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000-448 - IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2 - Dump Information

Vendor : IBM
Exam Code : 000-448
Exam Name : IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2
Questions and Answers : 142 Q & A
Updated On : February 22, 2019
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000-448 IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2

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000-448 exam Dumps Source : IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2

Test Code : 000-448
Test Name : IBM Content Collector (ICC) v2.2
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 142 Real Questions

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IBM IBM Content Collector (ICC)

IBM to acquire pink Hat, a number one Java community Contributor | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps


IBM to purchase crimson Hat, a leading Java neighborhood Contributor
  • through John okay. Waters
  • 10/29/2018
  • IBM announced on Sunday plans to purchase main enterprise open source application company and longtime Java neighborhood system (JCP) chief red Hat in a $34 billion inventory deal.

    Described by means of massive Blue as IBM's most massive acquisition and probably the most gigantic tech acquisition of 2018, the deal represents "a landmark second for both groups and is an incredible step forward in IBM's ongoing focal point on excessive-cost company, the transformation of our portfolio, and our leadership in the emerging era of AI and cloud."

    IBM and pink Hat talked about the deal, which has been accredited by their respective boards, is area to purple Hat shareholder and regulatory approval, and will be completed within the latter half of 2019.

    speaking this morning with press and analysts on a conference name, Paul Cormier, red Hat's EVP and president of products and technologies, talked about the merger will support his company know its imaginative and prescient for its Linux and open supply choices.

    "over the last 10 years or so, Linux has been the platform where most of the innovation in the business has been going on," Cormier spoke of. "We constructed a purposeful portfolio round Linux and open source tailor-made for the hybrid cloud ... however we're nonetheless a relatively small enterprise. Our valued clientele are seeing open hybrid cloud because the simplest method to convey public cloud into their IT infrastructure, and because of our dimension we can not diagnosed the talents of that demand. IBM helps us deliver that method to one hundred seventy nations and accelerates our vision into the market."

    IBM has long been a leading consumer and contributor to Linux, which undergirds crimson Hat's correct products, together with the red Hat enterprise Linux (RHEL) OS.

    On that identical conference name, Arvind Krishna, IBM's SVP of Hybrid Cloud, referred to this acquisition will make his enterprise the world's leading hybrid cloud issuer. IBM's intention, he talked about, "is to win in hybrid cloud, and win on the foundation of open technologies, and in the end to give a know-how that makes life easier [for companies] with much less complexity and a future proof investment."

    To a query concerning the knowledge impact of the acquisition on pink Hat-maintained open supply projects, similar to Fedora, Gnome, and CentOS, Cormier answered succinctly "None. No impact," he mentioned. "The day after we shut [the acquisition], I don't intend to do anything distinct. For us, it should be enterprise as typical. whatever we had been going to do for our roadmaps as a stand-on my own will continue. We must do what's appropriate for the neighborhood upstream, our friends and our company."

    both executives claimed that the leading roles the two organizations play in the JCP usually are not littered with the merger. IBM and crimson Hat are active members of the Java group, however Raleigh, N.C.-primarily based purple Hat is likely one of the most lively contributors, and has been for decades.

    "each IBM and purple Hat have been potent voices in that group," Cormier mentioned, "and i suppose in order to continue. pink Hat will proceed to do what's correct for the red Hat portfolio, and that i would guess that IBM would do the equal."

    red Hat is, in reality, the greatest contributor to the OpenJDK next to Oracle. pink Hat executives have served on the JCP executive Committee and as Java spec leads or skilled Working community individuals for more than 35 Java Specification Requests (JSRs). the primary Context and Dependency Injection spec (JSR 299), which become led by using JBoss Fellow Gavin King, had a big effect on Java EE 6. The company changed into also behind business JavaBeans (EJB) 3, JavaServer Faces, and the Java Persistence API. It collaborated on four JSRs for Java EE 7: Java API for RESTful web features 2.0 (JSR-339); Java Message service 2.0 (JSR-343); Java Server Faces 2.2 (JSR-344); and Java content Repository API (JSR-333).

    red Hat additionally spearheaded two OpenJDK initiatives: Shenandoah (JEP 189), which aims to supply an extremely-low-pause-time rubbish Collector; and Thermostat , an instrumentation device for the Hotspot JVM.

    Martijn Verburg, CEO of jClarity, co-organizer of the London JUG, and a member of the Java neighborhood manner (JCP) executive Committee, expects "a positive result" from the acquisition.

    "IBM has truly shown crimson Hat-like characteristics when it comes to Java and Open source," Verburg stated in an electronic mail. "They've these days OpenSourced their J9 VM (Eclipse OpenJ9) in addition to their WebSphere utility Server (Open Liberty). They are also proper tier helps of Microprofile, Jakarta EE and crucially adopt OpenJDK.

    Reza Rahman, SVP at AxonIQ, former Oracle Java developer evangelist, and co-founder of the Java EE Guardians, is "of two minds" on the acquisition.

    "I totally take into account the company reason in the back of this for both IBM and crimson Hat," he informed ADTmag. "here is unequivocally respectable for the shareholders and employees of both corporations. youngsters, the truth is that the influence for clients and the Java EE ecosystem may additionally now not always be so rosy. it will seemingly imply less alternatives for Java EE users and less market competitiveness. for example, it will not shock me if Websphere Liberty, Open Liberty, JBoss EAP, WildFly, and Thorntail now need to merge. i'm hoping smaller and more recent market entrants will fill in any aggressive gaps, as they should still in a suit financial space."

    "I also wish each the Java EE folks at IBM and pink Hat all the premiere as long term colleagues," he introduced. "with a bit of luck they could be able to make this a pretty good result for Java EE."

    a different Java EE Guardian, Kito Mann, who is a principal advisor at Virtua Inc., sees a definite synergy amongst Linux, Java, and cloud functions, but he worries about big Blue.

    "IBM's song list with acquisitions is questionable," he referred to in an e mail. "pink Hat has finished a tremendous job championing open source and building first rate items. however IBM has quite a lot of involvement with open supply, it be simply no longer at the equal level. My subject is that crimson Hat will get absorbed into one or greater huge IBM product lines and then fade into mediocrity or irrelevance (remember Rational?)"

    concerning the Java connection, Mann has some questions: "in terms of Java, does this imply pink Hat products will start delivery with the IBM Java VM?" he asked. "What about JBoss and WebSphere (Liberty)? What about the entire first-rate OSS products from crimson Hat/JBoss, and the company's work subculture?"

    JNBridge CTO and co-founder Wayne Citrin, also has a number of considerations concerning the merger. "My feeling is that there's attending to be too tons concentration in the trade," he observed in an e mail, "and this would not help. red Hat appeared to be doing simply first-class and didn't need to merge, but I cannot blame them for cashing in."

    concerning the author

    John has been overlaying the high-tech beat from Silicon Valley and the San Francisco Bay area for pretty much two decades. He serves as Editor-at-large for software development tendencies (www.ADTMag.com) and contributes always to Redmond journal, The know-how Horizons in education Journal, and Campus know-how. he is the author of greater than a dozen books, together with The everything book to Social Media; The every thing laptop ebook; Blobitecture: Waveform structure and Digital Design; John Chambers and the Cisco means; and Diablo: The legit approach ebook.

    brief entry to IBM Cloud provider Credentials from a Python computer | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    As a developer, I’m generally making an attempt to find IBM Cloud carrier circumstances that I’ve provisioned or that i used to be given access to over time. i am a member of distinctive agencies (three to be certain, presently containing 15+ areas) and that i’m having a tough time remembering through which firm and space the service illustration I’d like to access is discovered.

    The IBM Cloud internet console and the IBM Cloud Developer tools CLI each most effective screen carrier cases for a single Cloud Foundry firm/area combination, akin to ptitzler_org/dev as shown under.

    IBM Cloud internet console and IBM Cloud Developer tools CLI limit service illustration views to a single Cloud Foundry organization and space.

    To locate a service instance, I hence deserve to iterate through every viable corporation/space combination (using the internet GUI or with the aid of working the applicable CLI commands) except the service instance of pastime is discovered. achievable, but inefficient.

    Most commonly I’m going via this technique to retrieve the service credentials so that i can use the provider example (for instance, an information provider like Cloudant or an analytical provider like Watson machine studying) from a pc or a stand-by myself app.

    accessing Cloudant service example credentials the use of the cloud console.

    I’ve at last taken the probability to streamline the procedure by means of making a Python computer application that gathers and visualizes Cloud Foundry catalog counsel for businesses, spaces and repair instances that a given IBMid or IBM Cloud consumer API key has entry to:

    IBM Cloud provider example list with filters for carrier forms, carrier plans and Cloud Foundry companies and areas.

    To reap provider credentials, I now just should run the app in a workstation, apply the favored filter(s) to find the provider illustration and click on a button to insert the selected credentials right into a mobilephone:

    candy. One click on inserts service credentials into a Python computing device cell for later consumption.

    in case you’d want to provide this a are trying for your native Jupyter environment or within the cloud, download the pc, add your IBM Cloud user API key or IBMid credentials and run all cells. The app displays in the remaining mobilephone. No counsel is permanently kept or shared.

    word that this application at the moment most effective collects suggestions about features which are managed by means of Cloud Foundry, but doesn't bring together counsel about functions which are managed through IAM.

    Cloud Foundry-managed and IAM-managed provider instances are displayed one after the other in the IBM Cloud internet console.

    To learn greater about the software, read on.

    in regards to the software

    The Python 2.7/3.x software comprises of two classes: a Cloud Foundry carrier information collector and a visualizer, which might be invoked via the Browser class:

    Invoking the Cloud Foundry service instance browser app. Configuration

    The utility requires IBM Cloud credentials — which can be either an IBMid and password or an IBM Cloud user API key — to fetch counsel in regards to the components that the offered credentials have entry to. if you prefer to not store the credentials in clear text you can comfortably seize the input interactively, like so:

    import getpassibm_cloud_user_api_token = getpass.getpass()... statistics assortment

    The records Collector gathers the necessary suggestions from the IBM Cloud catalog the use of the Cloud Foundry rest API and outlets it in a Pandas DataFrame. dissimilar calls are made to load look up tips, which allows the app to screen names in its place of interior identifiers. observe that no sensitive tips (a.ok.a., the credentials) is gathered throughout the collection.

    If desired, that you could access and explore the DataFrame by means of calling the Browser type’s getPandasDataFrame() components. I are inclined to use PixieDust to investigate cross-check the content of DataFrames , a nifty Python productiveness device our Developer Advocacy group has developed, because it gives interactive filtering and visualization.

    Filter the collected records, customise the monitor and even render it graphically by using changing the visualization options.

    I’ve decided to preserve the facts assortment code break away the visualization code. It provides two benefits:

  • facts assortment may well be periodically carried out on an as-necessary basis (e.g., once every week) by means of invoking the Collector throughout off-height hours and the storing the outcomes in cloud storage. The Visualizer then simply sources the amassed facts from cloud storage as a substitute of querying the IBM Cloud catalog at once.
  • different utilities could operate on the equal statistics set, with no need to assemble the counsel once again.
  • Credential search for app

    The Visualizer is applied using PixieApps, an open-source framework that makes use of Python, HTML and CSS to construct interactive visualizations for Python notebooks. It’s pretty primary but gets the job carried out: it shows a group of context-delicate filters and the list of carrier circumstances that meet the filter situations:

    simplest companies by which Cloudant Lite plan cases exist are protected in the filter.

    simplest after a person selects a selected provider example (with the aid of clicking the View Credentials button) is a request despatched to IBM Cloud using the Cloud Foundry API, retrieving the credentials.

    A person can then choose to insert credentials into a brand new mobilephone, which generates a Python dictionary. With the credentials in vicinity, access to to provider instance is only a piece of code away:

    elementary credentials consumption situation. critical cred(s)

    received some ideas to enrich this app or need to build your personal spin-off? All you should get begun is during this Github Repository.

    Counteracting APTs with a nice-tuned SIEM solution | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

  • put up
  • notwithstanding no longer a prevailing class of cyber assaults, superior persistent threats (APTs) are truly essentially the most devastating ones. similar to a sudden volcano eruption that’s been  slowly surging underneath, an ATP might also reside invisible for a lot of months but finally effect in critical monetary harm, ruining businesses’ attractiveness and even lead to human victims as it happened after the scandalous Ashley Madison statistics breach.

    The annual cyber risk report M-trends 2016 by Mandiant pointed out that the usual number of days in 2015 during which organizations were compromised earlier than they discovered the breach (or had been notified concerning the breach) turned into 146. To make issues even worse, protection consultants reveal the majority of APTs accidentally, which potential that APTs’ actual lifecycle is limited handiest by means of the vigour of vigilance. So is the battle with APTs in fact a depend of luck? Or is there anything to detect them earlier than they damage a company’s assets?

    advertisement Why are natural tools no respectable?

    With APTs, you might also feel that corporations are too a great deal negligent about their protection and take insufficient security measures. in fact, targeted entities constantly undertake the entire latitude of safety equipment from common firewalls and antiviruses to refined anti-malware items. The problem is that these traditional tools aren’t able to stand up to an APT attack, leaving a pretty good number of blind spots in an commercial enterprise’s infrastructure.

    for instance, firewalls as an essential a part of network safety can close needless ports and block unsolicited incoming community site visitors. Their superior models can even partially offer protection to against DDoS assaults. however they in reality can’t discover malicious clients, analyze packets containing malware and obviously they can not deal with attacks that don’t go through them. because of normal firewalls’ constrained performance, most businesses supplement them with intrusion prevention techniques (IPS) that permit to examine network traffic flows, become aware of and forestall vulnerability exploits. however, IPS also have their limitations as they are helpless in opposition t customer-aspect utility assaults. 

    additionally, managing an array of protection tools is difficult and costly, as you need to purchase numerous software licenses and rent experts to take care of each and every certain piece of software. It’s also impossible to manually correlate records from dissimilar techniques in order to discover and reply to proliferating attacks. And, eventually, scattered options can't make sure a 360° view of a corporation’s IT ambiance, which eventually consequences in loopholes that allow hackers in.

    on the identical time, nowadays’s security application market presents superior protection guidance and event administration (SIEM) solutions that are capable of exchange multiple scattered options. despite the fact that now not regarded because the top-quality treatment against APTs, SIEM techniques might support protection officers at distinctive degrees of an assault.

    getting to know from existence training: The case of Carbanak assaults

    To get all armed for feasible attacks, it’s constructive to investigate outdated blunders. in the background of safety breaches, APTs have a ’music listing’ of calamitous intrusions. among them there are a series of assaults with the aid of the Carbanak neighborhood that targeted greater than 100 banks and other monetary institutions in 30 nations (the U.S. named the 2d greatest target), which made it some of the biggest financial institution thefts ever.

    all started out in August 2013, this subtle hacking gang turned into first publicly disclosed only in 2015 when the whole profit already reached $1 billion. To live disregarded and learn every bank inner out, attackers used an entire latitude of strategies from spear phishing to latent watch, stealing money in modest batches. The theft become printed by chance, after inspecting one ATM’s atypical behavior. besides the fact that children, disclosure didn’t stop the Carbanak hackers from their shady affairs: a new series of attacks were already registered in 2016. This time, the group aims to double down the old trap. but what if victims had a first-class-tuned SIEM answer?

    as the banks were unprepared for these attacks and had no vital solutions in location to realize the APTs, we decided to take this case as an example and illustrate how a first-rate-tuned SIEM answer, comparable to IBM QRadar, might assist to show the Carbanak superior persistent threats.

    Malware an infection

    in accordance with the publicly purchasable particulars of the assault, the hackers bought access to financial institution employees’ computer systems through opportunistic malware. IBM safety QRadar QFlow Collector could pinpoint a malware infection by using making certain constant monitoring of the traffic getting in and out of a company. The tool tactics classes and circulate counsel from external sources in such codecs as QFlow, NetFlow, SFlow, JFlow and periods from Packeteer, which allows for to baseline community site visitors and put in force anomaly suggestions, in addition to to build up selected correlation rules to notice the following:

  • communications with favourite botnet handle facilities and malicious IP addresses. This tips can be subscribed (IBM X-drive) or integrated with SIEM from open sources.

  • communications with odd and doubtlessly malicious nations and regions

  • communications by means of odd ports (e.g. 6667/IRC)

  • communications containing selected payloads (e.g. bot handle instructions), which is viable with IBM safety QRadar QFlow Collector’s performance.

  • Spear Phishing

    as soon as the attackers received entry to personnel’ computers, they begun a large spear phishing campaign that was very challenging to establish. certainly, a SIEM answer can rarely distinguish an contaminated email message originating from a legitimate electronic mail account (a computing device with malware) from a legitimate email. despite the fact, if the e mail server is linked to a SIEM solution as a log source, it’s possible to realize here abnormalities:

  • a giant quantity of messages sent from the same account within a short time 

  • e mail messages despatched in non-business hours from a corporate account

  • a huge variety of messages with the same field to different mailboxes

  • The advanced correlation with physical protection controls additionally makes it possible for detection of mailouts from users before their assess-in via a actual protection gate.

    Privilege escalation and deeper reconnaissance

    Systematic spare phishing coupled with malware an infection allowed the group to continue their attack via privilege escalation and deeper reconnaissance that are normal for all APTs.  

    Privilege escalation can be monitored with a first-rate-tuned SIEM answer with right here:

  • audit enabled and competently configured on workstations

  • log statistics amassed from workstations and despatched to a SIEM

  • person bills and roles mapped in a SIEM answer the use of tips from LDAP/advert

  • In any such situation, any user and not using a Admin function logging in with administrative privileges would trigger an alert in a SIEM solution. in addition, most of SIEM solutions include out-of-the-box reconnaissance detection correlation rules that will also be high-quality-tuned to lower false-positives. In our case, a deeper reconnaissance originating from an internal company community may be identified if firewalls had been sending entry logs to a SIEM answer.

    Latent watch

    To more desirable take note the internal methods, the hackers assigned operators to work with video- and display-catch feeds grabbed and transmitted to the attackers with the previously injected malware.

    The ordinary site visitors analysis in line with anomaly rules would discover video and screen taking pictures actions given that video translation produces loads of site visitors that can be caught through IBM security QRadar QFlow Collector.

    an infection of computer systems connected to ATMs

    The Carbanak gang efficiently infected computers connected to ATMs with a purpose to make the machines dispense cash. In case if compromised administrative money owed were used to unfold infection, a SIEM answer could be able to alert the security personnel concerning the following:

  • a logged admin person account didn’t belong to the attacked server’s guide team (mapping with LDAP/advert)

  • a particular admin person account changed into logged in to many servers in a short time.
  • moreover, an superior correlation with identity and entry management options and Ticketing programs would allow to notice instances when an admin user was logging to the gadget with no acceptable ticket or IAM allowance.

    Compromise of inner databases and creation of fraudulent money owed

    during the attacks, hackers manipulated Oracle databases to open payment or debit card money owed on the identical financial institution or to transfer funds between money owed the use of the online banking equipment. continuously, all activity related to developing new debts may still move through a validation system. reckoning on this type of process and equipment used for validation, this advice may be integrated with a SIEM solution to alert on surprising account advent. If there’s no such validation in location, every new account advent can be alerted and investigated by a safety analyst.

    A SIEM advisor may help a financial institution to get stories on business-crucial statistics change by doing right here:

  • enabling Oracle quality Grained Auditing (FGA) or an identical audit mechanism 

  • compiling and integrating a list of accredited database clients. this might enable to notice data modification performed by way of unapproved bills, which may well be alerted to through a SIEM solution.

  • Abuse of the Society for worldwide Interbank monetary Telecommunication gadget

    To be able to circulation large quantities of cash into controlled accounts, the attackers abused the Society for international Interbank economic Telecommunication gadget. A neatly-configured SIEM solution could make sure a constant monitoring of all crucial fiscal functions. If a particular utility weren’t supported through QRadar out-of-the-container, appropriate parsing, mapping and categorization can be developed. once customized information is properly normalized, a SIEM answer would be in a position to realize abnormal funds transfers with anomaly correlation rules, if here are proper:

  • a single account has transferred over the restrict

  • a single account has made many small transfers to at least one or a couple of particular debts

  • a complete quantity of transfers from one account in a particular timeframe handed the limit
  • many bills made transfers to the identical goal account in a selected duration

  • that you could thwart it

    The case we’ve just analyzed proves that agencies don't seem to be helpless in their combat in opposition t APTs. it can sound strange, but at the same time as sophisticated as they are, APTs have their weakness hiding within the letter “P.” Persistence, which is probably the most problematic to take care of, truly potential that attackers go away loads of traces at some point of their attacks. consequently security administrators smartly-armed with a principal SIEM answer have multiple touchpoints to detect intruders and forestall them before their unlawful actions cause dramatic statistics and funds losses.

    This submit become backed via ScienceSoft. The content turned into created via Dmitry Nikalayenia, SIEM branch Coordinator for ScienceSoft and a visitor contributor to Gigaom.

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    Surfline Accepts Strategic Investment from Kevin O'Connor | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps


    Surfline, the world's leading action sports website, today announced it has accepted a strategic round of financing from prominent Internet pioneer, Kevin O'Connor, who will also been joining the Surfline board of directors.

    Kevin was the co-founder, CEO and Chairman of DoubleClick, Inc. (NASDAQ: DCLK), the leading provider of ad serving technology on the Internet. DoubleClick was recently acquired by Google for over $3 billion. In addition, Kevin has helped launch numerous leading software entities, including ICC and Internet Security Systems (NASDAQ: ISSX) -- a business that was sold to IBM in 2006 for $1.3 billion. Kevin has also been an investor and advisor to companies like 1800flowers.com and Hotjobs, which was acquired by Yahoo in 2002.

    "We look forward to Kevin's involvement in helping us grow Surfline across the globe," said Chairman Jeff Berg. "Kevin's skill sets with Internet businesses are matched by his passion as a surfer and Surfline Premium Member. This opportunistic round of financing, along with Kevin's capabilities and interests, will allow us to invest more aggressively in a number of initiatives that will make our sites more functional and enjoyable for surfers, ocean enthusiasts and others worldwide."

    ABOUT SURFLINESurfline/Wavetrak Inc. is the world's leading collection of water enthusiast websites, all of which combine proprietary conditions-reporting and forecasting with timely news, information and entertainment. The sites are aimed at the core of each sport, yet they include content that appeals to a broader lifestyle audience as well. As a group, Surfline websites are visited are by over 1.5 million unique people each month.

    The Best Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) Tools and Techniques | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This article breaks down the best OSINT tools, techniques, resources and websites available online for every stage of intelligence gathering process. From background reading, to organising your research and getting the best out of search engines, Intelligence Fusion has created the ultimate list of open source intelligence tools.

    We’ll cover the following;

  • What is OSINT?
  • The Best OSINT Websites for Background Reading
  • OSINT Techniques to Organise your Thoughts
  • Setting up Automated Alerts using OSINT Tools
  • OSINT Tools for Social Media
  • OSINT Techniques: Getting the Best out of Search Engines
  • Platforms and Dashboards for Open Source Intelligence
  • OSINT Websites for Online News Media
  • Other Useful OSINT Tools
  • What is OSINT?

    Open source intelligence, or OSINT, is the collection and analysis of information that is gathered from public, or open, sources.

    The Best OSINT Websites for Background Reading

    1. academia.edu

    This is a platform used to share papers, monitor their impact, and follow the research in a particular field. Academia.edu currently has over 21 million papers.

    2. CORE (COnnecting REpositories)

    CORE promotes free and unrestricted access to research outputs from repositories and journals worldwide. The public can search through a collection of over 125 millions of harvested research outputs which can be downloaded free of charge.

    3. Library of Congress

    The Library of Congress is the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, newspapers, maps and manuscripts in its collections.

    4. Open Knowledge Maps

    Open Knowledge Maps presents you with a topical overview of your search term. It’s based on the 100 most relevant documents for your search term, which allows you to easily identify useful, pertinent information.

    5. WolframAlpha

    WolframAlpha is an online service that answers factual queries directly by computing the answer from externally sourced “curated data”, unlike a search engine that provides a list of documents or web pages that might contain the answer the searcher is looking for.

    6. BASE

    BASE is one of the world’s most voluminous search engines especially for academic web resources. BASE provides more than 120 million documents from more than 6,000 sources. You can access the full texts of about 60% of the indexed documents for free.

    7. Google Scholar

    Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

    8. Disputed Territories

    This map identifies the locations and territories that are claimed by more than one country or occupying force.

    OSINT Techniques to Organise your Thoughts

    1. Microsoft OneNote

    Microsoft OneNote is a free-form information gathering and multi-user collaboration. It gathers users’ notes, drawings, screen clippings and audio commentaries and allows your OSINT resources to be easily shared amongst other users online.

    Setting up Automated Alerts using OSINT Tools

    1. Google Alerts

    Google Alerts is a content change detection and notification service that can be used as an open source intelligence tool. It will send emails to you when it finds new results matching your specified search term.

    2. Talkwalker Alerts

    Talkwalker is an alternative free alert system to Google Alerts that offers a higher level of customisation on alerts and notifications. Talkwalker can also monitor social media mentions of your specified search term.

    OSINT Tools for Social Media

    1. Seek A Tweet

    Seekatweet is designed to help you find relevant tweets in a specific location. You can use their tailored filtering as an OSINT tool to find Tweets near you or anywhere else in the world.

    2. One Million Tweet Map

    The one million tweet map is a social media tool that you can use to visualise tweets and aggregated Twitter data in a world map. It can be useful when conduction real-time OSINT investigations.

    3. Tweeplers

    Tweepler is a real time map of tweets coming from various locations. The tweets shown on the map are only the fresh tweets. They are displayed as soon as received. No tweet location is older than a fraction of a minute.

    4. Hashatit.com

    Hashatit.com is a social search engine for hashtags. You can search tags across all social media platforms, bringing everything relevant to your OSINT research to one place in real time.

    5. Mulpix

    An advanced Instagram search engine, Mulpix makes searching Instagram as an OSINT technique even easier through the leverage of searching via multiple hashtags.

    6. Picodash

    Picodash is another Instagram search engine OSINT tool to help you to search and analyse Instagram content by location and hashtags.

    7. Echosec

    Echosec is a location-based social media geofencing platform that analyses data in real-time to support retail, journalists, marketers and security teams as an open source intelligence tool.

    8. TweetDeck

    TweetDeck is a social media dashboard application for management of Twitter accounts. OSINT analysts can create live feeds of tweets to monitor specified hashtags, handles or mentions.

    OSINT Techniques: Getting the Best out of Search Engines

    1. Carrot²

    Carrot² is an open source search results clustering engine. It can automatically cluster small collections of documents, for example search results or document abstracts, into thematic categories

    2. Newslookup.com

    Newslookup.com is a news search engine, news headline, news feed and news services provider that crawls several thousand news media sites providing time based live run down of headlines by region, topic or person.

    3. Cluuz

    Cluuz is a search engine that can be used as a really useful OSINT tool. Cluuz shows not only links to related pages, but also entities and images that are extracted from within the search results. In addition to the results, Cluuz displays a tag cloud of the most relevant entities extracted from returned results.

    Platforms and Dashboards for Open Source Intelligence

    1. HealthMap

    HealthMap brings together disparate data sources to achieve a unified and comprehensive view of the current global state of infectious diseases.

    2. Investigative Database

    The Investigative Database allows open source analysts to browse their global index of public registries for companies, land registries and courts as well as search millions of documents and datasets, from public sources, leaks and investigations.

    3. IBM Watson News Explorer

    The IBM Watson News Explorer automatically constructs a news information network and presents large volumes of news results in an understandable fashion.

    4. Human Trafficking Search

    HTS produces a weekly blog, publishes research, and hosts a global resource database on human trafficking and modern-day slavery.

    5. Marine Traffic

    MarineTraffic is a provider of ship tracking and maritime intelligence. Monitoring vessel movements to build a base of data gathered from our network of coastal AIS-receiving stations, supplemented by satellite receivers.

    6. Iris

    Iris is an application developed by the World Customs Organisation that monitors open source information and presents this information in a graphic-style world map in real-time.

    7. ICC Live Piracy Report

    This live map from ICC shows all of the piracy and armed robbery incidents reported to IMB Piracy Reporting Centre.

    8. ACLED

    ACLED is a realtime data and analysis source on political violence and protest. As an OSINT tool, analysts and researched can use ACLED for the latest reliable information on current conflict and disorder patterns.

    OSINT Websites for Online News Media

    1. NewsNow

    NewsNow aims to be the world’s most accurate and comprehensive world news aggregator, bringing you the latest global current affairs headlines

    2. Allyoucanread.com

    AllYouCanRead.com is the largest database of magazines and newspapers on the Internet, with listings for about 25,000 magazines, newspapers and top news sites from all over the world.

    3. Newspaper Map

    Newspaper map is a free webapp that helps you find over 10,000 of the world’s online newspapers, and in many cases get to their Google translations in one click.

    4. Distill Web Monitor

    Monitor webpage or feed for changes asn an open source intelligence tool. Distill runs in your browser to check monitored pages for changes and can send you instant alerts via SMS or email as soon as a change is detected.

    5. Feedly

    Feedly is a news aggregator application that can be used to compiles news feeds from a variety of OSINT websites, online sources and allows the you to customise and share with others users online.

    Other Useful OSINT Tools

    Additional tools that can be used as part of an OSINT framework can be found below.

    As part of our open source intelligence course, we provide extensive training on the most effective way to use these OSINT tools as well as an impressive and diverse range of additional modules, all built using real-life experiences from our ex-military and intelligence expert team.

    1. IntelTechniques and Image Search

    2. Tineye

    3. Invid

    4. Maltego

    5. Way Back Machine

    6. Transparency International

    7. Globalsecurity.org

    8. Naval Open Source Intelligence

    9. TerraServer

    10. Relief Web

    11. Tripadvisor

    12. Police Sites

    13. CIA Factbook

    14. FBI Vault

    15. OSAC Report

    16. Global Terrorism Database

    17. Bellingcat

    18. Reddit

    Intelligence Fusion uses these sources, teamed with military-grade processes and structure to enable a new way of thinking, encouraging analysts to adapt alternative mindsets to better discover, evaluate and understand threats of every kind.

    Our OSINT training course can be adapted to clients’ requirements and tailored to meet bespoke requests. We have the capacity to conduct face to face training, across the globe, or alternatively, we can also deliver the open source ntelligence course remotely.

    If you’d like further insight into what our training programme consists of, you can download a selection of slides from our standard training modules by clicking here.

    T1ρ and T2 Mapping of the Intervertebral Disk: Comparison of Different Methods of Segmentation | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intervertebral disk biochemical composition could be accessed in vivo by T1ρ and T2 relaxometry. We found no studies in the literature comparing different segmentation methods for data extraction using these techniques. Our aim was to compare different manual segmentation methods used to extract T1ρ and T2 relaxation times of intervertebral disks from MR imaging. Seven different methods of partial-disk segmentation techniques were compared with whole-disk segmentation as the reference standard.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sagittal T1ρ and T2 maps were generated by using a 1.5T MR imaging scanner in 57 asymptomatic volunteers 20–40 years of age. Two hundred eighty-five lumbar disks were separated into 2 groups: nondegenerated disk (Pfirrmann I and II) and degenerated disk (Pfirrmann III and IV). In whole-disk segmentation, the disk was segmented in its entirety on all sections. Partial-disk segmentation methods included segmentation of the disk into 6, 5, 4, 3, and 1 sagittal sections. Circular ROIs positioned in the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus were also used to extract T1ρ and T2, and data were compared with whole-disk segmentation

    RESULTS: In the nondegenerated group, segmentation of ≥5 sagittal sections showed no statistical difference with whole-disk segmentation. All the remaining partial-disk segmentation methods and circular ROIs showed different results from whole-disk segmentation (P < .001). In the degenerated disk group, all methods were statistically similar to whole-disk segmentation. All partial-segmentation methods, including circular ROIs, showed strong linear correlation with whole-disk segmentation in both the degenerated and nondegenerated disk groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Manual segmentation showed strong reproducibility for T1ρ and T2 and strong linear correlation between partial- and whole-disk segmentation. Absolute T1ρ and T2 values extracted from different segmentation techniques were statistically different in disks with Pfirrmann grades I and II.

    ABBREVIATIONS: AAF anterior annulus fibrosus AF annulus fibrosus CROI circular ROIs ICC intraclass correlation coefficient NP nucleus pulposus PAF posterior annulus fibrosus PDS partial-disk segmentation WDS whole-disk segmentation

    MR imaging is considered the best noninvasive method to study intervertebral disks. MR imaging allows the visualization of clearly different anatomic disk subregions, including the nucleus pulposus (NP) and the annulus fibrosus (AF).1,2 However, routine clinical images provide a qualitative or semiquantitative assessment made by an expert.3 The need for a better understanding of physiologic and pathologic processes in the disk led to the application of quantitative techniques in MR imaging such as T1ρ and T2 mapping.3,4

    For the extraction of quantitative data from a given region of interest, it is necessary to perform segmentation procedures that involve selecting the region to be analyzed.5 This segmentation can be manual, semiautomatic, or automatic. In studies assessing the lumbar intervertebral disk composition, different authors used different methods to perform disk segmentation with subsequent data extraction. The most common method in the literature with regard to T1ρ and T2 is to acquire small regions of interest that are anatomically based.6⇓⇓–9 Authors have used standard ROIs, delineating subregions within the intervertebral disk to extract quantitative data specifically from the NP and AF.6,7 Additional intermediate ROIs on boundaries between the nucleus and annulus have also been used.8,9 In the latter, intermediate ROIs were implemented to compensate for the increased steps for segmentation in each image. These studies analyzed a limited number of MR imaging sections. The segmentation using a few MR imaging sections and regional ROIs allows the extraction of data more quickly than segmenting the whole intervertebral disk. Other authors chose to perform the segmentation of the disk as a whole, with the region of interest covering the NP and AF simultaneously.10,11 The use of segmentation of only the central MR imaging sagittal section to extract quantitative data from the intervertebral disk is also very common in the literature.12,13

    The intervertebral disk structure is nonuniform with differences in hydration and collagen content between NP and AF. Therefore, the extraction of different T1ρ and T2 relaxation times may be expected depending on the segmentation method used.10,14 Despite the potential importance of using different segmentation methods in the evaluation of the intervertebral disk composition, we have not found studies comparing the accuracy, reliability, and reproducibility of the results generated by different segmentation methods. Our hypothesis is that partial segmentation of intervertebral disks, especially through standard geometric regional ROIs, will result in the extraction of different T1ρ and T2 relaxation times compared with full segmentation.

    Materials and Methods Population Sample

    This study was approved by the institutional review board. The volunteers were recruited through institutional review board–approved local advertisement and were selected on the basis of the inclusion criteria. We recruited 57 asymptomatic adults (25 men and 32 women), with a mean age of 26.54 ± 5.0 years (range, 20–40 years); mean height, 1.69 ± 0.08 m (1.53–1.90 m); mean weight, 67.52 ± 13.85 kg (range, 46.5–105 kg); and mean body mass index, 23.5 ± 3.4 kg/m2 (range, 15.9–30.3 kg/m2). The inclusion criteria for the volunteers were the following: 20–40 years of age with an Oswestry Dysfunction Index score <10. Volunteers with persistent low back pain for at least 6 months; an Oswestry Dysfunction Index score >10; or previous spinal pathology, significant scoliosis, or surgery were excluded from the study.

    All 5 lumbar disks of the 57 volunteers were studied; therefore, we evaluated 285 disks. The intervertebral disks were graded according to the Pfirrmann et al classification.14 After classification by the Pfirrmann grading system, we divided the intervertebral disks into 2 subgroups: nondegenerated (grades I and II) = 224 disks and degenerated (grades III and IV) = 61 disks. In our sample, we found no grade V intervertebral disks according to the Pfirrmann et al classification.

    MR Imaging

    All MR imaging examinations were performed by using a 1.5T scanner (Achieva; Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands). We used a 16-channel spine coil (SENSE-SPINE; Philips). Volunteers were kept still in a supine position with the lower limbs extended and relaxed. The study protocol included a 2D fast spin-echo sequence with the following characteristics: orientation = sagittal, FOV = 22 × 22 cm, thickness = 4 mm, number of sections = 16, matrix = 256 × 256 and no intersection gap. For the segmentation process, we acquired a T2-weighted sagittal sequence, with TE = 120 ms and TR = 3900 ms. Spin-echo sequences were acquired to generate quantitative T1ρ and T2 maps. We used the following parameters—T2 multiecho sequence: TE = 20/40/60/80/100/120/140/160 ms and TR = 3000 ms; T1ρ multilocker times sequence: TE = 20 ms, TR = 2000 ms, Tlock = 2/10/20/40/60 ms. The total MR imaging acquisition time was 13 minutes.

    Image Evaluation

    The Display software (McConell Brain Imaging Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) was used for image analysis and segmentation. The segmentation process was performed on the sagittal plane according to the illustrations in Figs 1 and 2. The segmentation of 285 disks was performed by 2 independent and blinded observers, taking care not to include regions of subchondral bone. They were previously trained for 2 months in manual spinal MR imaging segmentation and were supervised by a senior radiologist with 15 years' experience in musculoskeletal radiology and spine MR imaging. First, full manual segmentation of the whole intervertebral disk, encompassing NP and AF, for each disk in all 12 sections was performed for all lumbar disks of each volunteer (whole-disk segmentation [WDS]). Partial-disk segmentation (PDS) methods were performed by using 6 different techniques according to the illustration in Fig 1 by using the following: 6 sections (PDS-6), 5 sections (PDS-5A and PDS-5B), 4 sections (PDS-4), 3 sections (PDS-3), and only 1 central section (PDS-1). Extraction of T1ρ and T2 relaxation times was also performed by using 3 circular ROIs (CROI) placed on the NP, anterior annulus fibrosus (AAF), and posterior annulus fibrosus (PAF) by using 3 distinct sagittal sections as shown in Fig 2. The most central region of the NP was marked by using a region of interest with an area of 26.77 mm2. This region was labeled regardless of the presence or absence of a nuclear cleft. ROIs with 12.75 mm2 each were used in the regions of AAF and PAF. We placed ROIs on the most anterior and posterior regions of the annulus, avoiding selecting the transition regions between the AF and NP.

    Fig 1.

    On the left is a sagittal T2-weighted image representing the segmented region of the intervertebral disk. On the right is the number of sections used in partial segmentation methods. A, Whole-disk segmentation. B, Partial-disk segmentation using 6 sections (PDS-6). C, Partial-disk segmentations using 5 sections, method A (PDS-5A). D, Partial disk segmentation using 5 sections, method B (PDS-5B). E, Partial-disk segmentation using 4 sections (PDS-4). F, Partial disk segmentation using 3 sections (PDS-3). G, Partial-disk segmentation using 1 central section (PDS-1).

    Fig 2.

    A, The CROI subregions are indicated in a T2-weighted image in the sagittal plane of a volunteer: blue for the nucleus pulposus, red for the anterior annulus fibrosus, and yellow for the posterior annulus fibrosus. B, Axial image in which the CROI method was used.

    The main researcher was the first observer, responsible for the segmentation of all 285 lumbar disks. One hundred disks were randomly selected for intra- and interobserver reproducibility analysis, 50 from the degenerated group and 50 from the nondegenerated group. These disks were segmented a second time by the first and second observer with an interval of 2 months after the first segmentation.

    Statistical Analysis

    The analysis of intra- and interobserver variability was performed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with 99% confidence intervals for all lumbar levels.

    To analyze the distribution of T2 and T1ρ relaxation times, the Shapiro-Wilk test (99% significance level) was used for each segmentation method. The WDS was chosen as the reference standard with which all PDS methods and CROI were compared. Repeated-measures ANOVA with the Dunnett posttest was used for parametric samples. For the nonparametric samples, we used the Friedman test with the Dunn posttest. P values < .05 were statistically significant. We also performed a linear regression and correlation to verify that the relaxation times of partial segmentation methods showed a linear relationship to the WDS values. For statistical analysis and for the creation of graphs and tables, we used GraphPad Prism software, Version 5 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, California). To calculate the ICC, we used SPSS, Version 20 (IBM, Armonk, New York).


    The values of T2 and T1ρ relaxation times of the regions of the disk are shown in Table 1. In the nondegenerated group, in both T2 and T1ρ mapping, the methods PDS-6 and PDS-5B showed the average nearest to WDS, also with a lower SD. In the segmentation techniques with fewer sections, the average relaxation times extracted were more distanced from the results obtained with WDS and had a larger SD. In the degenerated disk subgroup, on the other hand, the values obtained from both T2 and T1ρ mappings were similar and did not differ statistically between the WDS, PDS, and CROI.

    Table 1:

    Values of the T2 and T1ρ relaxation times (ms) expressed as average and SD for each experimental method (n = 285 disks)

    In Tables 2 and 3 are the results of intraclass correlation coefficients and confidence intervals for each technique in the nondegenerated and degenerated groups. The ICC was higher for T1ρ and T2 in the NP and whole disk than for AAF and PAF. These results of intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility were similar between degenerated and nondegenerated disk groups.

    Table 2:

    ICCs and 99% CIs for intra-and interobserver analysis of quantitative techniques (n = 50) used in the nondegenerated group

    Table 3:

    ICCs and 99% CIs for intra- and interobserver analysis of quantitative techniques (n = 50) used in the degenerated group

    The ANOVA test for T2 relaxometry and the Friedman test for T1ρ relaxometry were used to evaluate whether the relaxation times obtained by different segmentation methods were similar. Our results showed statistically significant differences between the results of different segmentation techniques of nondegenerated cases (T2: P < .0001, F = 74.33; T1ρ: P < .0001, Friedman = 299.2). The exception occurred for the PDS-6 and PDS-5B methods, in which relaxation times extracted for both T2 and for the T1ρ were not statistically different from those of WDS. The degenerated group showed a different behavior, in which there was no statistical difference among WDS, PDS, and CROI for both T2 (P = .45, F = 0.97) and T1ρ mapping (P = .14, Friedman = 64.41).

    Table 4 presents the correlations between the partial-segmentation methods and WDS. The R values were higher in the methods that used more sections. Comparing T1ρ and T2 mapping, one could see that the values of T2 relaxation times were discretely more scattered compared with those of T1ρ relaxation times. In both mappings, the number of sections used decreased and the confidence intervals were larger. All methods also showed a significant positive correlation with WDS (Table 4) (P < .0001). The values were much higher in NP compared with AF in the nondegenerated group for the both T1ρ and T2 relaxometry. In the degenerated disk group, the relaxation times of NP and AF had a more similar behavior in relation to the whole disk. This result was more evident for T1ρ mapping.

    Table 4:

    Correlation between whole-disk and partial-disk segmentation methodsa


    In this research, we studied different techniques of extraction of T2 and T1ρ relaxation times from the lumbar intervertebral disks and compared various PDS methods with the WDS. Our results suggest that the choice of the segmentation method can influence the absolute results obtained. For practical reasons, most previous studies have used small geometric ROIs for degenerative disk disease.9,15 We did not find any previous study in vivo that explored the segmentation of the intervertebral disk to its full extent.

    Our results (Tables 2 and 3) showed a high intra- and interobserver reproducibility for T2 and T1ρ, both for the nondegenerated and degenerated groups. The intra- and interobserver ICCs were stronger for NP and WDS. AF ICC values were moderate because the placement of ROIs in AF tends to be a bit more difficult. This is especially true in cases of severely degenerated disks, when the border zone between the NP and AF becomes indistinct with progressive incorporation of nucleus pulposus material into the interior of the annular lamellae.16⇓–18

    PDS-6 and PDS-5B results for T2 and T1ρ were statistically similar to those of WDS in the nondegenerated group. Our results suggest that about 50% of the disk structure needs to be segmented so that the results would be comparable with those extracted via WDS on intervertebral disks with Pfirrmann grades I and II. As previously described in the literature,3,11,19 if the extraction of T2 and T1ρ emphasizes the central sections, it may overestimate the glycosaminoglycan content of the disk.

    In the degenerated disk group, partial segmentation methods and CROI showed results similar to those of the full segmentation. This outcome may have occurred by the accentuated loss of proteoglycans and water and replacement by type I collagen in NP.20 Thus, in degenerated disks, the relaxation time of NP became very close to that of AF because the disk composition becomes more homogeneous.15,21

    In cases of severe scoliosis, disk degeneration may occur unevenly in different regions of the disk.22⇓–24 The presence of volunteers with scoliosis could potentially affect our results of comparison between different segmentation techniques, but it did not occur because we had no case of scoliosis. Panoramic radiographs were available for each case due to another research project in progress from our group. The presence of osteophytes should also be considered carefully so that the segmentation does not encompass these regions.25 Other accentuated postural changes, vertebral fractures, listhesis, or extruded disk herniation could also result in uneven disk degeneration,24,26 so that using only central sagittal sections for data extraction could result in a different composition assessment of the disk. Our sample had no volunteer with deformities, fractures, or disk herniation.

    Our results support the use of partial segmentation methods in the study of intervertebral disk composition because PDS and CROI methods showed, in general, excellent correlation to the WDS method (Table 4). However, the comparison among results of different studies that used different segmentation methods should be done with caution.15,27 Our results demonstrate that the use of different segmentation techniques may result in measurement of different values of intervertebral disk relaxation times.

    Regarding the comparison of our results with the literature, the NP T2 relaxation times were very close to those reported in previous studies.9,28,29 For the AF T2, our results were similar to those of Stelzeneder et al28 and Welsch et al,29 and slightly higher than those of Trattnig et al.9 With respect to the T1ρ relaxation times, the values encountered for the NP and AF in our study were lower than those found in the literature.12,30⇓–32 We hypothesize that at least in part, this difference may be due to different magnetic field strengths, because most of the previous studies used 3T MR imaging.12,31,32 In common with authors of other studies, we found that a greater degree of degeneration implies lower T2 and T1ρ relaxation times.

    When we compared the individual relaxation times of NP, AAF, and PAF, all 3 regions showed statistical correlation with the WDS values. In the nondegenerated group, the NP values had a stronger correlation with WDS, suggesting that their influence on the relaxation time of the whole disk is larger than that from AF, as has already been described in the literature.19,20 The annulus fibrosus also follows the uniform changes of the whole disk, but less than the nucleus.33 However, in the degenerated group, the relaxation times of NP and AF showed a more similar behavior in relation to the whole disk. Antoniou et al21 used MR imaging quantitative techniques and also a mechanical test to study the intervertebral disks and found similarities in the NP and AF behavior over the degenerative processes. This finding shows that both regions are affected evenly, especially at the beginning of the degeneration. This phenomenon was more evident in T1ρ mapping because this method has proved more affinity with loss of proteoglycan content, which has been suggested as a major trigger of the degenerative process, resulting in a low relaxation time.12,13

    Most studies in the literature preferred segmentation of NP and AF individually.28⇓⇓⇓–32,34 In intervertebral disks with Pfirrmann grades I and II, segmenting these structures separately usually makes it possible to distinguish them better. If the degeneration increases to grades III and IV, this distinction becomes more difficult.14 Thus, a relative advantage of performing segmentation of the whole area or the whole volume of the disk is to enable a more secure comparison among disks with different degrees of degeneration.

    A relative limitation of our study is that we included only young and asymptomatic volunteers; therefore, the results may not be extended to the symptomatic population. We also did not have Pfirrmann grade V intervertebral disks. This probably is not an important practical limitation in the research field because composition studies from quantitative MR imaging are less likely to be applied to severely degenerated disks.

    Numerous researchers have used quantitative MR imaging to improve the understanding of intervertebral disk degeneration. During the past 10 years, the use of quantitative MR imaging techniques, especially T2 and T1ρ relaxometry, have allowed the evaluation of the intervertebral disk composition in vivo. However, the lack of standardization for data collection may impair the comparison of results from different studies. Despite the growing importance of relaxometry for in vivo evaluation of intervertebral disk biochemical composition and disk degeneration, we did not find studies concerned with the comparison of different segmentation techniques. When one envisions future research about the etiology and risk factors for disk degeneration, the standardization of T2 and T1ρ mapping may assume a great importance.


    Manual segmentation showed strong reproducibility for degenerated and nondegenerated disks. The segmentation methods we compared showed excellent linear correlation with each other. Absolute T1ρ and T2 values extracted from different segmentation techniques were statistically different in intervertebral disks with Pfirrmann grades I and II.


    The authors acknowledge the funding support from CNPq, CAPES and FINEP.

  • Disclosures: Rafael Menezes-Reis—RELATED: Grant: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Comments: Masters scholarship; Support for Travel to Meetings for the Study or Other Purposes: Council for Scientific and Technological Development, Comments: support provided by CNPq. Camila Silva de Carvalho—RELATED: Grant: scientific initiation scholarship from R-USP, Comments: from August 1, 2012, to July 31, 2013, $400.00. Gustavo P. Bonugli—UNRELATED: Board Membership: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. Christine B. Chung—UNRELATED: Grants/Grants Pending: National Institutes of Health,* Comments: NIDCR TMJ grant. Marcello H. Nogueira-Barbosa—RELATED: Grant: FINEP,* Comments: funding sources: Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Brazil, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. *Money paid to the institution.

  • Received June 30, 2014.
  • Accepted after revision August 15, 2014.

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