google translations in one click.

    4. Distill Web Monitor

    Monitor webpage or feed for changes asn an open source intelligence tool. Distill runs in your browser to check monitored pages for changes and can send you instant alerts via SMS or email as soon as a change is detected.

    5. Feedly

    Feedly is a news aggregator application that can be used to compiles news feeds from a variety of OSINT websites, online sources and allows the you to customise and share with others users online.

    Other Useful OSINT Tools

    Additional tools that can be used as part of an OSINT framework can be found below.

    As part of our open source intelligence course, we provide extensive training on the most effective way to use these OSINT tools as well as an impressive and diverse range of additional modules, all built using real-life experiences from our ex-military and intelligence expert team.

    1. IntelTechniques and Image Search

    2. Tineye

    3. Invid

    4. Maltego

    5. Way Back Machine

    6. Transparency International


    8. Naval Open Source Intelligence

    9. TerraServer

    10. Relief Web

    11. Tripadvisor

    12. Police Sites

    13. CIA Factbook

    14. FBI Vault

    15. OSAC Report

    16. Global Terrorism Database

    17. Bellingcat

    18. Reddit

    Intelligence Fusion uses these sources, teamed with military-grade processes and structure to enable a new way of thinking, encouraging analysts to adapt alternative mindsets to better discover, evaluate and understand threats of every kind.

    Our OSINT training course can be adapted to clients’ requirements and tailored to meet bespoke requests. We have the capacity to conduct face to face training, across the globe, or alternatively, we can also deliver the open source ntelligence course remotely.

    If you’d like further insight into what our training programme consists of, you can download a selection of slides from our standard training modules by clicking here.

    75 Open Source Tools to Replace Apps You Use Every Day | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Download the authoritative guide: Cloud Computing 2019: Using the Cloud for Competitive Advantage

    ALSO SEE: 50 Open Source Tools To Replace Popular Security Software

    • 50 Open Source Tools: Desktop Downloads

    • 51 Open Source Tools to Protect Your Identity

    Can open source toolsreplace all closed source software? That is, are open source tools – freely downloadable software – really just as good as software you have to pay for?;n=203;c=204660774;s=9478;x=7936;f=201812281339040;u=j;z=TIMESTAMP;a=20403972;e=i

    In a lot of cases, the answer is yes. In fact, in some cases, open source tools offers features or performance benefits that surpass their commercial counterparts.

    Want proof? Below you'll find a list of 75 open source tools that offer viable alternatives to popular closed-source applications. The list also refers you to comparable commercial software so that you can compare for yourself and see which option best meets your needs and offers the best value.

    For this list, we've included a smattering of the best open source tools from a wide range of categories. Whether you're a large enterprise user, a small business owner, a home user, or even an educational institution, you'll probably find quite a few tools on this list that could replace the commercial software you use every day.

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music, Backup, Browsers, Compression, Content Management, CRM, Database, Desktop Publishing, E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware. PAGE ONE.

    Open Source Tools: ERP, File Transfer, Financial Management, Games, Gateway Security Appliances, Graphics/Drawing. PAGE TWO.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging, Mapping, Office Productivity, Operating System, Password Manager, PDF Tools. PAGE THREE.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management, School Management, Text Editor, Utilities, Video Tools, VoIP, Web Site Creation. PAGE FOUR.

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music

    1 Amarok Replaces: iTunes

    This audio player lets you listen to music, creates playlists, displays lyrics and cover art, and integrates with a number of Web services. The interface seems a little text-heavy, but easy to use, though not as attractive as iTunes. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    2 Songbird Replaces: iTunes

    You can't use Songbird on your iPhone or iPad, but you can use it on your PC or smartphone to set up playlists, listen to audio, stream video, and more. It also notifies users of upcoming concerts and allows you to purchase tickets right from the app. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: Backup

    3 Areca Backup Replaces: Norton Ghost

    This simple yet flexible backup manager offers both compression and encryption capabilities, and it archives files locally, over a network, or online via FTP or FTPS. It offers most of the same features as Ghost, except it doesn't integrate with a full security suite, and it doesn't support Blu-Ray. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    Open Source Tools: Browsers

    4 Chrome Replaces: Internet Explorer

    The big advantage Google's browser offers over the one from Microsoft is speed. It's fast to start up, fast to load pages, and fast to run Web apps. Unlike other browsers, it uses a combination Web address/search bar and simplifies the browsing experience in other ways as well. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    5 Firefox Replaces:

    While not as fast as Chrome, Firefox offer faster performance than Internet Explorer, as well as excellent security features. It includes a lot of personalization features and more than 6,000 add-ons so that you can make your browser work the way you want it to. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: Compression

    6 7-zip Replaces: WinZip

    While WinZip offers a fancier interface and more menu options, 7-zip lets you create 7z files with a higher compression rate, which means it creates smaller files. 7-zip also reads and writes WinZip files, as well as a number of other popular compression formats. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    7 PeaZip Replaces: WinZip

    Unlike WinZip, PeaZip can save files in seven different formats and reads an astounding 123 different compressed file types. It also includes strong encryption capabilities. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: Content Management

    8 Alfresco Replaces: Sharepoint

    Like SharePoint, Alfresco combines document management, web content management, records management, image management, and a content repository. In addition to the free community edition, it's also available as an enterprise subscription with support. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    9 MindTouch Replaces: Sharepoint, IBM Lotus

    Forrester research has called MindTouch the "Best product alternative to Microsoft Sharepoint and IBM Lotus." The Core edition is available for free, while the commercial Standard, Enterprise, and Cloud editions add more features. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    Open Source Tools: Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

    10 SugarCRM Replaces:

    Like, SugarCRM is cloud-based and combines sales, marketing, customer service and reporting features. While the free community edition include basic functionality, in order to use the more advanced features, you'll need to pay for a subscription to the professional or enterprise edition. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: Database

    11 Firebird Replaces: Microsoft SQL Server, others

    It's not as well-known as MySQL (see below), but Firebird also provides an alternative to commercial closed-source RBDMSs. First developed in 1981, it offers a mature, stable code base, but doesn't have corporate backing like MySQL. Operating System: Windows, Linux/Unix, OS X, Solaris.

    12 Kexi Replaces: Microsoft Access

    Making no secret of it's intended competition, Kexi's Web site boldly proclaims it "Microsoft Access for Linux." In fact, Kexi offers all of the same features and functionality as Access, and it's also available for Windows and OS X, as well as Linux. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    13 MySQL Replaces: Microsoft SQL Server, others

    Downloaded or distributed more than 100 million times, MySQL (now owned by Oracle) is the most popular open source database software in the world. It's used by a number of well-known companies, including Yahoo!, Alcatel-Lucent, Google, Nokia, YouTube, and Operating System: Windows, Linux, Unix, OS X

    Open Source Tools: Desktop Publishing

    14 Scribus Replaces: InDesign, QuarkXPress, Microsoft Office Publisher

    While most desktop publishing programs cost a lot of money, Scribus offers professional layout features like CMYK color separations, Spot Colors, ICC color management, and PDF creation—all for free. However, because of the complexity involved in desktop publishing, Scribus cannot open or edit files created with similar programs. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware

    15 Collabtive Replaces: Basecamp

    This cloud-based Web app includes project management, instant messaging, file and document management, timetracking, and reporting. It also imports Basecamp files, and if you don't want to host it yourself, you can purchase hosting and other services from Collabtive. Operating System: OS Independent.

    16 Evolution Replaces: Microsoft Office Outlook

    Often called "the Outlook of Linux," Evolution combines e-mail, calendar, and addressbook capabilities. However, this app only works with the Linux Gnome desktop. Operating System: Linux.

    17 Group-Office Replaces: Microsoft Office Outlook

    Group-Office includes a calendar, file sharing, basic CRM capabilities, e-mail, project management, and some billing features. In addition to the free community version, Group-Office also offers a paid professional version, which adds synchronization with mobile phones and Outlook, and a hosted version. Operating System: OS Independent.

    18 phpGroupWare Replaces: Microsoft Office Outlook, Sharepoint

    This GNU project includes more than 50 applications, most notably e-mail, shared calendar, contact management, Web content management, document management, and project management. It scales for small groups and large enterprises. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    19 Thunderbird Replaces: Microsoft Office Outlook

    The Thunderbird e-mail client boasts tabbed browsing and easy search—much like the Firefox browser also made by Mozilla. Unlike Outlook, this app only includes e-mail capabilities, but if you want to add calendar functionality, you can add Mozilla's Lightning/Sunbird. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    20 Zimbra Replaces: Microsoft Exchange

    Zimbra messaging and collaboration suite comes in desktop, server, and hosted Web client versions. It includes e-mail, contact management, shared calendaring, and voice communications capabilities. Operating System: Linux

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music, Backup, Browsers, Compression, Content Management, CRM, Database, Desktop Publishing, E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware. PAGE ONE.

    Open Source Tools: ERP, File Transfer, Financial Management, Games, Gateway Security Appliances, Graphics/Drawing. PAGE TWO.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging, Mapping, Office Productivity, Operating System, Password Manager, PDF Tools. PAGE THREE.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management, School Management, Text Editor, Utilities, Video Tools, VoIP, Web Site Creation. PAGE FOUR.

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music, Backup, Browsers, Compression, Content Management, CRM, Database, Desktop Publishing, E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware. PAGE ONE.

    Open Source Tools: ERP, File Transfer, Financial Management, Games, Gateway Security Appliances, Graphics/Drawing. PAGE TWO.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging, Mapping, Office Productivity, Operating System, Password Manager, PDF Tools. PAGE THREE.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management, School Management, Text Editor, Utilities, Video Tools, VoIP, Web Site Creation. PAGE FOUR.

    Open Source Tools: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

    21 Open ERP Replaces: SAP

    With its modular design, Open ERP makes it easy to add just the functionality your company needs. The Web site also includes comparisonswith other open-source ERP solutions, as well as SAP and Microsoft Dynamics. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    22 Openbravo Replaces: SAP

    Web-based, Openbravo offers ERP functionality with a minimal upfront investment. While the community version source code is available for download, most enterprises purchase Openbravo as a hosted app from one of the Openbravo vendors. Operating System: OS Independent

    23 ADempiere Replaces: SAP

    With a very active community and developer group, ADempiere boasts more than the usual amount of documentation and resources for an open source project. However, it doesn't have quite as many features and isn't quite as polished as some of the other ERP solutions. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    Open Source Tools: File Transfer

    24 FileZilla Replaces: CuteFTP, FTP Commander

    FileZilla allows users to send large files via regular FTP and the more secure FTPS and SFTP protocols. While the client version works with all operating systems, the server version only works on Windows. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    25 FireFTP Replaces: CuteFTP, FTP Commander

    Downloaded more than 13 million times, FireFTP is a Firefox add-on that turns your browser into an FTP client. Like WinSCP (below), it only includes a client, no server software. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    26 WinSCP Replaces: CuteFTP, FTP Commander

    For Windows only, WinSCP is an file transfer client only—that is, it allows you to download files securely, but does not allow you to set up your own FTP server. It supports FTP, SFTP, and SCP. Operating System: Windows.

    Open Source Tools: Financial Management

    27 Buddi Replaces: Quicken, Microsoft Money

    Extremely simple, Buddi lacks many of the fancy features you'll find in commercial financial software. However, it's easy to use and lets you set up accounts and budgets, enter transactions, and run reports. Operating System: OS Independent

    28 Money Manager Ex Replaces: Quicken, Microsoft Money

    Although slightly more robust than Buddi, Money Manager still lacks the more attractive interface you'll find in Quicken or Money. However, it does offer the unique feature of allowing you to download the software to your PC and then access it via the Web on your phone or another PC. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    29 TurboCASH Replaces: QuickBooks

    TurboCash invites small business owners to compare it to commercial accounting packages with a handy checklist that compares features. While it doesn't have some of the features you'll find in QuickBooks, like check printing and multi-currency capabilities, it offers some features its more well-known competitor doesn't have, like XML support and remote access. Operating System: Windows.

    Open Source Tools: Games

    30 FlightGear Replaces: Microsoft Flight Simulator X

    With realistic worldwide terrain, more than 20,000 real airports, and lots of aircraft to choose from, FlightGear provides real competition to Microsoft's Flight Simulator, and it doesn't require as many system resources. In fact, it provides such realistic flight operations that it has been used by universities, aerospace companies, and the FAA for research. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    31 FreeCol Replaces: Civilization

    FreeCol doesn't have the intense graphics of the newest versions of Civilization, but then again it doesn't require as much memory or CPU either. It offers a similar style of game play and a similar storyline as the popular series. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    32 Frets on Fire Replaces: Guitar Hero

    Frets on Fire is so much like Guitar Hero that you can even import Guitar Hero songs. While you can use a guitar controller if you have one, you can also play the game with your keyboard. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    33 Secret Maryo ChroniclesReplaces: Mario Bros. Games

    If you've played any Mario Brothers game (and you know you have), you'll find this game very familiar. It has the sort of 2D graphics you might remember from a couple of decades ago, and you progress from level to level by running, jumping, collecting coins, etc. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    34 StepManiaReplaces: Dance Dance Revolution

    StepMania works a lot like Dance Dance Revolution. If you have dance pads, you can use them (or buy them from the site); otherwise, you use your fingers to tap the keyboard in rhythm to the music. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: Gateway Security Appliances

    35 Endian Firewall Community Replaces: Check Point Security Gateways, McAfee, SonicWall, others

    Like the closed-source Unified Threat Management (UTM) appliances on the market, Endian combines anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall, intrusion detection, and other security functions into a single package. You can download the free community software to turn an old PC into a Linux-based appliance, or you can buy an appliance right from Endian. Operating System: Linux.

    36 Untangle Replaces: Check Point Security Gateways, McAfee, SonicWall, others

    Similar to Endian, Untangle combines a whole bunch of open-source apps for anti-virus, anti-spam, Web filetering, etc. With Untangle, you have three deployment options: as a router/UTM appliance on a separate PC, as a transparent bridge (if you already have a firewall/router), or as a software solution that runs in the background on any Windows PC connected to your network. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    Open Source Tools: Graphics/Drawing

    37 Archimedes Replaces: AutoCAD

    Like AutoCAD, Archimedes creates 2D and 3D design renderings, but Archimedes was designed primarily for architects. Thus, it's not as good for mechanical engineering, but does offer architects some benefits over AutoCAD. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    38 Dia Replaces: Visio

    Dia creates diagrams—for flowcharts, org charts, and more. It doesn't have as many options for art work and styles of boxes as Visio, but it's good enough for most casual users. Operating System: Windows, Linux/Unix.

    39 Gimp Replaces: Photoshop

    Gimp makes it easy to edit photos and other images—just like you would with Photoshop. Suitable for professionals, it includes features like layers, gradients, photo enhancement, color manipulation, digital retouching, and much more. For the Windows installer, see Gimp-win. Operating System: Windows, Linux

    40 Inkscape Replaces: Illustrator, CorelDraw

    A vector drawing program, Inkscape offers professional-quality features (markers, clones, alpha blending, etc.) for graphic designers. The site now also features an open clip art gallery that you can use in your drawings. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    41 Paint.Net Replaces: Photoshop

    While not quite as powerful as Photoshop and The Gimp, PaintNet offers many, many more capabilities than the Microsoft Paint utility it was originally intended to replace. It boasts an intuitive interface, layering capability, and many special effects. Operating System: Windows

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music, Backup, Browsers, Compression, Content Management, CRM, Database, Desktop Publishing, E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware. PAGE ONE.

    Open Source Tools: ERP, File Transfer, Financial Management, Games, Gateway Security Appliances, Graphics/Drawing. PAGE TWO.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging, Mapping, Office Productivity, Operating System, Password Manager, PDF Tools. PAGE THREE.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management, School Management, Text Editor, Utilities, Video Tools, VoIP, Web Site Creation. PAGE FOUR.

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music, Backup, Browsers, Compression, Content Management, CRM, Database, Desktop Publishing, E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware. PAGE ONE.

    Open Source Tools: ERP, File Transfer, Financial Management, Games, Gateway Security Appliances, Graphics/Drawing. PAGE TWO.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging, Mapping, Office Productivity, Operating System, Password Manager, PDF Tools. PAGE THREE.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management, School Management, Text Editor, Utilities, Video Tools, VoIP, Web Site Creation. PAGE FOUR.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging

    42 Adium Replaces:AIM, Yahoo! Messenger, Windows Live Messenger

    One of the best reasons to use an open-source IM client is that it lets you talk with friends on lots of different networks at once. Adium lets you connect with AIM, MSN, Jabber, Yahoo, and others from your Mac. Operating System: OS X

    43 aMSN Replaces:Windows Live Messenger

    This chat client works almost exactly like MSN Messenger (now known as Windows Live Messenger). Key features include offline messaging, custom emoticons, multi-language support, webcam support, tabbed windows, and more. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X

    44 Pidgin Replaces: AIM, Yahoo! Messenger, Windows Live Messenger

    One of the most popular open-source IM clients, Pidgin connects with 17 different chat networks. While the basic download doesn't offer some of the capabilities that the closed source IM clients have (for example, support for Facebook and Twitter), its large collection of plug-ins fills in most of the missing features. Operating System: Windows, Linux/Unix, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: Mapping

    45 WorldWind Replaces: Google Earth

    Google has released a lot of source code, but they haven't released the code for Google Earth. Developed by NASA, WorldWind offers nearly identical functionality, with full access to the source code. The link here will take you to the Java-based SDK that allows developers to use WorldWind in their own applications, but you can also download the desktop version for Windows only. Operating System: OS Independent

    Open Source Tools: Office Productivity

    46 AbiWord Replaces: Microsoft Word

    The AbiWord word processor offers most of the features you use every day in Microsoft Word, and the interface looks a lot like the older versions of Word. It even opens and saves files in Word and WordPerfect formats. While it lacks some of the more sophisticated features, that means you can run it on an older system, and many of the more advanced features can be added as plug-ins if you really need them. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    47 FreeMind Replaces: MindJet

    Both of these mind mapping programs let you create unique diagrams showing the relationship between ideas—kind of like you would with a white board during a brainstorming session. The biggest difference between the two is that the commercial program offers some online collaboration and Sharepoint integration capabilities that aren't available in the open-source version. On the other hand, FreeMind claims to offer faster performance than MindJet. Operating System: OS Independent.

    48 Gnumeric Replaces: Microsoft Excel

    This spreadsheet app boasts that it includes all of the functions in Microsoft Excel, plus 154 others. It imports files from Excel, Lotus, QuattroPro, and other programs, and it can export to Excel, XML, PDF, and several other formats. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    49 KOffice Replaces: Microsoft Office

    Although it's not as popular as, this office productivity suite from KDE also offers a viable alternative to Microsoft Office. It includes a word processor/desktop publisher, spreadsheet, presentation, database, project planner, flowchart, vector drawing, and a photo editing app. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    50 NeoOffice Replaces: Microsoft Office

    NeoOffice is a variation of (see below) that's tailored for the Mac. While does work on OS X, NeoOffice menus and features look and feel more like typical Mac software. Operating System: OS X.

    51 Replaces: Microsoft Office

    One of the best applications for people who have never used open-source before, includes a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation creator, and database that read and create Microsoft-compatible files. Unlike Office, it also comes with a drawing program and a mathematical equation creator, and of course, it's free. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    52 StarOffice Replaces: Microsoft Office

    For users who would like to try an open-source productivity suite but who don't want to go without support, StarOffice offers exactly the same programs as with paid support from Oracle. Prices start at $49.95, with discounts available for volume purchasers. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    Open Source Tools: Operating System

    53 Red Hat Replaces: Windows

    Calling itself "the world's leading open source application platform," Red Hat offers both desktop and server versions of Linux that are designed primarily for enterprise users. One-year subscriptions which include basic support start at $349 for the server version and $80 for the desktop version, or you can get a free, non-supported version that is nearly identical fromFedora.

    54 SUSE Replaces: Windows

    Novell also targets large business users with it's SUSE version of Linux. Prices start at $349 for the server version and $50 for the desktop version, and free versions are available fromopenSUSE.

    55 Ubuntu Replaces: Windows

    Because it is so user friendly, Ubuntu is one of the most popular versions of Linux for home users, particularly netbook users. Unlike Windows, Ubuntu (and the other versions of Linux) includes most of the applications you'll need, so you don't have to purchase separate software for word processing, spreadsheets, e-mail, video, music, etc.

    Open Source Tools: Password Manager

    56 KeePass Replaces: RoboForm, LastPass

    Like the other password managers, KeePass stores your passwords in an encrypted database, so that you only have to remember one master password. Its Web site claims that its encryption is so strong that "even if you would use all computers in the world to attack one database, decrypting it would take longer than the age of the universe." However, KeePass does not automatically fill in Web forms for you like the commercial products do. Operating System: Windows.

    Open Source Tools: PDF Tools

    57 PDFCreator Replaces: Adobe Acrobat

    With this tool, you can create a PDF file from any application that can print. It also includes digital signature and encryption capabilities, but it lacks some of Acrobat's form creating capabilities. Operating System: Windows.

    58 Sumatra PDF Replaces: Adobe Reader

    You don't have to use Adobe Reader to open PDF files. Sumatra also lets you view PDFs, and it's extremely lightweight, so it loads and operates much faster. Operating System: Windows.

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music, Backup, Browsers, Compression, Content Management, CRM, Database, Desktop Publishing, E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware. PAGE ONE.

    Open Source Tools: ERP, File Transfer, Financial Management, Games, Gateway Security Appliances, Graphics/Drawing. PAGE TWO.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging, Mapping, Office Productivity, Operating System, Password Manager, PDF Tools. PAGE THREE.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management, School Management, Text Editor, Utilities, Video Tools, VoIP, Web Site Creation. PAGE FOUR.

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music, Backup, Browsers, Compression, Content Management, CRM, Database, Desktop Publishing, E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware. PAGE ONE.

    Open Source Tools: ERP, File Transfer, Financial Management, Games, Gateway Security Appliances, Graphics/Drawing. PAGE TWO.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging, Mapping, Office Productivity, Operating System, Password Manager, PDF Tools. PAGE THREE.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management, School Management, Text Editor, Utilities, Video Tools, VoIP, Web Site Creation. PAGE FOUR.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management

    59 OpenProj Replaces: Microsoft Project

    Downloaded more than 1.2 million times, OpenProj provides nearly identical project management capabilities as Microsoft Project and even opens Microsoft Project and Primavera files. It's also available in a cloud-based version called "Projects On Demand" for $20 per month per user. Operating System: Windows, Linux, Unix, OS X.

    60 GanttProject Replaces: Microsoft Project

    Like OpenProj, GanttProject opens Microsoft Project files and offers much of the same functionality. However, it's not quite as polished as either OpenProj or Microsoft Project. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: School Management

    61 Moodle Replaces: Blackboard

    Both of these course management systems make it easy for instructors to conduct online courses, but Moodle offers the distinct advantage of being available for free. It's currently used on nearly 50,000 sites in more than 200 countries. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    62 openSIS Replaces: PowerSchool

    Some school districts claim to have lowered their TCO by 75 percent or more when switching from PowerSchool to openSIS. It includes modules for student demographics, attendance, gradebooks, scheduling, report cards, and more. Operating System: Windows (Linux coming soon).

    Open Source Tools: Text Editor

    63 jEdit Replaces: WordPad

    This Java-based replacement for the standard Windows text editor includes a number of helpful features for developers. For example, it indents automatically and highlights syntax for 130 different programming languages, and it has convenient keyboard shortcuts for many functions. Operating System: OS Independent

    Open Source Tools: Utilities

    64 LaunchyReplaces: Windows Start Menu

    Instead of hunting through your Windows start menu or file manager, just type a couple of letters and Launchy will find the application or file you're looking for. It's fast and very easy to use. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X

    65 DocFetcherReplaces: Standard desktop search

    If you're looking for text in a document, DocFetcher can find it quickly. It doesn't search application and system files, but it does find text within documents very quickly. Operating System: Windows, Linux

    66 UltraDefragReplaces: Disk Defragmenter

    This utility offers a couple of benefits over the Windows Disk Defragmenter. Most notably, it offers better speed, lets you schedule your defrag, and can automatically turn off your system when it's done. Operating System: Windows

    67 Karsten SlideShowReplaces: My Pictures Slideshow

    This screensaver works like the "My Pictures Slideshow" in Windows, except that it lets you decide which pictures should be used. It can also play video clips or run a slideshow as your desktop wallpaper. Operating System: Windows

    Open Source Tools: Video Tools

    68 Avidemux Replaces: Adobe Premiere

    Although it doesn't have nearly the wealth of features available with Adobe Premiere, Avidemux performs simple video cutting, filtering, and encoding tasks well. It also includes some scripting and job queue capabilities so that you can automate some repetitive tasks. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    69 VLC Media Player Replaces: Windows Media Player

    This meida player supports most audio and video file formats, and it can play from files, physical media (DVDs, CDs, etc.), TV cards, and streaming media. It can also convert files from one format to another and act as a streaming server—all without the need for external codecs. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    70 XBMC Media Center Replaces: Windows Media Player

    Winner of numerous awards, XBMC plays nearly all types of audio and video files—and looks great doing it. Designed to work with home theater PCs (HTPCs), it supports most remote controls, and it automatically creates a personal library, including cover art, for all of your audio and video files. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: VoIP

    71 QuteCom Replaces: Skype

    Formerly known as "WengoPhone," QuteCom offers free calling to other SIP-based VoIP software users, and if you have a SIP service provider, you can also call landlines, mobile phones, etc. Unfortunately, documentation for QuteCom is scarce, so if you want ease of use, Skype may offer a better option. However, if you want to be able to choose your own service provider, the open-source software is the way to go. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X.

    Open Source Tools: Web Site Creation

    72 Bluefish Replaces: Adobe Dreamweaver, Microsoft Expression Web

    While it's not quite as user-friendly as its commercial competitors or the other open-source options listed here, Bluefish offers a very fast WYSIWYG HTML editor that doesn't use a lot of system resources. Aimed at coders more than designers, it also includes support for a number of other programming languages. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    73 NVU Replaces: Adobe Dreamweaver, Microsoft Expression Web

    NVU claims to be "the number one free Web authoring system." While it's definitely aimed more at novices than professionals, it inlcudes many of the same features as the commercial HTML tools, and the Web site also helps newbies register a domain name and find hosting for their sites. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X, others.

    74 SeaMonkey Replaces: Adobe Dreamweaver, Microsoft Expression Web

    Loosely supported by Mozilla, SeaMonkey includes a Web browser, feedreader, e-mail client, and IRC chat client, as well as an HTML authoring tool. Unlike the commercial tools, SeaMonkey doesn't offer an easy way to convert graphic files to Web pages, but it does include some advanced CSS capabilities and a built-in Java de-bugger. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    75 XML Copy Editor Replaces: XMLSpy

    If you're looking for a basic XML editor with maximum speed, give XML Copy Editor a try. However, if you need a more full-featured solution or integration with SharePoint, Visual Studio, or Eclipse, the commercial software offers a better option. Operating System: Windows, Linux.

    Open Source Tools: Audio/Music, Backup, Browsers, Compression, Content Management, CRM, Database, Desktop Publishing, E-mail/Collaboration/Groupware. PAGE ONE.

    Open Source Tools: ERP, File Transfer, Financial Management, Games, Gateway Security Appliances, Graphics/Drawing. PAGE TWO.

    Open Source Tools: Instant Messaging, Mapping, Office Productivity, Operating System, Password Manager, PDF Tools. PAGE THREE.

    Open Source Tools: Project Management, School Management, Text Editor, Utilities, Video Tools, VoIP, Web Site Creation. PAGE FOUR.

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  • Effects of a 20-month cluster randomised controlled school-based intervention trial on BMI of school-aged boys and girls: the HEIA study | real questions and Pass4sure dumps


    The increasing rates of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents have resulted in several initiatives aiming to prevent further development of the epidemic. School-based interventions targeting prevention of overweight and obesity in children have yielded mixed results.1 ,2 However, evidence supports beneficial effects of child obesity prevention programmes on body mass index (BMI) in systematically developed interventions that promote healthy eating and physical activity and emphasise support from teachers and parents and home activities.1

    A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials of objectively measured physical activity concluded that successful physical activity interventions have only had a small effect on children's overall activity levels,3 which may partly explain why they have had limited success in preventing childhood obesity. Methodological shortcomings have also been used as an explanation for the lack of intervention effects.2 Many intervention studies are underpowered to detect small differences between groups, particularly on adiposity outcomes.1 Longer term programmes and comprehensive school-based interventions may be more effective than shorter programmes.4–6 There is ongoing discussion regarding the optimal measure of adiposity in larger studies of children and adolescents. Some authors claim that BMI-for-age z-score (BMIz) is the best measure as it adjusts for the age and gender of the child7 while others claim that BMI most aptly represents a child's adiposity.8 ,9 BMI and BMIz are merely estimates of body fatness as these indices do not differentiate between the types of tissue that contribute to body weight (fat, muscle or bone mass).

    To determine whether a school-based intervention is truly an effective means to reduce body fat, it may be necessary to assess it using a number of different anthropometric variables.4 Questions have also been raised about intervention reach.2 Gender and socioeconomic status may moderate intervention effects.10 There are still relatively few methodologically strong trials aimed at the primary prevention of weight gain in older children, thus indicating a need to strengthen the evidence base.6 ,11 ,12

    Previous results from the HEalth in Adolescents (HEIA) study have shown intervention effects both in psychological and social-environmental determinants of physical activity13 and in targeted behaviours like time spent watching TV/DVD, computer/game use, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages14 and physical activity15 in either the total sample or the subgroups.

    Therefore, we address the following primary objective: to investigate the effects of a systematically developed, 20-month multicomponent school-based intervention programme, the HEIA study, on BMI.

    Our secondary objectives were to investigate whether the effect of the intervention on anthropometry was influenced by gender, pubertal status or level of parental education.


    The HEIA study was based on a socioecological framework and the intervention was designed so that it was feasible to implement and of low cost so that it could be sustained in the public school system. The design and procedures of the HEIA study are thoroughly described elsewhere.16 The CONSORT Statement for reporting a randomised trial was followed according to applicability (

    Study design and participants

    Eligible schools were those with more than 40 students in the sixth grade and located in the largest towns/municipalities in seven counties in south-eastern Norway. Of the 177 schools invited, 37 agreed to participate (figure 1). All sixth graders in these 37 schools (n=2165) were invited to participate. Of these, 1580 (73%) children returned a parent-signed informed consent form. Twelve schools were randomly assigned by blind draw with all investigators present to the intervention group (n=784 children) and 25 schools to the control group (n=1381 children). Neither participants nor investigators were blinded for condition.

    Figure 1

    Flow diagram of recruitment, randomisation and participation of children in the HEalth in Adolescents study. *Percentage of participants with consent.

    The data collections took place at each school in September 2007 (baseline) and in May 2009 (postintervention). Anthropometrics were measured by trained staff, and participants filled in a short-paper questionnaire about pubertal status; 1376 children (87% of those returning consent) provided data at baseline and 1361 children at postintervention. A total of 1324 children provided data at both time points which constitute the analysed sample in this paper. A priori, per protocol and drop-out analyses were chosen over intention-to-treat.17 Power calculations were based on changes in BMI. Taking the cluster effect of randomly assigning schools to intervention and control into account, assuming that 80% of the students would participate and that the attrition rate would not exceed 15%/year, we aimed for 40 schools (10 intervention and 30 control) with an average of 45 students participating from each school. According to these assumptions, we calculated that we should be able to detect a difference between intervention and control schools after 2 years of 0.72 kg/m2 in BMI.16

    Ethical approval and research clearance were obtained from the Regional Committees for Medical Research Ethics in Norway and from the Norwegian Social Science Data Service.


    The multilevel approach included collaboration with school principals and teachers, school-health services and parent committees. Multiple intervention efforts were orchestrated to promote a healthy diet and to increase awareness of healthy choices, to increase participants’ physical activity during school hours and leisure time, and to reduce screen-time. Schoolteachers were the key-persons to implement the intervention components. The main ones are outlined in table 1 and further described elsewhere.16

    Table 1

    The HEIA study: intervention components implemented in the sixth and seventh grades in 12 Norwegian schools in 2007/2008 and 2008/2009

    Anthropometric outcomes

    A trained staff person of the same sex as the study participant conducted the anthropometry. Participants wore light clothing or underwear only during these assessments. Height was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm by a wall-mounted measurement tape with the participant standing upright against the wall. Weight was measured to the nearest 0.1 kg by a digital scale/body composition analyser (Tanita TBF-300; Tanita Corp., Illinois, USA). Waist circumference (WC) was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm by a measuring tape between the lower rib and the iliac-crest at the end of a normal expiration. BMI was calculated (kg/m2). BMI-for-age and sex z-score (BMIz) was calculated by adapting syntaxes for SPSS provided by WHO.19 The age-specific and gender-specific BMI cut-off values proposed by the International Obesity Task Force were used to categorise the children as being of normal weight or overweight/obese.20 Only 1.8% of the participants at baseline were obese and thus included with those overweight in the analyses. Waist-to-height ratio (WTHR) was calculated as the ratio of waist (cm) to height (cm).

    For ethical reasons, children were asked to self-report their pubertal status by a separate and sex-specific paper questionnaire at the end of the data collection. The questionnaire was based on the Pubertal Category Scores.21 The children were categorised into five puberty categories which were collapsed to three because of low numbers in the latter two categories (3.5% of the participants in total): prepubertal, early-pubertal, mid-pubertal/late-pubertal/postpubertal. A reliability study of the anthropometric measures was conducted prior to the survey among 114 children;16 all tests had a reasonable reproducibility (intra-class correlation (ICC) and Pearson's R 0.76–0.99, p<0.001, except voice change (boys only) ICC 0.36, p<0.006).

    Demographic characteristics

    On the informed consent, parents reported their educational level. Parental education was categorised into three levels: <12 years (low), 13–16 years (medium) and >16 years (high).

    If both parents provided level of education, we included the parent with the highest level of education in our analyses; we otherwise used data provided by either parent.

    Data preparation and statistics

    To address the clustered effects of schools as the unit of recruitment while children were the unit of analysis, we conducted a Linear Mixed Model Procedure (analyses available upon request). Both Tabachnick and Fidell and Heck et al state that if the ICC is small when quantifying the degree of clustering (<5%), there is no meaningful difference among groups and the data may be analysed at the individual level.22 ,23 As only 2% of the variance in BMI and WC was explained by group, we did not adjust for clustering in our analysis.22 ,23

    Baseline differences between the intervention and control groups were tested with independent sample t tests and a χ2 test. Drop-out analyses were done likewise. The effect of the intervention was determined using one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with the postintervention value for the outcomes as the dependent variables (continuous variables), baseline values of the outcomes as covariates and group (intervention vs control) as the independent variable. The same technique was used for categorical outcomes using logistic regressions. Interaction effects by gender, pubertal status and parental educational level were tested in separate analyses as a second step using two-way ANCOVA/logistic regressions with the interaction terms as covariates. The significance level of the interaction tests was set to p<0.1. Significant interactions were explored by rerunning the analyses stratified by the moderator. The significance level of the main analyses was set to p<0.05. Data were analysed using the IBM SPSS Statistics V.18 (IBM Corp., New York, New York, USA).


    Only 4% of children dropped out of the study and attrition was equal between the intervention (n=17) and control (n=35) groups. Drop-out analyses showed that the participants lost to follow-up (n=52) weighed more (42.8 vs 39.7 kg, p=0.01) and had a higher BMI (19.2 vs 17.9 kg/m2, p=0.01) and BMIz (0.55 vs 0.10, p=0.003) than the investigated sample (n=1324). No other differences were detected.

    There were no significant differences between the intervention and control groups at baseline with respect to age, gender, weight, height, pubertal status and parental education (table 2), as well as for body composition estimates. Table 2 also shows baseline characteristics by gender for descriptive purposes.

    Table 2

    Characteristics at baseline for the HEIA study intervention and control groups and by gender

    For the total sample, there were no significant intervention effects on any of the body composition measures outlined in table 3, or for weight status: OR 1.6 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.7), p=0.1. Gender was identified as a moderator of the intervention effects on BMI (p=0.02), BMIz (p<0.01), WC (p=0.05) and WTHR (p=0.05). The effect on BMI was also moderated by parental education (p=0.04); similar was the effect on WTHR (p=0.06). No moderating effects of pubertal status were detected (data not shown). After stratification, there was a significant intervention effect on BMI for girls; girls in the intervention group increased less on BMI compared with the control group. No such effect was seen for boys. Similarly, an intervention effect was seen on BMIz for girls but not for boys. For WC and WTHR, there was no significant intervention effect for either gender after stratification (table 3). Furthermore, a beneficial intervention effect on BMI among the participants of parents with high education was found, but no effect was detected among participants of parents with medium or low education. For WTHR, a negative effect was found among participants of parents with low education.

    Table 3

    Intervention effects of the HEIA study on anthropometric outcomes after 20 months; total sample and by gender and parental education


    The HEIA study had a beneficial effect on BMI and BMIz in girls, but not in boys. A beneficial effect on BMI was seen among participants of parents with higher education. However, a negative intervention effect on WTHR was seen among participants of parents reporting low education.

    Effect of the intervention on BMI

    One reason for the lack of overall effect on BMI for both boys and girls can be the inadequate dose received of intervention components. Unpublished process evaluation data indicate that the level of implementation of the components decreased from midway to postintervention, thus reducing both the reach and dose received by the participants. Furthermore, since low cost and high applicability of the intervention activities in the public school system were given high priority, this may also have limited the dose received on each of the targeted behaviours. Moreover, the diet and activity behaviours that were promoted in the intervention, separately or in combination, may not have been sufficient to affect estimates of body composition to a greater magnitude.3 The length of the intervention, being almost two academic years, can be considered relatively long compared with similar school-based interventions.4 ,5 ,24 Sufficiently intense intervention (daily expert-led physical education) and adequate duration (1 year) were two strengths that were pointed out in the successful KISS study, which managed to favourably affect estimates of body composition in first and fifth grade schoolchildren.24 Additionally, both the control group and the intervention group in the present study increased their total physical activity significantly during the intervention.15 This was unexpected as a decline in physical activity with increasing age has repeatedly been documented between the ages 9 and 15.25–27 We cannot rule out that the control schools have initiated their own health-promoting initiatives, even if allocated to the control arm of the study. For ethical reasons, we made no attempt to prevent this. The lack of overall intervention effects can also be due to the limited potential for change, as the majority of participants in this study were of normal weight at baseline.5

    Effect of the intervention on secondary objectives

    We have previously reported that gender moderated the effect of the HEIA intervention on dietary behaviours, sedentary behaviours and physical activity.13 ,14 The effect of the intervention was greater for girls than for boys on most of the outcomes we investigated.

    This can have several explanations. Four female researchers developed the intervention and assisted the implementation. The majority of teachers involved in this project were women. Unintentionally, the intervention components may therefore have been better adapted and delivered to girls than to boys. The earlier demonstrated intervention effects on behaviours in girls but not in boys may partly explain why the intervention was effective on BMI and BMIz among girls only.14 ,15 It is possible that boys did not change their physical activity level as much as girls because of higher baseline values and, consequently, had a smaller potential for change. Furthermore, the issues addressed in the study may be of greater interest to girls, or girls may be more conscientious regarding the intervention components than boys. We appreciate the results showing that the intervention reached and affected girls. However, we also acknowledge that the intervention failed to affect the same outcomes in boys. Similarly, the American ‘Planet Health’ study significantly reduced the prevalence of obesity in 12-year-old girls by promotion of physical activity, modification of dietary intake and reduction of sedentary behaviours, but found no effect on boys.28 On the other hand, another American intervention study targeting environment, policy and social marketing (M-SPAN) showed a significant reduction in BMI in 11-year-old to 13-year-old boys over two school years, but not in girls.29 A systematic review of school-based interventions that focused on changing dietary intake and physical activity to prevent childhood obesity concluded that such interventions may be more effective for younger children and girls.30 The authors suggested that children aged 10–14 years may respond differently by genders to different intervention elements.

    The present study demonstrated a beneficial intervention effect on participants having parents with high education, and a negative intervention effect on participants in the lowest parental education group with respect to WTHR. While acknowledging that we failed to positively reach participants of parents with low education, the reason is not readily explainable. In an attempt to explain social differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among Norwegian schoolchildren, Bere et al31 found that children with lower educated parents had less access to fruits and vegetables than children with higher educated parents, and hypothesised that cost, greater knowledge, health considerations and greater support from family and friends could be the reasons for this difference. The results are in line with earlier findings, which describe a social gradient in the problem of adolescent overweight and obesity,32–35 and which show that population-based intervention efforts seem to reach participants from different socioeconomic backgrounds differently and may contribute to increased health inequalities.1 ,36

    In this paper, we chose to include multiple estimates of body composition as called for,4 although BMI was the main outcome variable in the study. It is noteworthy that relatively closely related outcomes, that is, BMI and WTHR, gave different results regarding intervention effects. All the investigated outcomes are descriptions of body composition and more equal effects could have been expected. The results suggest that there are differences in how the intervention affects these measures. The power analyses were calculated to detect differences between groups for BMI; the other investigated anthropometric outcomes may have required a larger sample size to detect intervention effects.

    Regarding effect size, all the significant effect sizes were classified as small. The highest explained variance was only 1.4% in girls’ BMIz and WTHR in the lowest parental education group. This means that most of the participants’ estimates of body composition development during the trial were explained by other factors, and thus the importance of the intervention effects may be limited. However, obtaining small but beneficial findings such as this can be important for public health if implemented on a larger scale and with a longer duration.

    Strengths and limitations

    The strengths of the study include the systematic development of the intervention and the study design, which were based on the current recommendations and best practice.2 ,29 ,37 Other strengths were the large number of participants from a narrow age group. Furthermore, the multicomponent intervention lasting 20 months was designed to be feasible to implement within the school system and not financially demanding. Also, the anthropometric measures were objectively assessed, self-reported pubertal maturation was included and parental education was reported by a parent for nearly the full sample.

    We acknowledge that our study has limitations. A possible selection bias might be present because a rather large proportion of invited schools declined to take part in the study. Recruiting schools in Norway to extracurricular projects has become a challenging undertaking over the past decade, as curricular and administrative demands on schools have increased substantially. In addition, weighing of children is a controversial issue in Norway and has been debated in the national media repeatedly. However, attrition analyses showed no differences between the participating schools and schools which declined to participate in terms of the number of students in the sixth grade and the overall size.38 The drop-out analyses showed that participants lost to follow-up had a higher BMI and indicate that we lost participants that we intended to reach. A possible reason for this attrition could be resistance to assessment of anthropometrics in light clothing or underwear only. This was discovered as the main reason for adolescents to refuse participation in the anthropometric measurement in a Dutch school-based weight gain prevention programme.39 However, the drop-out rate was small and equal in both groups, and no further differences were detected. Also, when investigating the intervention effects of a multicomponent intervention, it is not possible to sort out the effects of the different components. Finally, as the sample was recruited from a limited geographic area, this could reduce the generalisability of our findings. However, the objectively measured height, weight and total physical activity from the participants in this study fall adequately between the measures of 9-year-olds and 15-year -olds in a nationally representative sample.40


    We demonstrated that a 20-month comprehensive multicomponent school-based intervention designed to increase physical activity, reduce sedentary time and stimulate a healthy diet successfully decreased BMI and BMIz among girls, but not boys.

    The intervention had a beneficial effect on BMI among children of parents with higher education, but not among children of parents with lower education. Future interventions should be aware of differences in how the intervention affects genders and socioeconomic groups, and should adequately address this issue to eliminate chances of increasing inequalities in health with regard to obesity development.

    What this study adds
  • A multicomponent school-based obesity prevention intervention produced significant positive effects on estimates of body composition among participating adolescent girls, but not among the boys.

  • The intervention gave positive results for participants having parents with higher education, while negative effects were seen among those with parents having lower education. The risk that interventions contribute to increase social inequalities in health should be given attention in future intervention studies.

  • Acknowledgments

    We sincerely thank the participants, their parents and teachers and the project staff.

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    IBM 000-448 Exam (IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2) Detailed Information


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