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000-103 - AIX 6.1 Basic Operations - Dump Information

Vendor : IBM
Exam Code : 000-103
Exam Name : AIX 6.1 Basic Operations
Questions and Answers : 81 Q & A
Updated On : April 19, 2019
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000-103 Questions and Answers

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000-103 AIX 6.1 Basic Operations

Study Guide Prepared by IBM Dumps Experts

Exam Questions Updated On : 000-103 Dumps and Real Questions

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000-103 exam Dumps Source : AIX 6.1 Basic Operations

Test Code : 000-103
Test Name : AIX 6.1 Basic Operations
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 81 Real Questions

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IBM AIX 6.1 Basic Operations

nighttime Commander involves IBM i | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

March 20, 2019 Alex Woodie

IBM i professionals who work appreciably with data within the IFS might be satisfied to hear a brand new software utility has been ported to the IBM i PASE ambiance that may store them a bunch of time. The open supply utility, known as midnight Commander, gives builders and administrators a handy command line experience that may support velocity up initiatives, mainly when giving commands to gigantic variety of files kept on far flung machines.

dead night Commander changed into at the start developed in 1994 as a file utility for UNIX, which changed into starting to emerge from software labs to problem minicomputer systems of the day, such because the AS/four hundred, in addition to early windows working techniques. Miguel de Icaza, who’s familiar for founding the Mono project (amongst others), is credited with growing midnight Commander, but over the years building of the product has develop into a gaggle effort.

The utility, which is disbursed by means of a GNU license from, turned into largely modeled off Norton Commander, an MS-DOS utility developed in the Nineteen Eighties by way of Norton. but middle of the night Commander has developed into its own issue through the years, and the resemblance to that ancient Norton product these days generally is barely in the identify.

middle of the night Commander items users with a two-panel, text-primarily based interface that lets them view the directories and files for the machines they’re connected to. clients can also pull up menus of accessible commands and a background of undertaking. What in fact sets middle of the night Commander aside, besides the fact that children, is its command extension and subshell execution environments, which can be enormously customizable.

users are in a position to provoke a slew of fundamental listing services with hour of darkness Commander, together with growing, viewing, renaming, moving, and deleting directories. users can’t create data in middle of the night Commander (that’s the job for functions), but they could replica, circulation, and delete particular person files — or even more advantageous, groups of data. built-in FTP and SFTP performance makes it possible for clients to work with data throughout numerous systems.

nighttime Commander offers clients a handful of special commands for coping with data or directories in bulk. they could use commands like “%s” or “%t” to point out which information to execute a given command upon (during this case “the info below the cursor and all highlighted files within the lively panel” and ” all highlighted information in the active panel,” respectively).

middle of the night Commander displayed on Ubuntu Linux.

The utility lets clients set default courses to use for opening definite file varieties, which is carried out using the “enter” button. text information are opened in a default editor, and users can configure the application to instantly open up different forms of data, reminiscent of HTML info, in an internet browser.

middle of the night Commander makes wide use of function keys, and these come in handy when using the command extensions. Command extensions permit the person to specific definite kinds of instructions be applied to particular person files or companies of data.

for example, a person may configure dead night Commander to instantly archive data with one command, or to initiate file transfer with a further. urgent the F2 button pulls up a easy reference of attainable commands, whereas F1 calls the help screens.

The richness of the command extension atmosphere, together with the pace of the command line, are anticipated to supply middle of the night Commander an audience amongst builders and directors who think drag-and-drop GUIs are too cumbersome for some file operations. And whereas nighttime Commander will enchantment to those who want to maintain their palms on the keyboard, the application is also mouse-mindful, giving consumers the choice of navigating and issuing commands with the mouse.

dead night Commander will likely appeal to developers and directors who find themselves elbows deep in IFS folders, when a GUI method is just too cumbersome.

middle of the night Commander helps Unix, Linux, MacOS, and other operating methods. Jack Woehr, the lead IBM i aid tech for Absolute efficiency, and the IBM open supply team, headed via open source architect Jesse Gorzinski, are credited with completing the port of hour of darkness Commander to IBM i’s PASE AIX runtime atmosphere in the core of 2018.

“i'm a longtime (20+ years) consumer of MC on Linux, OpenBSD, Mac and windows and am delighted to eventually have succeeded in constructing it on IBM i PASE environment!” writes the person “jax” on the middle of the night Commander site.

Woehr additionally became concerned in porting Ublu to IBM i, as well as porting Lynx, a textual content-simplest net browser, to IBM i. “Jack also helped with first-class assurance and labored with assignment owners to upstream all code alterations,” Gorzinski wrote in his November 2018 column in IBM methods journal. “really, the main code move for midnight Commander can now be built for IBM i without a changes.”

nighttime Commander helps IBM i 7.three. The software is RPM conscious and is purchasable for down load on the IBM i server the usage of the new Yum distribution formula that debuted currently.

linked stories

RPM And Yum Are a large Deal For IBM i. here’s Why

Open source Is the long run, So where Does IBM i fit in?

WebSphere vs. .net: IBM and Microsoft Go head to head | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

After carrying out a number of benchmarks, Microsoft concluded that .web offers improved performance and price-efficiency ratio than WebSphere. IBM rebutted Microsoft’s findings and performed different exams proving that WebSphere is advanced to .web. Microsoft spoke back by rejecting a few of IBM’s claims as false and repeating the checks on diverse hardware with diverse outcomes.


Microsoft has benchmarked .internet and WebSphere and posted the benchmark source code, run suggestions, use suggestions and a findings file published at entitled Benchmarking IBM WebSphere 7 on IBM Power6 and AIX vs. Microsoft .web on HP BladeSystem and home windows Server 2008.   This benchmark indicates a a good deal greater transactions per second (TPS) rate and better can charge/efficiency ratio when the usage of WebSphere 7 on home windows Server 2008 over WebSphere on AIX 5.three, and even stronger outcomes when the usage of .web on windows Server 2008 over WebSphere on the same OS. The charge/performance ratio for the software benchmark used is:

IBM power 570 with WebSphere 7 and AIX 5.three HP BladeSystem C7000 with WebSphere 7 and home windows Server 2008 HP BladeSystem C7000 with .internet and windows Server 2008 $32.forty five $7.ninety two $3.99

IBM has rebutted Microsoft’s benchmark and referred to as a few of their claims as false, and performed a distinct benchmark, with diverse outcomes. The benchmark used together with the findings had been posted in Benchmarking AND BEATING Microsoft’s .internet 3.5 with WebSphere 7! (PDF). The supply code of the benchmark became no longer posted. The consequences show WebSphere as a better performing middle-tier than .internet with 36% more TPS for one utility benchmark and from 176% to 450% more suitable throughput for certainly one of IBM’s typical benchmarks.

Microsoft replied to IBM and defended their claims and benchmarking outcomes with Response to IBM’s Whitepaper Entitled Benchmarking and Beating Microsoft .net 3.5 with WebSphere 7 (PDF). Microsoft has also re-run their benchmark, modified to encompass a special check move akin to the one used by using IBM of their assessments, working it on different hardware, a single multi-core server, founding that certainly WebSphere is greater than .internet if the use of IBM’s verify move but only just a little more suitable, between three% and %6, not as suggested by means of IBM. anyway that, these later findings do not exchange the usual ones considering the fact that the benchmark become run on a different hardware configuration. in the conclusion, Microsoft invites IBM to “an unbiased lab to function further testing”.

Microsoft checking out .net towards WebSphere

Microsoft has performed a sequence of checks evaluating WebSphere/Java against .net on three diverse platforms. The particulars of the benchmarks performed and the test consequences were posted in the whitepaper entitled Benchmarking IBM WebSphere® 7 on IBM® Power6™ and AIX vs. Microsoft® .net on Hewlett Packard BladeSystem and home windows Server® 2008 (PDF).

systems demonstrated:

  • IBM vigor 570 (energy 6) running IBM WebSphere 7 on AIX 5.3
  • 8 IBM Power6 cores at 4.2GHz
  • 32 GB RAM
  • AIX 5.three
  • 4 x 1 GB NICs
  • Hewlett Packard BladeSystem C7000 working IBM WebSphere 7 on windows Server 2008
  • 4 Hewlett Packard ProLiant BL460c blades
  • One Quad-Core Intel® Xeon® E5450 (3.00GHz, 1333MHz FSB, 80W) Processor/blade
  • 32 GB RAM/blade
  • windows Server 2008/64-bit/blade
  • 2 x 1 GB NICs/blade
  • Hewlett Packard BladeSystem C7000 running .internet on windows Server 2008
  • identical because the outdated one but the functions confirmed run on .web in its place of WebSphere.
  • a number of three checks had been carried out on each and every platform:

  • exchange internet software Benchmarking The applications tested have been IBM’s trade 6.1 and Microsoft’s StockTrader 2.04. This series of checks have evaluated the performance of finished statistics-driven web applications running on desirable of the above outlined platforms. The internet pages accessed had one or continually more operations serviced via courses contained via the business layer and ending with synchronous database calls.
  • exchange core Tier web functions Benchmarking This benchmark changed into meant to measure the performance of the web provider layer executing operations which ended up in database transactions. The check became corresponding to net utility, but operations were counted personally.
  • WS test internet services Benchmarking This look at various turned into like the outdated one however there was no enterprise logic nor database access. This become in accordance with WSTest workload originally devised by sun and augmented by means of Microsoft. The functions tier offered 3 operations: EchoList, EchoStruct and GetOrder. Having no enterprise common sense, the look at various measured best the uncooked performance of the web provider application.
  • Two database configurations have been used, one for the all-IBM platform and one other for the different two: IBM DB2 V9.5 commercial enterprise edition with IBM DB2 V9.5 JDBC drivers for data entry and SQL Server 2008 databases enterprise version. Two databases were set up for each and every configuration working on HP BL680c G5 blades:

  • 4 Quad-Core Intel XEON CPUs, @2.4GHZ (sixteen cores in every blade)
  • 64 GB RAM
  • four x 1GB NICs
  • IBM DB 9.5 business version sixty four-bit or Microsoft SQL Server 2008 sixty four-bit
  • Microsoft windows Server 2008 sixty four-bit, business edition
  • 2 4GB HBAs for fiber/sans entry to the EVA 4400 storage
  • The storage changed into secured on HP StorageWorks EVA 4400 Disk Array:

  • 96 15K drives complete
  • four logical volumes such as 24 drives every
  • Database server 1: Logical quantity 1 for logging
  • Database server 1: Logical extent 2 for database
  • Database server 2: Logical extent 3 for logging
  • Database server 2: Logical quantity four for database
  • The web application benchmark used 32 customer machines operating examine scripts. every computer simulated lots of of purchasers having a 1 2d feel time. The tests used an adapted edition of IBM’s alternate 6.1 application on SUT #1 & #2 and Microsoft’s StockTrader utility on SUT #three.


    For the internet carrier and WSTest benchmarks, Microsoft used 10 clients with a 0.1s believe time. For WSTest, the databases have been no longer accessed. Microsoft has created a WSTest-compliant benchmark for WebSphere 7 and JAX-WS and a further in C# for .net using WCF.


    Microsoft’s whitepaper contains extra particulars on how the tests have been performed including the DB configuration, DB access used, caching configuration, check scripts, tuning parameters used and others.


    The benchmarking results including the fees/performance ratio are proven in here desk:

      IBM energy 570 with WebSphere 7 and AIX 5.3 HP BladeSystem C7000 with WebSphere 7 and windows Server 2008 HP BladeSystem C7000 with .net and windows Server 2008 total center-Tier equipment charge $260,128.08 $87,161.00 $50,161.00 change internet utility Benchmark 8,016 TPS 11,004 TPS 12,576 TPS can charge/efficiency $32.forty five $7.92 $3.99 change core Tier web carrier Benchmark 10,571 TPS 14,468 TPS 22,262 TPS cost/performance $24.61 $6.02 $2.25 WSTest EchoList verify10,536 TPS 15,973 TPS 22,291 TPS cost/performance $24.sixty nine $5.forty six $2.25 WSTest EchoStruct testeleven,378 TPS sixteen,225 TPS 24,951 TPS cost/performance $22.86 $5.37 $2.01 WSTest GetOrder examineeleven,009 TPS 15,491 TPS 27,796 TPS can charge/efficiency $23.63 $5.sixty three $1.eighty

    in keeping with Microsoft’s benchmarking effects, operating WebSphere on HP BladeSystem with windows Server 2008 is about 30% extra effective and the charge-performance ratio is 5 instances decrease than working WebSphere on IBM vigor 570 with AIX 5.three. The .net/home windows Server 2008 configuration is much more effective and the can charge/efficiency ratio drops to half in comparison to WebSphere/home windows Server 2008 and it's 10 times smaller than WebSphere/energy 570/AIX. The charge-performance ratio is so high for the primary platform because the price of the complete center-tier is over $250,000 whereas the efficiency is decrease than the different structures.

    Microsoft’s benchmarking whitepaper (PDF) incorporates an appendix with finished particulars of the hardware and utility charges. The benchmarking tests used, together with source code, are published on StockTrader web page.

    IBM’s Rebuttal

    In another paper, Benchmarking AND BEATING Microsoft’s .net 3.5 with WebSphere 7! (PDF), IBM has rejected Microsoft’s benchmark and created an extra one showing that WebSphere is performing more suitable than .internet.

    Microsoft had said that StockTrader is corresponding to IBM’s alternate utility:

    Microsoft created an application it really is functionally similar to the IBM WebSphere change software, each in terms of consumer performance and center-tier database access, transactional and messaging habits.

    IBM rejected Microsoft’s claim:

    The software claims to be “functionally equivalent” to the IBM WebSphere alternate 6.1 sample software. It is not a “port” of the software in any sense. Little, if any, of the usual utility design become ported. Microsoft has made this an utility that showcases the use of its proprietary technologies. a tremendous indication of here's the fact that the .internet StockTrader software isn't a universally purchasable internet software considering the fact that it can simplest be accessed through the use of internet Explorer, and not by using other web browsers.

    additionally, IBM pointed out that exchange was now not designed to benchmark WebSphere’s performance but rather to

    serve as a sample application illustrating the usage of the points and capabilities contained in WebSphere and how they involving utility efficiency. furthermore, the software served as a sample which allowed builders to discover the tuning capabilities of WebSphere.

    IBM had different complaints regarding Microsoft’s benchmark:

    Microsoft created a completely new utility [StockTrader] and claimed purposeful equivalence at the utility stage. The fact is that the Microsoft edition of the utility used proprietary SQL statements to entry the database, in contrast to the original version of trade 6.1 which turned into designed to be a conveyable and typical utility.

    They employed customer aspect scripting to shift probably the most software function to the client.

    They established net capabilities capabilities with the aid of inserting an pointless HTTP server between the WebSphere server and the client.

    And If that become not satisfactory, they didn't effectively computer screen and adjust the WebSphere software server to obtain top performance.

    IBM’s aggressive challenge workplace group (CPO) has ported StockTrader 2.0 to WebSphere creating CPO StockTrader and claiming: “we did a port that faithfully reproduced Microsoft’s application design. The intent turned into to obtain an apples-to-apples comparison.” So, trader 6.1 turned into ported by means of Microsoft from WebSphere to .internet beneath the identify StockTrader and ported again by using IBM again to WebSphere beneath the identify CPO StockTrader. IBM benchmarked CPO StockTrader against StockTrader and received greater effects for WebSphere towards .net:


    IBM has also suggested they are the usage of friendly financial institution, an application intended to benchmark WebSphere towards .web. during this verify WebSphere outperforms .web several times:


    of their StockTrader vs. CPO StockTrader benchmark, IBM used scripts simulating user endeavor: “login, getting fees, stock purchase, inventory sell, viewing of the account portfolio, then a logoff” and working in stress mode devoid of feel times. 36 users were simulated, ample to force every server at maximum throughput and utilization. The statistics back turned into validated and error had been discarded.

    The entrance conclusion became carried out with WebSphere 7/windows Server 2008 in a single case and .internet 3.5 with IIS 7/windows Server 2008 in the different. The returned conclusion database changed into DB2 eight.2 and SQL Server 2005, each on windows Server 2003.

    The hardware used for testing was:

    efficiency checking out tool HardwareX345 8676 Server2 X three.06 GHz Intel Processor with Hyper Thread Technology8 GB RAM18.2 GB 15K rpm SCSC hard Disk Drive1 GB Ethernet interfaceApplication Server Hardware IBM X3950 Server, eight x three.50 Ghz, Intel Xeon Processors with Hyper Thread technology, sixty four GB RAMDatabase Server HardwareX445 8670 Server, 8x three.0 Ghz. Intel Xeon Processors with Hyper Thread know-how, 16 GB RAMUltraSCSI 320 Controller , EXP 300 SCSI expansion Unit, 14x 18.2 GB 15K rpm difficult Disk pressure configured as 2 Raid Arrays.One for Logs & One for Database, each and every array is comprised of 7 tough disks in a Raid 0 configuration.The Ethernet community spine The remoted community hardware is constituted of 3x 3Comm SuperStack 4950 switches and one 3 Comm SuperStack 4924 change working at 1 GB.

    The utility and hardware configuration for the friendly financial institution benchmark was akin to the StockTrader one.

    IBM’s whitepaper includes tips concerning the friendly financial institution application, however does not aspect to the source code. It additionally mentions that the application changed into at first designed for .net Framework 1.1 and became simply recompiled on .web three.5 without being up-to-date to make use of the latest applied sciences.

    Microsoft Response to IBM’s Rebuttal

    Microsoft has responded to IBM’s rebuttal in yet a further whitepaper, Response to IBM’s Whitepaper Entitled Benchmarking and Beating Microsoft .net three.5 with WebSphere 7 (PDF). in this document, Microsoft defends their usual benchmarking effects and affirms that IBM made some false claims in their rebuttal document entitled Benchmarking AND BEATING Microsoft’s .internet 3.5 with WebSphere 7!, and IBM did not use an acceptable benchmarking system.  more has been posted at

    really, Microsoft observed the following claims are false:

  • IBM declare: The .net StockTrader does not faithfully reproduce the IBM alternate application functionality.Microsoft response: this declare is fake; the .net StockTrader 2.04 faithfully reproduces the IBM WebSphere trade utility (the use of standard .net Framework technologies and coding practices), and can be used for reasonable benchmark comparisons between .net three.5 and IBM WebSphere 7.
  • IBM claim: The .web StockTrader uses client-aspect script to shift processing from the server to the customer.Microsoft response: this claim is fake, there is not any client-aspect scripting in the .internet StockTrader software.
  • IBM claim: The .net StockTrader makes use of proprietary SQL.Microsoft response: the .web StockTrader makes use of standard SQL statements coded for SQL Server and/or Oracle; and provides a data entry layer for both. The IBM WebSphere 7 change application in a similar way uses JDBC queries coded for DB2 and/or Oracle. Neither implementation uses stored procedures or functions; all enterprise good judgment runs within the application server. standard pre-prepared SQL statements are utilized in both applications.
  • IBM declare: The .net StockTrader is not programmed as a universally available, thin-customer web application. hence it runs most effective on IE, not in Firefox or different browsers.Microsoft response: definitely, the .web StockTrader net tier is programmed as a universally obtainable, pure thin customer net application. however, a simple difficulty in theuse of HTML remark tags explanations concerns in Firefox; these comment tags are being updated to enable the ASP.web utility to competently render in any trade average browser, together with Firefox.
  • IBM declare: The .net StockTrader has blunders below load.Microsoft response: this is false, and this document includes further benchmark exams and Mercury LoadRunner details proving this IBM declare to be false.
  • additionally, Microsoft complained that IBM had developed pleasant financial institution for .web Framework 1.1 years in the past the usage of obsolete technologies:

    IBM’s pleasant financial institution benchmark makes use of an obsolete .net Framework 1.1 application that includes technologies corresponding to DCOM which have been obsolete for decades. This benchmark should still be thoroughly discounted unless Microsoft has the opportunity to evaluation the code and update it for .web three.5, with newer applied sciences for ASP.web, transactions, and home windows communication groundwork (WCF) TCP/IP binary remoting (which replaced DCOM as the favourite remoting expertise).

    Microsoft regarded IBM failed with the aid of not presenting the supply code for CPO StockTrader and pleasant financial institution applications and reiterated the indisputable fact that all the source code for Microsoft’s benchmark functions concerned during this case had been made public.

    Microsoft also observed that IBM had used a modified verify script which “included a heavier emphasis on buys and additionally covered a promote operation”. Microsoft re-carried out their benchmark the use of IBM’s modified check script flow, one together with the operations purchase and sell beside Login, Portfolio, Logout, on a single 4-core utility server asserting that

    these exams are based on IBM’s revised script and are meant to satisfy some of these IBM rebuttal verify situations as outlined in IBM’s response paper. They should no longer be regarded in any means as a transformation to our normal consequences (performed on different hardware, and distinct look at various script flow); because the common outcomes stay valid.

    The verify was carried on:

    software Server(s) Database(s) 1 HP ProLiant BL460c1 Quad-core Intel Xeon E5450 CPU (three.00 GHz)32 GB RAM2 x 1GB NICsWindows Server 2008 sixty 3.5 (SP1) 64-bitIBM WebSphere 64-bit 1 HP ProLiant DL380 G52 Quad-core Intel Xeon E5355 CPUs (2.sixty seven GHz)sixty four GB RAM2 x 1GB NICsWindows Server 2008 sixty four-bitSQL Server 2008 sixty four-bitDB2 V9.7 sixty four-bit

    The effect of the test indicates identical performance for WebSphere and .web.


    considered one of IBM’s complaints had been that Microsoft inserted an needless HTTP internet server in front of WebSphere cutting back the number of transactions per second. Microsoft admitted that, but introduced:

    the use of this HTTP Server became utterly discussed in the usual benchmark paper, and is done in accordance with IBM’s personal most reliable observe deployment instructions for WebSphere. In one of these setup, IBM recommends using the IBM HTTP Server (Apache) as the entrance end internet Server, which then routes requests to the IBM WebSphere utility server. In our exams, we co-located this HTTP on the equal desktop as the utility Server. this is corresponding to the .internet/WCF internet carrier checks, the place we hosted the WCF net features in IIS 7, with co-found IIS 7 HTTP Server routing requests to the .web application pool processing the WCF carrier operations. So in each exams, we tested an equal setup, the use of IBM HTTP Server (Apache) as the front end to WebSphere/JAX-WS services; and Microsoft IIS 7 as the entrance end to the .web/WCF features. hence, we stand behind all our long-established consequences.

    Microsoft performed yet one more look at various, the WSTest, with out the intermediary HTTP net server on a single quad-core server just like the previous one, and acquired the following result:


    each exams carried out by means of Microsoft on a single server demonstrate WebSphere holding a mild efficiency abilities over .net but now not as an awful lot as IBM pretended in their paper. besides that, Microsoft remarked that IBM didn't touch upon middle-tier charge evaluation which significantly favors Microsoft.

    Microsoft continued to problem IBM to

    meet us [Microsoft] in an independent lab to function additional trying out of the .net StockTrader and WSTest benchmark workloads and pricing analysis of the center tier utility servers tested in our benchmark report. in addition, we invite the IBM competitive response team to our lab in Redmond, for dialogue and additional checking out in their presence and below their evaluation.

    closing Conclusion

    often, a benchmark consists of

  • a workload
  • a set of guidelines describing how the workload is to be processed – run suggestions -
  • a technique making an attempt to make certain that the run suggestions are respected and effects are interpreted correctly
  • A benchmark is continually meant to compare two or extra techniques to be able to check which one is greater for performing definite projects. Benchmarks are also used through groups to enhance their hardware/software before it goes to their customers via trying out distinctive tuning parameters and measuring the effects or by recognizing some bottlenecks. Benchmarks can even be used for advertising purposes, to prove that a definite equipment has improved performance than the competitor’s.

    in the starting, benchmarks had been used to measure the hardware performance of a system, like the CPU processing vigor. Later, benchmarks were created to examine and evaluate purposes like SPEC MAIL2001 and even application servers like SPECjAppServer2004.

    There isn't any best benchmark. The workload can be tweaked to prefer a undeniable platform, or the records can be misinterpreted or incorrectly extrapolated. To be convincing, a benchmark needs to be as transparent as feasible. The workload definition should still be public, and if viable the supply code should still be made attainable for those involved to study. a clear set of run suggestions are mandatory so other events can repeat the equal tests to peer the consequences for themselves. the style outcomes are interpreted and their meaning must be disclosed.

    We are not aware of a response from IBM to Microsoft’s remaining paper. it will be wonderful to see their response. probably, the most desirable strategy to clear issues up is for IBM to make the supply code of their assessments public so anyone involved could test and notice for themselves where is the truth. unless then we will best speculate on the correctness and validity of these benchmarks.

    home windows equipment Programming: method management | Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter explains the fundamentals of method administration and additionally introduces the primary synchronization operations and wait services that can be essential all over the leisure of the book.

    This chapter is from the booklet 

    A system carries its personal impartial digital address area with each code and statistics, included from other tactics. every process, in turn, includes one or extra independently executing threads. A thread running within a manner can execute utility code, create new threads, create new independent procedures, and manipulate communication and synchronization among the threads.

    by using growing and managing methods, functions can have dissimilar, concurrent initiatives processing data, performing computations, or speaking with other networked systems. it is even possible to improve application performance via exploiting distinctive CPU processors.

    This chapter explains the basics of system management and additionally introduces the simple synchronization operations and wait features that should be critical during the rest of the book.

    each technique consists of one or more threads, and the home windows thread is the fundamental executable unit; see the subsequent chapter for a threads introduction. Threads are scheduled on the basis of the regular factors: availability of substances equivalent to CPUs and actual reminiscence, precedence, fairness, and so forth. windows has long supported multiprocessor programs, so threads can also be allocated to separate processors inside a computer.

    From the programmer's point of view, every windows system contains materials such as the following accessories:

  • One or extra threads.
  • A digital handle space it truly is distinct from different techniques' address spaces. observe that shared reminiscence-mapped information share actual reminiscence, however the sharing strategies will doubtless use different digital addresses to entry the mapped file.
  • One or more code segments, including code in DLLs.
  • One or greater records segments containing global variables.
  • environment strings with environment variable counsel, such as the present search path.
  • The technique heap.
  • substances comparable to open handles and other lots.
  • each and every thread in a manner shares code, international variables, atmosphere strings, and elements. each thread is independently scheduled, and a thread has right here facets:

  • A stack for procedure calls, interrupts, exception handlers, and automated storage.
  • Thread native Storage (TLS)—An arraylike collection of pointers giving each and every thread the skill to allocate storage to create its own enjoyable data ambiance.
  • An argument on the stack, from the growing thread, which is continually exciting for each and every thread.
  • A context structure, maintained by the kernel, with laptop register values.
  • figure 6-1 suggests a system with a few threads. This figure is schematic and doesn't point out genuine reminiscence addresses, nor is it drawn to scale.

    This chapter suggests a way to work with approaches consisting of a single thread. Chapter 7 suggests the way to use distinctive threads.

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    AIX 6.1 Basic Operations

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    Windows System Programming: Process Management | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter explains the basics of process management and also introduces the basic synchronization operations and wait functions that will be important throughout the rest of the book.

    This chapter is from the book 

    A process contains its own independent virtual address space with both code and data, protected from other processes. Each process, in turn, contains one or more independently executing threads. A thread running within a process can execute application code, create new threads, create new independent processes, and manage communication and synchronization among the threads.

    By creating and managing processes, applications can have multiple, concurrent tasks processing files, performing computations, or communicating with other networked systems. It is even possible to improve application performance by exploiting multiple CPU processors.

    This chapter explains the basics of process management and also introduces the basic synchronization operations and wait functions that will be important throughout the rest of the book.

    Every process contains one or more threads, and the Windows thread is the basic executable unit; see the next chapter for a threads introduction. Threads are scheduled on the basis of the usual factors: availability of resources such as CPUs and physical memory, priority, fairness, and so on. Windows has long supported multiprocessor systems, so threads can be allocated to separate processors within a computer.

    From the programmer's perspective, each Windows process includes resources such as the following components:

  • One or more threads.
  • A virtual address space that is distinct from other processes' address spaces. Note that shared memory-mapped files share physical memory, but the sharing processes will probably use different virtual addresses to access the mapped file.
  • One or more code segments, including code in DLLs.
  • One or more data segments containing global variables.
  • Environment strings with environment variable information, such as the current search path.
  • The process heap.
  • Resources such as open handles and other heaps.
  • Each thread in a process shares code, global variables, environment strings, and resources. Each thread is independently scheduled, and a thread has the following elements:

  • A stack for procedure calls, interrupts, exception handlers, and automatic storage.
  • Thread Local Storage (TLS)—An arraylike collection of pointers giving each thread the ability to allocate storage to create its own unique data environment.
  • An argument on the stack, from the creating thread, which is usually unique for each thread.
  • A context structure, maintained by the kernel, with machine register values.
  • Figure 6-1 shows a process with several threads. This figure is schematic and does not indicate actual memory addresses, nor is it drawn to scale.

    This chapter shows how to work with processes consisting of a single thread. Chapter 7 shows how to use multiple threads.

    LSI Nytro WarpDrive WLP4-200 Enterprise PCIe Review | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    August 17th, 2012 by Kevin OBrien

    The LSI Nytro WarpDrive WLP4-200 represents LSI's second-generation effort in the enterprise PCIe application acceleration space. LSI builds on an extensive history of enterprise storage products with the newly rebranded line of acceleration products dubbed LSI Nytro. The Nytro family includes the PCIe WarpDrive of course, but also encompasses LSI's Nytro XD caching and Nytro MegaRAID products that leverage intelligent caching with on-board flash for acceleration, offering customers an entire suite of options as they evaluate high-performance storage. The Nytro WarpDrive comes in a variety of configurations, including both eMLC and SLC versions, with capacities ranging from 200GB up to 1.6TB.

    Like the WarpDrive SLP-300 predecessor, the new Nytro WarpDrives work in much the same way RAIDing multiple SSDs together. The Nytro WarpDrive uses fewer controllers/SSDs this time around, opting for four instead of six in the original. The controllers have also been updated; the Nytro WarpDrive utilizes four latest-generation LSI SandForce SF-2500 controllers that are paired with SLC or eMLC NAND depending on the model. These SSDs are then joined together in RAID0 through an LSI PCIe to SAS bridge to form a 200GB to 1600GB logical block device. The drive is then presented to the operating system, which in this case could mean multiple Windows, Linux, UNIX variants, with a well-established LSI driver that in many cases is built into the OS itself.

    In addition to LSI's renowned host compatibility and stability reputation, the other core technology component of the Nytro WarpDrive are the SandFroce controllers. LSI used the prior generation SF-1500 controllers in the SLP-300 first generation PCIe card; this time around they're using the SF-2500 family. While the controller itself has improved, there's also the added engineering benefit now that LSI has acquired SandForce. While the results may be more subtle, the benefits are there nonetheless and include improved support for the drive via firmware updates and generally a more tightly integrated unit.

    While stability and consistent performance across operating systems are important, those features just open the door. Performance is key and the Nytro WarpDrive doesn't disappoint. At the top end, the cards deliver sequential 4K IOPS of 238,000 read and 133,000 write, along with sequential 8K IOPS of 189,000 read and 137,000 write. Latency is the other just as important performance spec; the Nytro WarpDrive posts latency as low as 50 microseconds.

    In this review we apply our full suite of enterprise benchmarks, across both Windows and Linux, with a robust set of comparables, including the prior generation LSI card and other leading application accelerators. Per our usual depth all of our detailed performance charts and content is delivered on a single page to make consumption of these data points as easy as possible.

    LSI Nytro WarpDrive Specifications

  • Single Level Cell (SLC)
  • 200GB Nytro WarpDrive WLP4-200
  • Sequential IOPS (4K) - 238,000 Read, 133,000 Write
  • Sequential Read and Write IOPS (8K) - 189,000 Read, 137,000 Write
  • Bandwidth (256K) - 2.0GB/s Read, 1.7GB/s Write
  • 400GB Nytro WarpDrive WLP4-400
  • Sequential IOPS (4K) - 238,000 Read, 133,000 Write
  • Sequential Read and Write IOPS (8K) - 189,000 Read, 137,000 Write
  • Bandwidth (256K) - 2.0GB/s Read, 1.7GB/s Write
  • Enterprise Multi Level Cell (eMLC)
  • 400GB Nytro WarpDrive BLP4-400
  • Sequential IOPS (4K) - 218,000 Read, 75,000 Write
  • Sequential Read and Write IOPS (8K) - 183,000 Read, 118,000 Write
  • Bandwidth (256K) - 2.0GB/s Read, 1.0GB/s Write
  • 800GB Nytro WarpDrive BLP4-800
  • Sequential IOPS (4K) - 218,000 Read, 75,000 Write
  • Sequential Read and Write IOPS (8K) - 183,000 Read, 118,000 Write
  • Bandwidth (256K) - 2.0GB/s Read, 1.0GB/s Write
  • 1600GB Nytro WarpDrive BLP4-1600
  • Sequential IOPS (4K) - 218,000 Read, 75,000 Write
  • Sequential Read and Write IOPS (8K) - 183,000 Read, 118,000 Write
  • Bandwidth (256K) - 2.0GB/s Read, 1.0GB/s Write
  • Average Latency < 50 microseconds
  • Interface - x8 PCI Express 2.0
  • Power Consumption - <25 watts
  • Form Factor - Low Profile (half-length, MD2)
  • Environmentals Operational at 0 to 45C
  • OS Compatiblity
  • Microsoft: Windows XP, Vista, 2003, 7; Windows Server 2003 SP2, 2008 SP2, 2008 R2 SP1
  • Linux: CentOS 6; RHEL 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 6.0, 6.1; SLES: 10SP1, 10SP2, 10SP4, 11SP1; OEL 5.6, 6.0
  • UNIX: FreeBSD 7.2, 7.4, 8.1, 8.2; Solaris 10U10, 11 (x86 & SPARC)
  • Hypervisors: VMware 4.0 U2, 4.1 U1, 5.0
  • End of Life Data Retention >6 months SLC, >3 months eMLC
  • Product Health Monitoring Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology (SMART) commands, plus additional SSD monitoring
  • Build and Design

    The LSI Nytro WarpDrive is a Half-Height Half-Length x8 PCI-Express card comprised of four custom form-factor SSDs connected in RAID0 to a main interface board. Being a half-height card, the Nytro WarpDrive is compatibile with more servers by simply swapping the backplane adapter. Shown below is our Lenovo ThinkServer RD240, used in many of our enterprise tests, which supports full-height cards.

    Similar to the previous-generation WarpDrive, LSI uses SandForce processors at the heart of the new Nytro WarpDrive. While the previous generation model used six SATA 3.0Gb/s SF-1500 controllers, the Nytro uses four SATA 6.0Gb/s SF-2500 controllers. The Nytro houses two of these SSDs in two sandwiched heatsink "banks" which are connected to the main board with a small ribbon cable. To interface these controllers with the host computer, LSI uses their own SAS2008 PCIe to SAS bridge, which has wide driver support across multiple operating systems.

    Unlike the first-generation WarpDrive, these passive heatsinks allow the NAND and SandForce controllers to shed heat into a heatsink first, which then gets passively cooled by airflow in the server chassis. This reduces hot-spots and ensures more stable hardware performance over the life of the product.

    A view from above the card shows the tightly sandwiched aluminum plates below, between, and on top of the custom SSDs that power the Nytro WarpDrive. The Nytro also supports legacy HDD indicator lights, for those who want that level of monitoring to be externally visible.

    The LSI Nytro WarpDrive is fully PCIe 2.0 x8 power compliant, and only consumes <25 watts of power during its operation. This allows it to operate without any external power attached and gives it more hardware compatibility over devices such as the Fusion-io "Duo" devices that require external power (or support for drawing power over PCIe spec) to operate at full performance.

    Each of the four SSDs powering the 200GB SLC LSI Nytro WarpDrive has one SandForce SF-2500 controller, and eight 8GB Toshiba SLC Toggle NAND pieces. This gives each SSD a total capacity of 64GB, which is then over-provisioned 22% to have a usable capacity of 50GB.


    To manage their Nytro WarpDrive products, LSI gives customers the CLI Nytro WarpDrive Management Utility. The management utility allows users to update the firmware, monitor the drive's health, as well as format the WarpDrive to difference capacities by adjusting the level of over-provisioning. Multiple versions of the utility are offered depending on the OS that's required, with Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, Solaris, and VMware supported.

    The Nytro WarpDrive Management Utility is as basic as they come, giving users just enough information or options to get the job done. With most of the time spent with these cards in production, you won't find many IT guys loading this utility up on a day to day basis, although the amount of information felt lacking compared to what other vendors offer.

    From a health monitoring aspect, the LSI management utility really only works to tell you the exact temperature and yes/no response when it comes to figuring out how far into useful life the WarpDrive is. With a percentage reading of Warranty Remaining giving some indication of health, a detailed figure of total bytes written or total bytes read would be much better at letting the user know just how much the card has been used and how much life the future holds for it.

    Another feature that the utility offers that wasn't supported by the first-generation WarpDrive, is the ability to change the over-provisioning level of the logical block device. In a stock configuration the our 200GB SLC Nytro WarpDrive had a usable capacity of 186.26GB, while the performance over-provisioning mode dropped that amount to 149.01GB. A third mode of max capacity over-provisioning was also listed, although it wasn't supported on our model.

    Nytro WarpDrive Formatting Modes (for 200GB SLC):

  • Performance over-provisioning - 149.01GB
  • Nominal over-provisioning - 186.26GB
  • Max capacity over provisioning - Not supported on our review model
  • Testing Background and Comparables

    When it comes to testing enterprise hardware, the environment is just as important as the testing processes used to evaluate it. At StorageReview we offer the same hardware and infrastructure found in many datacenters where the devices we test would ultimately be destined for. This includes enterprise servers as well as proper infrastructure equipment like networking, rack space, power conditioning/monitoring, and same-class comparable hardware to properly evaluate how a device performs. None of our reviews are paid for or controlled by the manufacturer of the equipment we are testing; with relevant comparables picked at our discretion from products we have in our lab.

    StorageReview Enterprise Testing Platform:

    Lenovo ThinkServer RD240

  • 2 x Intel Xeon X5650 (2.66GHz, 12MB Cache)
  • Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition R2 SP1 64-Bit and CentOS 6.2 64-Bit
  • Intel 5500+ ICH10R Chipset
  • Memory - 8GB (2 x 4GB) 1333Mhz DDR3 Registered RDIMMs
  • Review Comparables:

    640GB Fusion-io ioDrive Duo

  • Released: 1H2009
  • NAND Type: MLC
  • Controller: 2 x Proprietary
  • Device Visibility: JBOD, software RAID depending on OS
  • Fusion-io VSL Windows: 3.1.1
  • Fusion-io VSL Linux 3.1.1
  • 200GB LSI Nytro WarpDrive WLP4-200

  • Released: 1H2012
  • NAND Type: SLC
  • Controller: 4 x LSI SandForce SF-2500 through LSI SAS2008 PCIe to SAS Bridge
  • Device Visiblity: Fixed Hardware RAID0
  • LSI Windows:
  • LSI Linux: Native CentOS 6.2 driver
  • 300GB LSI WarpDrive SLP-300

  • Released: 1H2010
  • NAND Type: SLC
  • Controller: 6 x LSI SandForce SF-1500 through LSI SAS2008 PCIe to SAS Bridge
  • Device Visiblity: Fixed Hardware RAID0
  • LSI Windows:
  • LSI Linus: Native CentOS 6.2 driver
  • 1.6TB OCZ Z-Drive R4

  • Released: 2H2011
  • NAND Type: MLC
  • Controller: 8 x LSI SandForce SF-2200 through custom OCZ VCA PCIe to SAS Bridge
  • Device Visibility: Fixed Hardware RAID0
  • OCZ Windows Driver:
  • OCZ Linux Driver:
  • Enterprise Synthetic Workload Analysis (Stock Settings)

    The way we look at PCIe storage solutions dives deeper than just looking at traditional burst or steady-state performance. When looking at averaged performance over a long period of time, you lose sight of the details behind how the device performs over that entire period. Since flash performance varies greatly as time goes on, our new benchmarking process analyzes the performance in areas including total throughput, average latency, peak latency, and standard deviation over the entire preconditioning phase of each device. With high-end enterprise products, latency is often more important than throughput. For this reason we go to great lengths to show the full performance characteristics of each device we put through our Enterprise Test Lab.

    We have also added performance comparisons to show how each device performs under a different driver set across both Windows and Linux operating systems. For Windows, we use the latest drivers at the time of original review, which each device is then tested under a 64-bit Windows Server 2008 R2 environment. For Linux, we use 64-bit CentOS 6.2 environment, which each Enterprise PCIe Application Accelerator supports. Our main goal with this testing is to show how OS performance differs, since having an operating system listed as compatible on a product sheet doesn't always mean the performance across them is equal.

    All devices tested go under the same testing policy from start to finish. Currently, for each individual workload, devices are secure erased using the tools supplied by the vendor, preconditioned into steady-state with the identical workload the device will be tested with under heavy load of 16 threads with an outstanding queue of 16 per thread, and then tested in set intervals in multiple thread/queue depth profiles to show performance under light and heavy usage. For tests with 100% read activity, preconditioning is with the same workload, although flipped to 100% write.

    Preconditioning and Primary Steady-State Tests:

  • Throughput (Read+Write IOPS Aggregate)
  • Average Latency (Read+Write Latency Averaged Together)
  • Max Latency (Peak Read or Write Latency)
  • Latency Standard Deviation (Read+Write Standard Deviation Averaged Together)
  • At this time Enterprise Synthetic Workload Analysis includes four common profiles, which can attempt to reflect real-world activity. These were picked to have some similarity with our past benchmarks, as well as a common ground for comparing against widely published values such as max 4K read and write speed, as well as 8K 70/30 commonly used for enterprise drives. We also included two legacy mixed workloads, including the traditional File Server and Webserver offering a wide mix of transfer sizes. These last two will be phased out with application benchmarks in those categories as those are introduced on our site, and replaced with new synthetic workloads.

  • 4K
  • 100% Read or 100% Write
  • 100% 4K
  • 8K 70/30
  • File Server
  • 80% Read, 20% Write
  • 10% 512b, 5% 1k, 5% 2k, 60% 4k, 2% 8k, 4% 16k, 4% 32k, 10% 64k
  • Webserver
  • 100% Read
  • 22% 512b, 15% 1k, 8% 2k, 23% 4k, 15% 8k, 2% 16k, 6% 32k, 7% 64k, 1% 128k, 1% 512k
  • Looking at 100% 4K write activity under a heavy load of 16 threads and 16 queue over a 6 hour period, we found that the LSI Nytro WarpDrive offered slower but very consistent throughput compared to the other PCIe Application Accelerators. The Nytro WarpDrive started at roughly 33,000 IOPS 4K write, and leveled off at 30,000 IOPS at the end of this preconditioning phase. This compared to the first-generation WarpDrive that peaked at 130,000-180,000 IOPS and leveled off at 35,000 IOPS.

    Average latency during the preconditioning phase quickly settled in at about 8.5ms, whereas the first-generation WarpDrive started around 2ms before tapering off to 7.2ms as it reached steady-state.

    When it comes to max latency there is almost no doubt that SLC is king in terms of spikes that are few and far between. The new Nytro WarpDrive had the lowest consistent max latency in Windows, which increased under its CentOS driver, but still remained very respectable.

    Looking at the latency standard deviation, under Windows the Nytro WarpDrive offered some of the most consistent latency. matched by only the first-generation WarpDrive. In CentOS though, the standard deviation was more than double, at over 20ms versus 7.2ms in Windows.

    After the PCIe Application Accelerators went through their 4K write preconditioning process, we sampled their performance over a longer interval. In Windows the LSI Nytro WarpDrive measured 161,170 IOPS read and 29,946 IOPS write, whereas its Linux performance measured 97,333 IOPS read and 29,788 IOPS write. Read performance in Windows and Linux was higher than the previous-generation WarpDrive, although 4K steady-state performance dropped 5,000 IOPS.

    The LSI Nytro WarpDrive offered the second to lowest 4K read latency, coming in behind the OCZ Z-Drive R4 that uses 8 SF-2200 controllers versus the Nytro WarpDrive's four SF-2500 controllers. Write latency was the slowest in the pack measuring 8.54ms in Windows and 8.591ms in Linux (not counting the OCZ Z-Drive R4 that was not even in the same ballpark).

    Looking at the highest peak latency over the duration of our final 4K read and write testing intervals, the LSI Nytro WarpDrive offered the lowest 4K write latency in the pack with 51ms in Windows. Its Linux performance measured 486ms, as well as a high 4K read blip in Windows measuring 1,002ms, but overall it ranked well versus our other comparables.

    While peak latency will only show the single response time over an entire test, showing standard deviation gives the whole picture as to how well the drive behaves over the entire test. The Nytro WarpDrive came in towards the middle of the pack, with read latency standard deviation roughly twice that of the first-generation WarpDrive. Standard deviation in the write test was only slightly higher in Windows, but fell behind in Linux. In Windows, its write performance still came in towards the top of the pack, above the Fusion ioDrive Duo and OCZ Z-Drive R4.

    The next preconditioning test works with a more realistic read/write workload spread, versus the 100% write activity in our 4K test. Here, we have a 70% read and 30% write mix of 8K transfers. Looking at our 8K 70/30 mixed workload under a heavy load of 16 threads and 16 queue over a 6 hour period the Nytro WarpDrive quickly leveled off at 87,000 IOPS, finishing as the fastest drive in the group in Windows. The Nytro WarpDrive levled off at around 70,000 IOPS in Linux, although that was still the fastest Linux performance in the group as well.

    In our 8K 70/30 16T/16Q workload, the LSI Nytro WarpDrive offered by far the most consistent average latency, staying level at 2.9ms throughout our Windows test, and 3.6ms in Linux.

    Similar to the behavior we measured in our 4K write preconditioning test, the SLC-based Nytro WarpDrive also offered extremely low peak latency over the duration of the 8K 70/30 preconditioning process. Its performance in Windows hovered around 25ms, while its Linux performance floated higher around 200ms.

    While peak latency over small intervals gives you an idea of how a device is performing in a test, looking at its standard deviation shows you closely those peaks were grouped. The Nytro WarpDrive in Windows offered the lowest standard deviation in the group, measuring almost half of the first-generation WarpDrive. In Linux the standard deviation was much higher, by almost a factor of four, although that still ranked middle/top of the pack.

    Compared to the fixed 16 thread, 16 queue max workload we performed in the 100% 4K write test, our mixed workload profiles scale the performance across a wide range of thread/queue combinations. In these tests we span our workload intensity from 2 threads and 2 queue up to 16 threads and 16 queue. The LSI Nytro WarpDrive was able to offer substantially higher performance at lower thread count workloads with a queue depth between 4 to 16. This advantage played out largely over the entire test looking at its Windows performance, although in Linux that advantage was capped to roughly 70,000 IOPS where the R4 (in Windows) was able to beat it in some areas.

    On the other half of through throughput equation, the LSI Nytro WarpDrive consistently offered some of the lowest latency in our 8K 70/30 tests. In Windows, the Nytro WarpDrive came in at the top of the pack, while the Z-Drive R4 in Windows beat the Nytro's performance in Linux.

    In our 8K 70/30 test the SLC-based LSI Nytro WarpDrive in Windows had more 1,000ms+ peak latency spikes, whereas the Linux driver kept that suppressed until the higher 16-thread workloads. While this behavior didn't differ from the Fusion ioDrive Duo or Z-Drive R4, it had more high latency spikes than the first-generation WarpDrive in Windows, especially when under more demanding loads.

    While the occasional high spikes might look discouraging, the full latency picture can be seen when looking at the latency standard deviation. In our 8K 70/30 workload, the LSI Nytro WarpDrive offered the lowest standard deviation throughout the bulk of our 8K tests,

    The File Server workload represents a larger transfer-size spectrum hitting each particular device, so instead of settling in for a static 4k or 8k workload, the drive must cope with requests ranging from 512b to 64K. In our File Server throughput test, the OCZ Z-Drive R4 had a commanding lead in both burst and as it neared steady-state. The LSI Nytro WarpDrive started off towards the bottom of the pack between 39-46,000 IOPS, but remained their over the duration of the test, while the Fusion ioDrive Duo and first-generation WarpDrive slipped below it.

    Latency in our File Server workload followed a similar path on the LSI Nytro WarpDrive as it did in the throughput section, where it started off relatively high in terms of its burst capabilities, but stayed there over the duration of the test. This steady as a rock performance allowed it to come in towards the top of the pack, while the others eventually slowed down over the endurance section of the preconditioning phase.

    With its SLC NAND configuration, our 200GB Nytro WarpDrive remained rather calm over the duration of our File Server preconditioning test, offering some of the lowest latency spikes out of the bunch. In this section the first-generation WarpDrive offered similar performance, as did the Fusion ioDrive Duo, although the later had many spikes into the 1,000ms range.

    The LSI Nytro WarpDrive easily came out on top when looking at the latency standard deviation in the File Server preconditioning test. With a single spike, it was nearly flat at 2ms for the duration of this 6 hour process, and proved to be more consistent than the first-generation WarpDrive.

    Once our preconditioning process finished under a high 16T/16Q load, we looked at File Server performance across a wide range of activity levels. Similar to the Nytro's performance in our 8K 70/30 workload, it was able to offer the highest performance at low thread and queue depth levels. This lead was taken over by the OCZ Z-Drive R4 in the File Server workload at levels above 4T/8Q, where the R4's eight controller count helped it stretch its legs further. Over the remaining portion of our throughput test, the Nytro WarpDrive came in second under the Z-Drive R4 in Windows.

    With high throughput also comes low average latency, where the LSI Nytro WarpDrive was able to very good response times at lower queue depths, measuring as low as 0.366ms at 2T/2Q. It wasn't the quickest though, as the ioDrive Duo held the top spot, measuring 0.248ms in the same portion of the test. As the loads increased though, the Nytro WarpDrive came in just under the OCZ Z-Drive R4, utilizing half the controllers.

    Comparing the File Server workload max latency between the OCZ Z-Drive R4 and the LSI Nytro WarpDrive, it's easy to see what the advantage of SLC NAND is. Over the duration of the different test loads, the SLC-based Nytro WarpDrive and first-generation WarpDrive both offered some of the lowest peak response times and fewest overall peaks.

    Our latency standard deviation analysis reiterated that the Nytro WarpDrive was able to come in with class-leading performance over the duration of our File Server workload. The one area where responsiveness started to slip was under at 16T/16Q workload, where the Nytro WarpDrive in Linux had more variation in its latency.

    Our last workload is rather unique in the way we analyze the preconditioning phase of the test compared to the main output. As a workload designed with 100% read activity, it's difficult to show each device's true read performance without a proper preconditioning step. To keep the conditioning workload the same as the testing workload, we inverted the pattern to be 100% write. For this reason the preconditioning charts are much more dramatic than the final workload numbers.

    While it didn't turn into an example of slow and steady wins the race, the Nytro WarpDrive had the lowest burst throughput (not counting the R4's problematic Linux driver's performance), but as the other devices slowed towards the end of the preconditioning process, the Nytro WarpDrive came in second place under the R4 in Windows. This put it ahead of both the ioDrive Duo and first-generation WarpDrive under our heavy 16T/16Q inverted Web Server workload.

    Average latency of the Nytro WarpDrive in our Web Server preconditioning test stayed flat at 20.9ms over the duration of the test. This compared to 31ms from the first-generation WarpDrive towards the second half of the test.

    In terms of most responsive PCIe Application Accelerator, the LSI Nytro WarpDrive came in on top with its performance in Windows during our Web Server Preconditioning test. It kept its peak response times under 120ms in Windows, and right above 500ms in Linux.

    With barely a spike in our Web Server preconditioning test, the LSI Nytro WarpDrive impressed again with its incredibly low latency standard deviation. In Windows, it offered the most consistent performance, coming out on top of the first-generation WarpDrive. Its performance in Linux didn't fare as well, but still came in towards the middle of the pack.

    Switching back to a 100% read Web Server workload after the preconditioning process, the OCZ Z-Drive R4 offered the highest performance in Windows, but only after an effective queue depth of 32. Before that the Nytro WarpDrive was able to come out on top with lower thread counts over a queue depth of 4. The leader in the low thread/low queue depth arena was still the Fusion ioDrive Duo.

    The LSI Nytro WarpDrive was able to offer impressive low-latency in our Web Server workload, measuring as low as 0.267ms in Linux with a 2T/2Q load. Its highest average response time was 4.5ms in Linux with a 16T/16Q load. Overall it performed very well, bested by only the OCZ Z-Drive R4 in Windows under higher effective queue depths.

    All of the PCIe Application Accelerators suffered from some high latency spikes in our Web Server test, with minimal differences between OS, controller or NAND type. Overall Linux was LSI's strong suit for both the Nytro WarpDrive and first-generation WarpDrive, having fewer latency spikes versus the performance in Windows.

    While the peak latency performance may seem problematic, what really matters is how the device performs over the entire duration of the test. This is where latency standard deviation comes in to play, measuring how consistent the latency was overall. While the LSI Nytro WarpDrive in Windows had more frequent spikes compared to its Linux performance, it had a lower standard deviation in Windows under higher effective queue depths.


    The LSI Nytro WarpDrive WLP4-200 represents a solid step forward for LSI's application acceleration line. It's generally quicker in most areas than the prior generation SLP-300, thanks to the updated SandForce SF-2500 controller and improved firmware used this time around. Structurally it's simpler as well, dropping from six drives in RAID0 to four. LSI has also added a bunch of capacity and NAND options for the Nytro WarpDrive line, giving buyers a range of options from 200GB in SLC up to 1.6TB in eMLC. Overall the offering is more complete and well-rounded, offering flexibillty which should increase the market adoption for the Nytro WarpDrive family at large. 

    A big selling point for LSI is the compatibility of their products on a hardware and OS level. We noted strong performance from the Nytro WarpDrive in both our Windows and Linux tests. The Windows driverset was definitely more polished, offering much higher performance in some areas. While the ioDrive Duo also showed very good multi-OS support, the same can not be said about OCZ's Z-Drive R4, which had a gigantic gap in performance between their Windows and Linux drivers.

    When it comes to management, LSI offers software tools to check the health and handle basic commands for most major operating systems. Their CLI WarpDrive Management Utility is basic, but still gets the job done when it comes to formatting or over-provisioning the drive. The software suite is certainly a bit spartan, but even these tools are appreciated as some in the PCIe storage space don't offer much of anything when it comes to drive management. 

    The most surprising aspect of the LSI Nytro WarpDrive is its behavior in our enterprise workloads. Compared to other PCIe Application Accelerators we've tested, its burst performance wasn't the most impressive, but the fact that it remained rock solid over the duration of our tests was. What it lacked in speed off the line, it more than made up for in consistent latency with incredibly low standard deviation under load. For enterprise applications that demand a narrow window of acceptable response times under load, low max latency and standard deviation seperate the men from the boys. It's also important to remember that SandForce-based drives have compression benefits that aren't highlighted in this type of workload testing. For this reason and to show an even more complete profile of enterprise drive performance, StorageReview is currently building out a robust set of application-level benchmarks that may show further differences between enterprise storage products. 


  • Increased performance while reducing controller count
  • Industry leading host system compatibility
  • More NAND and capacity options than previous-generation WarpDrive
  • Incredibly consistent latency under stress
  • Cons

  • Limited software tools for drive management
  • Weaker burst performance (excellent steady-state performance)
  • Bottom Line

    The LSI Nytro WarpDrive WLP4-200 is a solid PCIe application accelerator and will win over enterprise customers for its excellent steady state performance, consistent performance over a variety of uses, and class-leading compatibility with host systems. LSI did a good job with the Nytro WarpDrive from hardware design to smooth operation, with our main complaints being around drive management tools. While it doesn't burst out of the gate as fast as others, that's usually not terribly important to the enterprise and there's something to be said for a drive that works well out of the box, and continues to operate well, in just about any operating system. 

    LSI Application Acceleration Products

    Discuss This Review

    Tricida Inc (TCDA) Q4 2018 Earnings Conference Call Transcript | real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Tricida Inc  (NASDAQ:TCDA)Q4 2018 Earnings Conference CallMarch 28, 2019, 8:00 a.m. ET

  • Prepared Remarks
  • Questions and Answers
  • Call Participants
  • Prepared Remarks: Logo of jester cap with thought bubble.

    Image source: The Motley Fool.


    Good day, ladies and gentlemen, and welcome to the Tricida TRCA-301E Clinical Trial Results and Financial Results Conference call. At this time, all participants are in a listen-only mode. Later, we will conduct a question-and-answer session and instructions will be given at that time. (Operator Instructions) As a reminder, this conference call maybe recorded.

    I would now like to introduce your host for today's conference, Ms. Jackie Cossmon. Ma'am, you may begin.

    Jackie Cossmon -- Vice President of Investor Relations and Communications

    Thank you. Good morning, and thank you for joining the Tricida Conference Call. In today's call, Gerrit Klaerner, our CEO, President and Founder will discuss the TRCA-301E Clinical Trial Results that we announced this morning as well as our business progress. Geoff Parker, our CFO, will then discuss our upside debt facility with Hercules, our financial results for the quarter and full year 2018 and provide an overview of our financial outlook.

    Please note that in today's call, we will be making various statements that include forward-looking statements as defined under applicable securities laws. Forward-looking statements include statements regarding our future development plans, recruitment milestones, planned NDA submission, financial guidance and other statements that are not historical facts.

    Management's assumptions, expectations, and opinions reflected in these forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially from any future results, performance or achievements discussed in or applied by such forward-looking statements.

    Tricida can give no assurance that these statements will prove to be correct, and we do not intend and undertake no duty to update these statements. We also urge you to read the risks and uncertainties associated with our business that are described in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. For a copy of our press releases that were issued prior to this call, please go to and follow the link to our Investor Relations page.

    At this time, I would like to turn the call over to Gerrit.

    Gerrit Klaerner -- Chief Executive Officer, President and Founder

    Thank you, Jackie, and thank you all for joining us today. We previously reported that the expected results of our 301E extension trial in the first half of 2019. I am pleased to report that we now have the results of the trial and that it met its primary and all secondary endpoints.

    Earlier today, we issued a press release that provides greater detail concerning the design of and the data generated in the trial. Before I walk you through the results, I want to highlight the fact that we saw a surprising upside, beyond the expected good safety profile, and long-term durability of effect of TRC101 on the surrogate blood bicarbonate endpoint.

    Following 52 weeks of treatment, we have observed evidence of clinical benefit in TRC101 treated subjects, including reduced all-cause mortality, slowing of CKD progression and improved physical function. These observations are in line with the underlying pathophysiology of metabolic acidosis and its impact on bone, muscle and kidney health.

    The 301E trial was a blinded 40-week extension of the 12-week 301 trial, which randomized 217 patients with non-dialysis dependent CKD and metabolic acidosis. 196 subjects containing of -- consisting of 114 subjects in the TRC101 group and 82 subjects in the placebo group elected and were qualified to continue in the extension track.

    Let me start with the fact that we observed the clean safety profile for TRC101. The primary endpoint of the 301E trial was the assessment of the long-term safety profile of TRC101 versus placebo. We observed fewer discontinuations, fewer serious adverse events and a comparable rate of GI adverse events on TRC101 versus placebo.

    Specifically, 2.6% of TRC101 versus 9.8% of placebo treated subjects discontinued prematurely. The incidence of serious adverse events was 1.8% in the active group versus 4.9% in the placebo group, and no serious adverse events were assessed to be related study drug.

    Gastrointestinal adverse events occurred in 21.4% of patients in the TRC101 group and in 25.9% of patients on placebo group. We observed a sustained increase in blood bicarbonate in TRC101 treated patients. Two of the four secondary endpoints assessed the durability of effect of TRC101 by comparing the changes in blood bicarbonate between active and placebo treated subjects who completed the 52-week treatment period.

    63% of the active subjects exhibited an increase in blood bicarbonate level of at least four milliequivalents per liter or achieved a blood bicarbonate level in the normal range compared with 38% of placebo subjects. This represented a P value of 0.0015. The mean change in blood bicarbonate from baseline to end of treatment in the TRC101 group was 4.7 mEq/L compared with 2.7 mEq/L in the placebo group, representing a P value of 0.0002.

    The final two secondary endpoints evaluated how treatment with TRC101 might affect how patients feel and function. If you recall the basic physiology behind metabolic acidosis, a buildup of acid can contribute to reduce muscle mass and impaired physical function. Physical function were assessed indirectly through the self-reported responses to the KDQOL Physical Functioning Survey and measured directly through a repeated chair stand test.

    Let me return, the placebo-adjusted improvement in favor of TRC101-treated subjects in the two measures of physical function at Week 52 were both highly statistically significant for the P value of less than 0.0001 and approximately doubled compared to the observed results at Week 12.

    We believe the results from the KDQOL Physical Functioning Survey and the repeated chair stand test both provide evidence of improvement in physical function and these placebo-adjusted effects exceed the minimally clinically important different thresholds reported in the scientific literature.

    As you can tell I can't wait to get to this next part that really deals, but one of the most unexpected and exciting results of this trial. We included a prespecified comparison of the TRC101 and placebo groups for the time to the composite clinical endpoint of all-cause mortality, dialysis or a greater equal 50% decline in eGFR.

    We refer to this as a DD50 event over the combined 52-week treatment period, the annualized DD50 incidence rate was 4.2% in the TRC101 group versus 12% in the placebo group. This represents a statistically significant P value of 0.0224. There were no deaths in the TRC101 group and four placebo patients died.

    Each group had one subject initiated dialysis. Although the 301, 301E clinical trials were not designed or powered to assess all-cause mortality or the progression of CKD outcomes, we nevertheless observed a 65% reduction in the annualized DD50 event rate for TRC101-treated subjects versus the placebo group.

    So, let me sum up where we are based on our topline analysis of the extension trial. The combined 52-week results far exceeded our expectations. We did not anticipate that we would observe any evidence of clinical benefit beyond the increase in blood bicarbonate in patients treated with TRC101 until the read out of our VALOR-CKD postmarketing trial somewhere in the '22 to '23 timeframe.

    We remain committed to submitting our NDA under the accelerated approval program in the second half of 2019 and look forward to the results of our VALOR-CKD confirmatory postmarketing trial. While we do not anticipate any change to the size or design of the VALOR-CKD trial. We feel good about what we've learned in the 301E study regarding safety and efficacy, increasing our confidence for successful VALOR-CKD trial.

    Just as a reminder, the ongoing VALOR-CKD trial is a time-to-event study. Subjects will be followed until we have approved the target number of primary endpoint events, which we estimate will be approximately four years following full enrollment.

    Our sample size of 1,600 subjects is based on the assumption of a 30% to 35% reduction in renal event. Furthermore, the protocol specifies an interim analysis, when at least half the planned number of primary endpoint event have been approved, which we estimate will be approximately two to three years after full enrollment.

    At such time, the trial maybe stopped early for efficacy, the sample size maybe increased or the trial may continue without changes. We have now successfully completed all the clinical trials that we plan to complete prior to submission of our NDA through the FDA's accelerated approval program. We are on track for this submission in the second half of 2019.

    Next, I would like to highlight the publication of our Phase 3 TRC101 clinical trial results in The Lancet, a leading independent general medical journal. This is an important milestone for Tricida and shows that interest in metabolic acidosis extends beyond the nephrology community. I would like to thank our Tricida authors and our key opinion leaders Drs. Wesson, Bushinsky, Tangri and Mathur.

    Now, I would like to provide an update on our DDI studies. Our drug-drug interaction studies were guided by the underlying mechanism of action of TRC101, our in vitro studies and FDA interactions, and we determined it was appropriate to evaluate aspirin, dabigatran, furosemide and warfarin in Phase 1 clinical trials for potential DDI effects.

    Based on the results of our DDI studies, we do not believe we need to recommend dosing separation for any drugs co-administered with TRC101.

    Before I turn the call over to Geoff, let me say, how pleased I am to welcome Susannah Cantrell to Tricida as our Chief Commercial Officer. Susannah comes to us with over 20 years of commercial industry experience across sales, operations, marketing and global commercial strategy, including executive and senior level roles at Gilead, Genentech/Roche and GSK.

    Susannah has launched multiple successful therapeutic products at Gilead and Genentech and she brings the breadth and depth of strategic and operational experience to Tricida and has already hit the ground running. Our pre-launch activities on the way including operational logistics, managed market activities, physician surveys, patient journey analysis, refined healthcare economic analysis and much more. We are truly delighted to have Susannah joined the team. And now I'll ask Geoff to discuss the new Hercules amendment, which we were also pleased to announce this morning as well as to provide you with a financial update and our cash guidance for 2019.

    Geoffrey Parker -- Chief Financial Officer and Senior Vice President

    Thank you, Gerrit. Before I turn to the financial results, I would like to echo Gerrit's excitement regarding the positive 301E results. We recognized that these compelling results could have warranted an independent call, but we wanted to update you at the earliest possible time, which happened to coincide with our financial results call.

    Let me now turn to our financial highlights. I am pleased to report that we have completed an amendment to our Hercules debt facility. This amendment increases the total amount available under our current debt facility to upto $200 million and significantly extends the maturity of the facility.

    The key strategic advantage to this new facility is that it extends our financial runway such that we are now able to fund our operations into 2021, which would cover the initial commercial launch period of TRC101. Under the terms of this amendment, the $40 million currently drawn under the existing debt facility with Hercules remains outstanding.

    Additional tranches of $20 million and $15 million are available for draw-down prior to December 15, 2019 and December 15, 2020 respectively. An additional tranche of $75 million will be available for draw-down prior to December 15, 2020 subject to FDA approval of TRC101. A final tranche of $50 million will be available for draw-down prior to December 15, 2021 subject to approval by Hercules.

    The final maturity date of the amended debt facility is initially four years from closing and can be extended to five years subject to the FDA approval of TRC101 and the -- when the final tranche is drawn. Let me now turn to our financial results for 2018 that we reported today.

    Research and development expense was $22.7 million and $17.8 million for the three months ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 respectively and $85.6 million and $35.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 respectively.

    The increases in research and development expense in the three month and full year period of 2018 compared to the prior year were primarily due to increased activities in connection with our TRC101 clinical development program, including increased drug substance manufacturing as well as increased personnel and related costs.

    General and administrative expense was $6.1 million and $2.9 million for the three months ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 respectively, and $18 million and $11.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 respectively.

    The increases in general and administrative expense in the three months and full year periods of 2018 compared to the prior year were primarily due to increased administrative costs supporting the increased activities in connection with our TRC101 clinical development program, including increased personnel and related costs and other G&A expenses.

    Net loss was $27.8 million and $20.6 million for the three months ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 respectively, and $102.8 million and $41.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 respectively. As of the end of 2018, cash, cash equivalents and investments were $243.4 million.

    Let me now turn to our financial outlook. With regards to financial guidance for 2019, we estimate that cash expense will be between $135 million and $145 million. As I previously stated, we expect that our cash and investments as of the end of 2018 together with our borrowing capacity under our amended Hercules debt facility will enable us to fund our anticipated operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements into 2021, which would cover the initial commercial launch period for TRC101.

    Operator, we are now ready to open the call to questions.

    Questions and Answers:


    Thank you. (Operator Instructions) And our first question comes from Jessica Fye from JPMorgan. Your line is open.

    Jessica Fye -- JPMorgan -- Analyst

    Hi, there. Good morning. Thanks for taking my questions. I wanted to ask about the placebo arm and the trial in the extension phase. It looks like they sort of did a little bit better than in the original portion of the study. Can you talk about why that might be the sort of effective at being a completers group of placebo patients?

    Gerrit Klaerner -- Chief Executive Officer, President and Founder

    Thanks, Jessica. Yeah, it's exactly. You only look at the ones that actually complete 52-weeks. And, of course, they did not do really well because four of them died and many more actually progressed in terms of dialysis. But the serum bicarb result is basically impacted because we only look at the ones that complete 52-weeks and when one group hardly anybody drops out and a lot do drop out in the other that's where the imbalance comes from.

    Jessica Fye -- JPMorgan -- Analyst

    Okay, great. And can you also help us think about the mix of components of the endpoint in the outcomes trial. You know here we had some deaths, some dialysis and dialysis initiation et cetera. Can you talk about how you expect that kind of mix of endpoints to play out longer term?

    Gerrit Klaerner -- Chief Executive Officer, President and Founder

    Yes, I think, we -- obviously, as you know, we did, you know, a multicenter blinded extension trial with the placebo group where we wanted to confirm our surrogate effect in terms of efficacy and safety.

    So, the events that we looked at were pretty hard clinical outcomes. All-cause mortality, dialysis and losing 50% of the kidney functions. And that's really sort of, you know, from the safety considerations and then we saw the surprising difference in just one year.

    In our VALOR-CKD trial, we obviously have a traditional time-to-event analysis, where we are looking at not all-cause mortality, but renal death, dialysis and a 40% eGFR reduction that occurs more frequently than 50% really.

    So, really what we are reporting here out of our safety observations in the prespecified analysis, those are quite frankly even harder endpoint than VALOR-CKD, but they make us feel pretty good that, I think, you know, metabolic acidosis causes death and renal progression.

    Jessica Fye -- JPMorgan -- Analyst

    Okay, got it. And did you analyze this data based on the 40% alone?

    Gerrit Klaerner -- Chief Executive Officer, President and Founder


    Jessica Fye -- JPMorgan -- Analyst

    Okay. And just one last one, the causes of the deaths here. Do they appear to be kidney disease related?

    Gerrit Klaerner -- Chief Executive Officer, President and Founder

    Yes, one was actually renal death and that defined as, you know, a patient who basically refuses dialysis. And another one had significant eGFR reduction, before the patient died. But under the VALOR-CKD definition, one of the four was renal death.

    Jessica Fye -- JPMorgan -- Analyst

    Okay. Got it. Thank you.


    Thank you. (Operator Instructions) And our next question comes from Laura Christianson from Cowen. Your line is open.

    Laura Christianson -- Cowen and Company -- Analyst

    Hi, guys. Thanks for taking my question and congrats on the data. I just want to hone in a little bit on what you mentioned briefly about the drug-drug interaction studies. You mentioned no need for dose separation for any drugs co-administered. Is that what you will have in the protocol for VALOR-CKD as well and how do you expect that to influence the tolerability of the drug if at all?

    Gerrit Klaerner -- Chief Executive Officer, President and Founder

    Yes, the VALOR-CKD study started before we had completed all of our DDI studies. So, that's a different cup of tea, but I think from an NDA submission perspective that's a conclusion that we will just basically submit in our NDA.

    Laura Christianson -- Cowen and Company -- Analyst

    Got it. Okay. And when I know you've already kind of rehashed the estimated pricing based on conversations with payors. Do you anticipate that changing at all with the results that you've released today with the composite endpoint?

    Gerrit Klaerner -- Chief Executive Officer, President and Founder

    Yes, I think, you know, there is a big difference between time, people to extrapolate our results to outcomes and having outcome results. It's as simple as that.

    And we think that the data that we have in the small study is really a paradigm shift in terms of the understanding of metabolic acidosis and potential treatment with TRC101. So, we are obviously, you know, we are very data driven and we'll have discussions with payors.

    But, as you know, there are not many cardio renal trials that have shown multiple positive outcomes ranging from reduced all-cause mortality to reduced progression of kidney disease and the patients feel and function better. So, yeah, we think that, that's going to move the needle.

    Laura Christianson -- Cowen and Company -- Analyst

    Great. That's helpful. Thanks.


    Thank you. And I am showing no further questions from our phone line. And I would like to turn the conference back over to Gerrit Klaerner for any closing remarks.

    Gerrit Klaerner -- Chief Executive Officer, President and Founder

    Thank you, operator, and thank you all for joining us today. We are very pleased to be able to share real time the 301E data with you on today's call. We'll be reviewing this further with our key experts. We also plan to submit these results for publication in a major medical journals. We have significant work ahead of us to submit our NDA, expand our disease awareness campaign and initiate our commercialization plan. Given these results, we are more eager than ever to have physicians, patients and payors understand the value of treating metabolic acidosis. We look forward to updating you on our progress and as always if you have questions, please don't hesitate to call Jackie. Thank you and goodbye.


    Ladies and gentlemen, thank you for participating in today's conference. This does conclude the program. You may all disconnect. Everyone have a wonderful day.

    Duration: 24 minutes

    Call participants:

    Jackie Cossmon -- Vice President of Investor Relations and Communications

    Gerrit Klaerner -- Chief Executive Officer, President and Founder

    Geoffrey Parker -- Chief Financial Officer and Senior Vice President

    Jessica Fye -- JPMorgan -- Analyst

    Laura Christianson -- Cowen and Company -- Analyst

    More TCDA analysis

    Transcript powered by AlphaStreet

    This article is a transcript of this conference call produced for The Motley Fool. While we strive for our Foolish Best, there may be errors, omissions, or inaccuracies in this transcript. As with all our articles, The Motley Fool does not assume any responsibility for your use of this content, and we strongly encourage you to do your own research, including listening to the call yourself and reading the company's SEC filings. Please see our Terms and Conditions for additional details, including our Obligatory Capitalized Disclaimers of Liability.

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