|Exam Name||:||High Availability for AIX - Technical Support and Administration -v2|
|Questions and Answers||:||135 Q & A|
|Updated On||:||February 22, 2019|
|PDF Download Mirror||:||Pass4sure 000-332 Dump|
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000-332 exam Dumps Source : High Availability for AIX - Technical Support and Administration -v2
Test Code : 000-332
Test Name : High Availability for AIX - Technical Support and Administration -v2
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 135 Real Questions
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Utility storage enterprise extends aid for IBM HACMP
Fremont, Calif., Jan. 31, 2007--3PAR® introduced today 3PAR InServ® Storage Server guide for IBM® high Availability Cluster Multi-Processing for AIX (HACMP). HACMP cluster expertise is IBM's flagship high-availability know-how that provides monitoring, failure detection, and automated recuperation of business functions on IBM AIX servers. For the first time, HACMP consumers can deploy Utility Storage -- an easy, within your budget, and vastly scalable storage platform -- to complement their mission-vital AIX environments.
IBM’s AIX working system is the strategic platform of choice for many companies with mission-important environments where downtime can result in lost earnings, customer dissatisfaction, and popularity harm. To evade these issues, businesses regularly deploy high-availability cluster applied sciences comparable to HACMP in conjunction with particularly attainable, excessive-conclusion storage techniques. youngsters, however these storage methods can offer high ranges of storage efficiency, scalability, and high availability, they're expensive to put into effect and can be complicated to manage. As an alternative, corporations may also choose more not pricey dual-controller, midrange storage -- however in doing so, they compromise availability and face accelerated downtime possibility.
3PAR Utility Storage resolves this catch 22 situation by way of providing a particularly attainable, vastly scalable, clustered structure that can provide excessive and predictable stages of efficiency -- even beneath failure situations -- for much less cost than high-end arrays. This contains strong far off replication capabilities, via 3PAR far off replica, for disaster restoration of AIX environments. moreover, 3PAR Multipath I/O (MPIO) for IBM AIX offers simple and effective course failover and healing for top-availability environments.
3PAR Utility Storage introduces absolutely new levels of simplicity and efficiency to particularly accessible AIX environments. for instance, 3PAR skinny Provisioning enables one-time provisioning of mission-vital logical storage to AIX systems whereas cutting back deployed physical means by way of 50 % or greater. 3PAR digital copy, developed on thin replica expertise, permits users to take hundreds of reservationless, non-duplicative snapshots of mission-vital statistics sets, providing low-budget entry to many feasible recovery aspects.
3PAR InServ Storage Server guide for IBM HACMP know-how is at the moment available with IBM system p5 servers.
3PAR is a issuer of utility storage, a simple, efficient, and massively scalable tiered-storage array for utility computing that lets clients serve more with much less. For more assistance, talk over with http://www.3par.com.
IRVINE, Calif., Jan. 30, 2006 (PRIMEZONE) -- imaginative and prescient options, a number one excessive availability answer issuer to the global 5000, today announced that its ORION(tm) for AIX has got good honors in TechTarget's Search four hundred.com fabricated from the yr Awards in the high Availability category.
TechTarget award winners are chosen with the aid of a panel that contains Search400 editorial personnel, clients, trade experts and analysts. The products are judged by way of criteria that contains innovation, efficiency, ease of use, ease of integration into current environments, manageability and cost.
"we are very comfortable that ORION for AIX has been recognized as iSeries' excessive Availability manufactured from the year," spoke of Henry Martinez, Chief technology Officer of vision solutions. "ORION for AIX is a modern product for the AIX atmosphere offering high availability readily of use, simple administration and help for AIX on pSeries and iSeries platforms. All of this interprets to surprising consumer value."
because ORION for AIX is non-intrusive to the AIX kernel, installing, configuration, management and quandary-shooting are specifically handy and the subject of introducing further protection considerations is reduced. No AIX working equipment patches are required to assist the solution, making for less complexity with full-functionality. additionally, ORION for AIX is the best solution available on the market to assist AIX on an iSeries/i5/OS hosted partition. This helps server consolidation, growing the chance to stream critical UNIX company purposes onto a single iSeries platform.
"ORION for AIX is a great innovation to replicate AIX-hosted partitions on the iSeries," noted one award decide. "This new product continues tempo with IBM's clustering method for the iSeries. The product's performance for AIX partitions make for ease of use and integration that in fact stood out to the judging panel."
About imaginative and prescient options
vision solutions, headquartered in Irvine, CA, is a leading excessive availability answer issuer to the global 5000. With ORION(tm) utility, services and help, the enterprise promises options for protecting an organization's mission-essential functions and tips from planned and unplanned downtime. With greater than 2,000 shoppers and 12,000 licenses around the world, the enterprise works intently with a worldwide community of channel companions and IBM to bring world-category options. imaginative and prescient options is an IBM Premier business partner and an IBM high Availability company associate. vision options is a member of the publicly traded IDION community of corporations (JSE:IDI). For extra counsel on imaginative and prescient solutions, please consult with the enterprise's website at www.visionsolutions.com.
Search400.com is the main online useful resource for greater than a hundred and fifty,000 enterprise IT specialists who are searching for counsel on the latest iSeries technologies and considerations in order that they could make choices, analysis products and set strategies. The web page provides common information reviews, skilled guidance and interactive points for the iSeries community, and is the quantity-one source of iSeries e-newsletters, white papers and Webcasts. greater counsel can also be discovered at www.search400.com.vision solutions, Inc. Jennifer Brannon (949) 253-6543
Irvine, California, u.s.
http://www.visionsolutions.comimaginative and prescient solutions, Inc. Jennifer Brannon (949) 253-6543
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IRVINE, Calif., Jan. 30, 2006 (PRIMEZONE) -- Vision Solutions, a leading high availability solution provider to the Global 5000, today announced that its ORION(tm) for AIX has received top honors in TechTarget's Search 400.com Product of the Year Awards in the High Availability category.
TechTarget award winners are chosen by a panel that includes Search400 editorial staff, users, industry experts and analysts. The products are judged by criteria that includes innovation, performance, ease of use, ease of integration into existing environments, manageability and value.
"We are very pleased that ORION for AIX has been recognized as iSeries' High Availability product of the year," said Henry Martinez, Chief Technology Officer of Vision Solutions. "ORION for AIX is a revolutionary product for the AIX environment delivering high availability with ease of use, simple administration and support for AIX on pSeries and iSeries platforms. All of this translates to outstanding customer value."
Because ORION for AIX is non-intrusive to the AIX kernel, installation, configuration, management and trouble-shooting are exceptionally easy and the concern of introducing additional security issues is decreased. No AIX operating system patches are required to support the solution, making for less complexity with full-functionality. Furthermore, ORION for AIX is the only solution on the market to support AIX on an iSeries/i5/OS hosted partition. This supports server consolidation, creating the opportunity to move critical UNIX business applications onto a single iSeries platform.
"ORION for AIX is a great innovation to replicate AIX-hosted partitions on the iSeries," said one award judge. "This new product keeps pace with IBM's clustering strategy for the iSeries. The product's functionality for AIX partitions make for ease of use and integration that truly stood out to the judging panel."
About Vision Solutions
Vision Solutions, headquartered in Irvine, CA, is a leading high availability solution provider to the Global 5000. With ORION(tm) software, services and support, the company delivers solutions for protecting a company's mission-critical applications and information from planned and unplanned downtime. With more than 2,000 customers and 12,000 licenses around the world, the company works closely with a worldwide network of channel partners and IBM to deliver world-class solutions. Vision Solutions is an IBM Premier Business Partner and an IBM High Availability Business Partner. Vision Solutions is a member of the publicly traded IDION group of companies (JSE:IDI). For more information on Vision Solutions, please visit the company's website at www.visionsolutions.com.
Search400.com is the leading online resource for more than 150,000 enterprise IT professionals who seek information on the latest iSeries technologies and issues so they can make decisions, research products and set strategies. The site provides original news stories, expert advice and interactive features for the iSeries community, and is the number-one source of iSeries e-newsletters, white papers and Webcasts. More information can be found at www.search400.com.Vision Solutions, Inc. Jennifer Brannon (949) 253-6543
Irvine, California, UNITED STATES
http://www.visionsolutions.comVision Solutions, Inc. Jennifer Brannon (949) 253-6543
Even with the popularity of open source and Linux, commercial Unix platforms are still an important part of most data centers. The most widely used versions of Unix are IBM's AIX, Hewlett-Packard's HP-UX and Solaris from Oracle-Sun. In this tip, I offer an overview of recent enhancements made to each of these Unix distributions.IBM AIX
AIX 6 was released in November 2007 and updated in October 2009. AIX 7 was just released in August 2010. Since AIX 7 is brand new, I'll examine features of both versions.
AIX 6 and 7 are available in three editions:
AIX 6 introduced Workload Partitions (WPARs), software-based virtualization that allows multiple AIX environments to run on a single system. WPARs provide isolation from other processes and WPARs. Each WPAR may have unique administrator control, network addresses, file systems, users and groups. Processor and system resources are shared and apportioned between WPARs.
WPARs share a single global instance of AIX as compared with Logical Partitions (LPARs), each of which runs an independent copy of AIX. When the WPAR global instance is patched, all subordinate WPARs inherit the patch. AIX 7 adds Trusted Kernel Extensions, which can limit access to specific kernel extensions to particular WPARs. With Life Application Mobility, applications in a WPAR can be moved without stopping and re-starting, so workloads can be balanced across multiple systems.
AIX 6 also provides numerous security enhancements:
Availability enhancements in AIX 6 include:
AIX 7 introduces Cluster Aware, which provides commands and APIs to create clusters of individual AIX systems. These clusters may be managed as a single group, you can monitor events and disk space, and performance data for the entire cluster is available.
Also new in AIX 7 is the Event Infrastructure, used by Cluster Aware, which can monitor pre-defined system events.HP-UX
HP-UX 11i was originally released in 2000 and the latest major version is HP-UX 11i v3 (11.31), released in 2007. The latest update (6th) to 11.31 was in March 2010.
HP-UX is provided in one of four combinations of operating system and application bundles, called an operating environment (OE):
The Virtual Server Environment provides virtualization capabilities and workload management tools. Hardware and software isolation is achieved using a hard partition, or nPartition, which establishes boundaries that completely protect one virtual machine from any faults in another (including software, hardware or electrical faults). In HP-UX 11.31, dynamic nPartitions can be modified while the partition is in use.
Software-only isolation is achieved using a virtual partition, or vPar, which runs its own instance of HP-UX and has its own share of CPU, memory and I/O. HP-UX 11.31 introduces dynamic memory migration between vPars and allows mixed vPar versions within a single nPartition.
Dynamic Root Disk allows cloning and updating of a running root file system, assisting in system recovery and reducing downtime during upgrades.
Unified File Cache integrates the different mechanisms used for file caching: page cache and buffer cache. This eliminates the possibility of file system inconsistencies when using system calls that depend on differing mechanisms.
Encrypted Volume File System 2.0 provides AES encryption at the file or volume level. Security containment isolates system resources and provides fine-grained privileges and role-based access control.Oracle Solaris
Solaris 10 was first released in 2005. Updated releases are named by the month and year of release. The latest update, also called Update (U8), is Solaris 10 10/09, released in October 2009.
The Zettabyte File System (ZFS), introduced early in Solaris 10, can now support the root file system and be used to boot the system. Support for user- and group-level disk quotas has also been added to ZFS.
Solaris Zones and Solaris Containers provide virtualization and resource containment. Zones isolate one or more application services within the operating system. A Container is a Zone that also manages operating system resources to prevent one Zone from consuming all real system resources. Recently added resource management features allow CPU usage to be limited in multiple ways: fair-share, capped or dedicated. Memory and network bandwidth resources can also be managed.
A Zone may establish a separate instance of the TCP/IP networking stack through an Exclusive IP Zone, allowing the Zone to have a unique network configuration.
Logical domains (now called Oracle VM Server for SPARC) provide a higher level of virtualization abstraction. A logical domain runs a virtual machine within which an operating system can be booted, halted and rebooted (requires Solaris 10 11/06, U3, or later). Other operating systems supported by SPARC hardware may also be supported. Ubuntu Linux can be run in a logical domain.
Many security features previously available in a special release of Solaris called Trusted Solaris have been incorporated into the regular release as of Solaris 10 5/08 (U5). Solaris Trusted Extensions include fine-grained privileges using Mandatory Access Control for policy-based access to system resources such as devices, files, networks, printing and window management. User Rights Management provides role-based access control and complies with the Federal Information Processing Standard.
About the author: King Ables holds BA and MSc degrees in computer science and has worked in customer support, software development, systems and network administration, and user education. He has written numerous technical articles for online and print journals and is author or co-author of three books on Unix and Linux.
Establishing a usable database environment requires a great deal of skill, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will outline the principles involved in establishing a usable database environment.This chapter is from the book
One of the primary tasks associated with the job of DBA is the process of choosing and installing a DBMS. Unfortunately, many business executives and IT professionals without database management background assume that once the DBMS is installed, the bulk of the work is done. The truth is, choosing and installing the DBMS is hardly the most difficult part of a DBA’s job. Establishing a usable database environment requires a great deal of skill, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will outline the principles involved in establishing a usable database environment.
The process of choosing a suitable DBMS for enterprise database management is not as difficult as it used to be. The number of major DBMS vendors has dwindled due to industry consolidation and domination of the sector by a few very large players.
Yet, large and medium-size organizations typically run multiple DBMS products, from as few as two to as many as ten. For example, it is not uncommon for a large company to use IMS or IDMS and DB2 on the mainframe, Oracle and MySQL on several different UNIX servers, Microsoft SQL Server on Windows servers, as well as pockets of other DBMS products such as Sybase, Ingres, Adabas, and PostgreSQL on various platforms, not to mention single-user PC DBMS products such as Microsoft Access, Paradox, and FileMaker. Who chose to install all these DBMSs and why?
Unfortunately, often the answer is that not much thought and planning went into the decision-making process. Sometimes the decision to purchase and install a new DBMS is driven by a business need or a new application. This is reasonable if your organization has no DBMS and must purchase one for the first time. This is rarely the case, though. Regardless of whether a DBMS exists on-site, a new DBMS is often viewed as a requirement for a new application. Sometimes a new DBMS product is purchased and installed without first examining if the application could be successfully implemented using an existing DBMS. Or, more likely, the DBAs know the application can be implemented using an existing DBMS but lack the organizational power or support to reject a new DBMS proposal.
There are other reasons for the existence of multiple DBMS platforms in a single organization. Perhaps the company purchased a commercial off-the-shelf application package that does not run on any of the current DBMS platforms. Sometimes the decision to buy a new DBMS is driven by the desire to support the latest and greatest technology. For example, many mainframe shops moving from a hierarchic (IMS) or CODASYL (IDMS) database model to the relational model deployed DB2, resulting in an additional DBMS to learn and support. Then, when client/server computing became popular, additional DBMSs were implemented on UNIX, Linux, and Windows servers.
Once a DBMS is installed, removal can be difficult because of incompatibilities among the different DBMSs and the necessity of converting application code. Furthermore, when a new DBMS is installed, old applications and databases are usually not migrated to it. The old DBMS remains and must continue to be supported. This complicates the DBA’s job.
So what should be done? Well, the DBA group should be empowered to make the DBMS decisions for the organization. No business unit should be allowed to purchase a DBMS without the permission of the DBA group. This is a difficult provision to implement and even more difficult to enforce. Business politics often work against the DBA group because it frequently possesses less organizational power than other business executives.Choosing a DBMS
The DBA group should set a policy regarding the DBMS products to be supported within the organization. Whenever possible, the policy should minimize the number of different DBMS products. For a shop with multiple operating systems and multiple types of hardware, choose a default DBMS for the platform. Discourage deviation from the default unless a compelling business case exists—a business case that passes the technical inspection of the DBA group.
Most of the major DBMS products have similar features, and if the feature or functionality does not exist today, it probably will within 18 to 24 months. So, exercise caution before deciding to choose a DBMS based solely on its ability to support a specific feature.
When choosing a DBMS, it is wise to select a product from a tier-1 vendor as listed in Table 2.1. Tier 1 represents the largest vendors having the most heavily implemented and supported products on the market. You cannot go wrong with DB2 or Oracle. Both are popular and support just about any type of database. Another major player is Microsoft SQL Server, but only for Windows platforms. DB2 and Oracle run on multiple platforms ranging from mainframe to UNIX, as well as Windows and even handheld devices. Choosing a DBMS other than these three should be done only under specific circumstances.Table 2.1. Tier-1 DBMS Vendors
New Orchard Road
Armonk, NY 10504
Phone: (914) 499-1900
500 Oracle Parkway
Redwood Shores, CA 94065
Phone: (650) 506-7000
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, WA 98052
Phone: (425) 882-8080
After the big three come MySQL, Sybase, Teradata, and Informix. Table 2.2 lists these tier-2 DBMS vendors. All of these offerings are quality DBMS products, but their installed base is smaller, their products are engineered and marketed for niche purposes, or the companies are smaller with fewer resources than the Big Three (IBM, Oracle, and Microsoft), so there is some risk in choosing a DBMS from tier 2 instead of tier 1. However, there may be solid reasons for deploying a tier-2 solution, such as the high performance offered by Informix or the data warehousing and analytics capabilities of Teradata.Table 2.2. Tier-2 DBMS Vendors
Informix Dynamic Server
New Orchard Road
Armonk, NY 10504
Phone: (914) 499-1900
Sybase Inc. (an SAP Company)
Adaptive Server Enterprise
6475 Christie Avenue
Emeryville, CA 94608
Phone: (510) 922-3500
10000 Innovation Drive
Dayton, OH 45342
Phone: (937) 242-4030
MySQL (a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation)
Phone: (208) 338-8100
Of course, there are other DBMS products on the market, many of which are fine products and worthy of consideration for specialty processing, certain predefined needs, and niche roles. If your company is heavily into the open-source software movement, PostgreSQL, EnterpriseDB, or MySQL might be viable options. If an object DBMS is important for a specific project, you might consider ObjectDesign or Versant. And there are a variety of NoSQL DBMS offerings available, too, such as Hadoop, Cassandra, and MongoDB.1
However, for the bulk of your data management needs, a DBMS from a tier-1, or perhaps tier-2, DBMS vendor will deliver sufficient functionality with minimal risk. A myriad of DBMS products are available, each with certain features that make them worthy of consideration on a case-by-case basis. Choosing any of the lower-tier candidates—even such major names as Software AG’s Adabas and Actian’s Ingres—involves incurring additional risk. Refer to Appendix B for a list of DBMS vendors.
I do not want it to sound as if the selection of a DBMS is a no-brainer. You will need a strategy and a plan for selecting the appropriate DBMS for your specific situation. When choosing a DBMS, be sure to consider each of these factors:
The Transaction Processing Performance Council is an independent, not-for-profit organization that manages and administers performance benchmark tests. Its mission is to define transaction processing and database benchmarks to provide the industry with objective, verifiable performance data. TPC benchmarks measure and evaluate computer functions and operations.
The definition of transaction espoused by the TPC is a business one. A typical TPC transaction includes the database updates for things such as inventory control (goods), airline reservations (services), and banking (money).
The benchmarks produced by the TPC measure performance in terms of how many transactions a given system and database can perform per unit of time, for example, number of transactions per second. The TPC defines three benchmarks:
Additional information and in-depth definitions of these benchmarks can be found at the TPC Web site at www.tpc.org (see Figure 2.1).
When choosing a DBMS, be sure to take into account the complexity of the products. DBMS software is very complex and is getting more complex with each new release. Functionality that used to be supported only with add-on software or independent programs is increasingly being added as features of the DBMS, as shown in Figure 2.2. You will need to plan for and support all the features of the DBMS. Even if there is no current requirement for certain features, once you implement the DBMS the programmers and developers will find a reason to use just about anything the vendor threw into it. It is better to plan and be prepared than to allow features to be used without a plan for supporting them.
Figure 2.2. Convergence of features and functionality in DBMS softwareDBMS Architectures
The supporting architecture for the DBMS environment is very critical to the success of the database applications. One wrong choice or poorly implemented component of the overall architecture can cause poor performance, downtime, or unstable applications.
When mainframes dominated enterprise computing, DBMS architecture was a simpler concern. Everything ran on the mainframe, and that was that. However, today the IT infrastructure is distributed and heterogeneous. The overall architecture—even for a mainframe DBMS—will probably consist of multiple platforms and interoperating system software. A team consisting of business and IT experts, rather than a single person or group, should make the final architecture decision. Business experts should include representatives from various departments, as well as from accounting and legal for software contract issues. Database administration representatives (DA, DBA, and SA), as well as members of the networking group, operating system experts, operations control personnel, programming experts, and any other interested parties, should be included in this team.
Furthermore, be sure that the DBMS you select is appropriate for the nature and type of processing you plan to implement. Four levels of DBMS architecture are available: enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile.
An enterprise DBMS is designed for scalability and high performance. An enterprise DBMS must be capable of supporting very large databases, a large number of concurrent users, and multiple types of applications. The enterprise DBMS runs on a large-scale machine, typically a mainframe or a high-end server running UNIX, Linux, or Windows Server. Furthermore, an enterprise DBMS offers all the “bells and whistles” available from the DBMS vendor. Multiprocessor support, support for parallel queries, and other advanced DBMS features are core components of an enterprise DBMS.
A departmental DBMS, sometimes referred to as a workgroup DBMS, serves the middle ground. The departmental DBMS supports small to medium-size workgroups within an organization; typically, it runs on a UNIX, Linux, or Windows server. The dividing line between a departmental database server and an enterprise database server is quite gray. Hardware and software upgrades can allow a departmental DBMS to tackle tasks that previously could be performed only by an enterprise DBMS. The steadily falling cost of departmental hardware and software components further contributes to lowering the total cost of operation and enabling a workgroup environment to scale up to serve the enterprise.
A personal DBMS is designed for a single user, typically on a low- to medium-powered PC platform. Microsoft Access, SQLite, and FileMaker2 are examples of personal database software. Of course, the major DBMS vendors also market personal versions of their higher-powered solutions, such as Oracle Database Personal Edition and DB2 Personal Edition. Sometimes the low cost of a personal DBMS results in a misguided attempt to choose a personal DBMS for a departmental or enterprise solution. However, do not be lured by the low cost. A personal DBMS product is suitable only for very small-scale projects and should never be deployed for multiuser applications.
Finally, the mobile DBMS is a specialized version of a departmental or enterprise DBMS. It is designed for remote users who are not usually connected to the network. The mobile DBMS enables local database access and modification on a laptop or handheld device. Furthermore, the mobile DBMS provides a mechanism for synchronizing remote database changes to a centralized enterprise or departmental database server.
A DBMS designed for one type of processing may be ill suited for other uses. For example, a personal DBMS is not designed for multiple users, and an enterprise DBMS is generally too complex for single users. Be sure to understand the differences among enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile DBMS software, and choose the appropriate DBMS for your specific data-processing needs. You may need to choose multiple DBMS types—that is, a DBMS for each level—with usage determined by the needs of each development project.
If your organization requires DBMS solutions at different levels, favor the selection of a group of DBMS solutions from the same vendor whenever possible. Doing so will minimize differences in access, development, and administration. For example, favor Oracle Database Personal Edition for your single-user DBMS needs if your organization uses Oracle as the enterprise DBMS of choice.DBMS Clustering
Clustering is the use of multiple “independent” computing systems working together as a single, highly available system. A modern DBMS offers clustering support to enhance availability and scalability. The two predominant architectures for clustering are shared-disk and shared-nothing. These names do a good job of describing the nature of the architecture—at least at a high level.
Shared-nothing clustering is depicted in Figure 2.3. In a shared-nothing architecture, each system has its own private resources (memory, disks, etc.). The clustered processors communicate by passing messages through a network that interconnects the computers. In addition, requests from clients are automatically routed to the system that owns the resource. Only one of the clustered systems can “own” and access a particular resource at a time. In the event a failure occurs, resource ownership can be dynamically transferred to another system in the cluster. The main advantage of shared-nothing clustering is scalability. In theory, a shared-nothing multiprocessor can scale up to thousands of processors because they do not interfere with one another—nothing is shared.
In a shared-disk environment, all the connected systems share the same disk devices, as shown in Figure 2.4. Each processor still has its own private memory, but all the processors can directly address all the disks. Typically, shared-disk clustering does not scale as well for smaller machines as shared-nothing clustering. Shared-disk clustering is better suited to large-enterprise processing in a mainframe environment. Mainframes—very large processors—are capable of processing enormous volumes of work. Great benefits can be obtained with only a few clustered mainframes, while many PC and midrange processors would need to be clustered to achieve similar benefits.
Shared-disk clustering is usually preferable for applications and services requiring only modest shared access to data and for applications or workloads that are very difficult to partition. Applications with heavy data update requirements are probably better implemented as shared-nothing. Table 2.3 compares the capabilities of shared-disk and shared-nothing architectures.Table 2.3. Comparison of Shared-Disk and Shared-Nothing Architectures
Quick adaptability to changing workloads
Can exploit simpler, cheaper hardware
Almost unlimited scalability
Performs best in a heavy read environment
Works well in a high-volume, read-write environment
Data need not be partitioned
Data is partitioned across the cluster
The major DBMS vendors provide support for different types of clustering with different capabilities and requirements. For example, DB2 for z/OS provides shared-disk clustering with its Data Sharing and Parallel Sysplex capabilities; DB2 on non-mainframe platforms uses shared-nothing clustering. Oracle’s Real Application Clusters provide shared-disk clustering.
For most users, the primary benefit of clustering is the enhanced availability that accrues by combining processors. In some cases, clustering can help an enterprise to achieve five-nines (99.999 percent) availability. Additionally, clustering can be used for load balancing and failover.DBMS Proliferation
As a rule of thumb, create a policy (or at least some simple guidelines) that must be followed before a new DBMS can be brought into the organization. Failure to do so can cause a proliferation of different DBMS products that will be difficult to support. It can also cause confusion regarding which DBMS to use for which development effort.
As mentioned earlier, there is a plethora of DBMS vendors, each touting its benefits. As a DBA, you will be bombarded with marketing and sales efforts that attempt to convince you that you need another DBMS. Try to resist unless a very compelling reason is given and a short-term return on investment (ROI) can be demonstrated. Even when confronted with valid reasons and good ROI, be sure to double-check the arguments and ROI calculations. Sometimes the reasons specified are outdated and the ROI figures do not take everything into account—such as the additional cost of administration.
Remember, every DBMS requires database administration support. Moreover, each DBMS uses different methods to perform similar tasks. The fewer DBMS products installed, the less complicated database administration becomes, and the better your chances become of providing effective data management resources for your organization.Hardware Issues
When establishing a database environment for application development, selecting the DBMS is only part of the equation. The hardware and operating system on which the DBMS will run will greatly impact the reliability, availability, and scalability (RAS) of the database environment. For example, a mainframe platform such as an IBM zEC12 running z/OS will probably provide higher RAS than a midrange IBM xSeries machine running AIX, which in turn will probably exceed a Dell server running Windows. That is not to say everything should run on a mainframe; other issues such as cost, experience, manageability, and the needs of the applications to be developed must be considered. The bottom line is that you must be sure to factor hardware platform and operating system constraints into the DBMS selection criteria.Cloud Database Systems
Cloud computing (see the sidebar) is increasing in usage, especially at small to medium-size businesses. A cloud implementation can be more cost-effective than building an entire local computing infrastructure that requires management and support.
A cloud database system delivers DBMS services over the Internet. The trade-off essentially comes down to trusting a cloud provider to store and manage your data in return for minimizing database administration and maintenance cost and effort. Using cloud database systems can enable organizations, especially smaller ones without the resources to invest in an enterprise computing infrastructure, to focus on their business instead of their computing environment.
By consolidating data sources in the cloud, it is possible to improve collaboration among partners, branch offices, remote workers, and mobile devices, because the data becomes accessible as a service. There is no need to install, set up, patch, or manage the DBMS software because the cloud provider manages and cares for these administrative tasks. Of course, the downside is that your data is now stored and controlled by an external agent—the cloud provider. Another inherent risk of cloud computing is the possibility of nefarious agents posing as legitimate customers.
An example of a cloud database platform is Microsoft SQL Azure. It is built on SQL Server technologies and is a component of the Windows Azure platform.
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