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Quantum cozy direct verbal exchange (QSDC) is an important department of quantum conversation, according to the principles of quantum mechanics for the direct transmission of classified tips. whereas fresh proof-of-precept experimental reviews have made unbelievable growth; QSDC methods continue to be to be implemented in observe. In a fresh examine, Ruoyang Qi and co-workers at the departments of low-dimensional quantum physics, tips know-how, electronics and information engineering, proposed and experimentally applied a practical quantum comfortable communication gadget.
within the work, Qi et al. analyzed the protection of the device the use of the Wyner wiretap channel thought. The scientists developed a coding scheme the use of concatenation (interconnected) low-density parity-determine (LDPC) codes in a realistic environment of excessive noise and high losses. The gadget operated with a repetition fee of 1 MHz throughout a distance of 1.5 kilometers and maintained a comfy communication cost of fifty bps to send textual content messages, moderately sized photographs and sounds. The effects are actually published in gentle: Science & functions.
The work with the aid of Qi et al. highlighted a sort of QSDC that can switch direct counsel without a distribution key to keep away from vulnerability to attacks. within the work, the team used a 1550 nm laser to generate single photons that carried comfy quantum counsel, the scientists were in a position to efficaciously decode the tips upon receipt. The system was professional even in practical environments caused by means of high photon loss or mistakes brought as a result of noise. The common LDPC code that they used within the look at for more suitable error-correction efficiency turned into carried out by using the Consulate Committee for space data methods (CCDS) for near-earth and deep-area functions.
global safety is dependent upon comfortable conversation infrastructures. At existing, communique is secured by means of encryption options such as the RSA public key scheme. The secrecy means is described because the supremum of all workable transmission fees with protection and reliability. In observe, it is problematic to estimate the secrecy capacity in classical communique programs due to the difficulty with eavesdropping detection. In quantum systems, single photons or entangled photon pairs can transmit digital advice, giving upward push to new aspects in quantum cryptography, impossible in classical transmission media. In principle, it's unimaginable to eavesdrop with out disturbing the transmission in an effort to keep away from detection in such a setup.
the primary quantum communique protocol become proposed with the aid of Bennett and Brassard (BB84), in accordance with exploiting quantum materials for comfy key contract. In 2000, QSDC became proposed to communicate information at once and not using a secret key and dispose of loopholes linked to key storage and ciphertext assaults. Subsequent proof-of-precept reviews have verified QSDC primarily based single photons and entangled pairs, together with studies the place a fiber may communicate across a significant distance of 500 m the use of two-step QSDC protocols.Illustration of the purposeful DL04-QSDC protocol. The “main channel” and the “wiretap channel” are discrete memoryless channels. The main channel represents a channel between the sender and the reliable receiver, while the wiretap channel represents a channel between the sender and the eavesdropper. credit score: mild: Science & applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-3
in the latest examine, Qi et al. carried out a practical quantum secure direct communique system using a technique according to the DL04 protocol (with out a key). according to the Wyner wiretap model, to implement the QSDC system in practice, the gadget should still work under the secrecy ability of the channel for relaxed counsel transmission. The scientists estimated the secrecy potential of the device using interconnected low-density parity assess (LDPC) codes. They designed the scheme to chiefly operate in excessive loss and high error-price regimes, interesting for quantum communique. Qi et al. as a consequence tested the QSDC platform might with ease function in a sensible environment.
When imposing the DL04-QSDC protocol, the scientists covered a discrete memoryless 'leading channel' and a 'wiretap channel'. The main channel represented the network between the sender and the receiver. The wiretap channel represented the community between the reliable users and the eavesdropper. The protocol contained four steps:
Qi et al. used totally attenuated lasers as an approximate single-photon source within the implementation. For enhanced approximation of a single photon source to detect eavesdropping attacks, a decoy state quantum key distribution formulation can also be used. If the secrecy capability is non-zero for any wiretap channel, i.e. if the reliable receiver has a better channel than the eavesdropper, there exists some coding scheme that achieves perfect secrecy in response to the Wyner mannequin. despite the fact, not all coding schemes can guarantee the protection, which essentially is dependent upon particulars of the coding.Left: Experimental setup. correct: device stability with distinctive message blocks. ex and ez are the error prices of measurements the usage of the X-groundwork and Z-foundation, respectively, at Alice’s web site. e is the error fee at Bob’s web site. The error fee turned into estimated block by block; each and every block includes 1312 × 830 pulses. The imply number of photons is 0.1. The inherent lack of a quantum channel is 14.5 dB, which includes the efficiency of the detector, ~70%, and the optical aspects, ~13 dB. the entire lack of the equipment is 25.1 dB at a distance of 1.5 km. credit score: mild: Science & applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-3 The scientists then implemented the scheme in a fiber gadget with part coding, for quantum conversation throughout long distances. during this setup, Bob prepares a series of single-photon pulses, after polarization control and attenuation, the pulses are prepared as random qubits and sent to Alice's website through a 1.5 km-lengthy fiber. On arrival at Alice's web page, it be separated in to 2 elements, where one goes to the encoding module and the other to the manage module for error-determine, controlled via box programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) within the setup.
simultaneously encoding happens within the encoding module. If the error-price is smaller than the threshold, the encoding part is allowed to ship the one photons lower back to Bob by the use of the same fiber, where they're guided to single photon detectors for size. The scientists controlled the setup along with three part modulators (PM) and single photon detectors (SPD) to encode messages on the two sites using the FPGAs, that have been extra managed with the aid of higher-place computer systems.The strong line represents the mutual information between Alice and Bob; by using the noisy-channel coding theorem that transmission rate can not exceed the means of the leading channel. The dotted line is the mutual information between Alice and Eve, the highest information that an eavesdropper can achieve. Symbols symbolize experimental outcomes. at the side of the chosen LDPC code, the coding scheme yields a transmission rate of 0.00096 when the bit-error expense is beneath 10^−6. because the cost is enhanced than the mutual suggestions between Alice and Eve, each the protection and reliability of the counsel transmission are certain. credit score: easy: Science & applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-three in the experimental results, the scientists represented the mutual suggestions versus the lack of the gadget as two straight lines. The enviornment between these two strains fashioned the suggestions theoretic cozy enviornment. due to this fact, for a coding scheme with an assistance rate in the targeted area, the security may well be reliably guaranteed. the usage of the experimental setup, Qi et al. attained a comfortable information fee of 50 bps, well within the described comfy area. Illustration of the coding scheme. A message m together with a local random bits r and public random seed s are processed by using the reverse customary hashing households UHF−1 to vector u, after which u is modified by way of LDPC code into v, which is mapped to codeword c and is then despatched to the receiver's website. because of loss and error, receiver Bob receives a degraded codeword, and then he demaps, decodes and obtains the message after performing generic hashing households UHF. credit score: gentle: Science & applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-3 The scientists illustrated a coding scheme to guarantee the reliability of transmission for QSDC based on interconnected LDPC codes. Preprocessing was in response to widely wide-spread hashing households (UHF). in the process, for every message (m), the sender Alice generates a local sequence of random bit (r) and public random seed (s). next, she maps to a vector (u) by using the inverse of an accurately chosen UHF (UHF-1), which is then changed with the aid of LDPC code into (v), mapped to codeword (c) and despatched to the receiver's site.
In advice thought, the noisy-channel coding theorem establishes professional verbal exchange for any given degree of noise illness of a communique channel. To be sure reliability of the guidance, Alice modulates the pulses that attain the authentic receiver Bob, who makes measurements in the equal basis as he organized them. due to loss and blunder, Bob receives a degraded codeword, which he demaps and decodes after postprocessing with UHF to gain the message.
during this approach, Qi et al. implemented a realistic QSDC gadget in a sensible atmosphere of high noise and high loss. amongst different suggestions, the scientists used an LDPC code to reduce error and loss within the equipment. They analyzed the safety of the gadget intensive the usage of the Wyner wiretap channel idea. When the secrecy skill turned into non-zero; a coding scheme with an assistance rate lower than the secrecy potential ensured both protection and reliability of the counsel transmission. In complete, the scientists obtained a cozy information rate of 50 bps at a just about meaningful distance of 1.5 km. Qi et al. suggest these parameters are untimely and envision an superior equipment that can integrate the present expertise for a more robust cost of dozens of kbps assistance transmission sooner or later.
explore extra: size-machine-impartial quantum communique with out encryption
extra assistance: Implementation and security evaluation of functional quantum relaxed direct verbal exchange www.nature.com/articles/s41377-019-0132-three, Ruoyang Qi et al. 06 February 2019, easy: Science & purposes.
comfy direct conversation with a quantum one-time pad journals.aps.org/pra/summary/ … 3/PhysRevA.sixty nine.052319, Deng Fuo-Guo and long Gui Li, may additionally 2004, actual review A.
a method for acquiring digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=359342 Rivest R.L. et al. February 1978, Communications of the affiliation for Computing machinery.
A Mathematical theory of conversation dl.acm.org/quotation.cfm?identification=584093, Shannon C.E. October 1948, The Bell gadget Technical Journal, IEEE discover.
© 2019 Science X community
Three months after the American Civil Liberties Union printed that Amazon supplied facial awareness know-how to local law enforcement, a new report indicates that IBM collaborated with the ny metropolis Police branch to increase a gadget that allowed officials to look for americans by using dermis colour, hair color, gender, age, and a number of facial facets.
The Intercept and the countrywide Institute’s nonprofit Investigative Fund, citing “exclusive corporate files” and interviews with engineers worried with the challenge, write that IBM started developing the analytics platform roughly 10 years ago in partnership with big apple’s reduce new york security Initiative counterterrorist core, following an previous test with the metropolis of Chicago. at the time, IBM turned into a subcontractor to Microsoft subsidary Vexcel.
using “hundreds” of pictures from roughly 50 cameras supplied by way of the NYPD, its desktop vision system learned from sixteen,000 elements to identify garb colour and other bodily features, moreover talents threats like unattended packages, americans getting into off-limits areas, and cars speeding up against the circulate of site visitors.
picture credit score: The Intercept
NYPD officials have been reportedly checking out the utility as early as 2012, however spokesperson Peter Donald advised the Intercept its filtering equipment have been used most effective for “comparison functions” and that officers were urged to exclude epidermis tone from searches. quite a few “elected leaders and stakeholders” have been counseled of the department’s efforts, in keeping with Donald, however the details weren’t disclosed publicly.
Donald additionally proven that the department opted now not to set up the application, finally, and that it explicitly rejected an enhanced edition that could look for individuals in response to ethnicity. (The Intercept notes that IBM’s intelligent Video Analytics 2.0, which become launched in 2017, offers a body camera surveillance function that instantly labels people via tags akin to “Asian,” “Black,” and “White.”)
“Video, from time to time, become supplied to IBM to make sure that the product they were constructing would work in the crowded city NYC atmosphere and help us protect the city. there's nothing within the NYPD’s contract with IBM that prohibits sharing facts with IBM for equipment construction applications. further, all vendors who enter into contractual agreements with the NYPD have absolutely the requirement to keep all information furnished via the NYPD personal right through the time period of the contract, after the completion of the settlement, and in the adventure that the contract is terminated.”
“IBM is committed to responsibly advancing and using new technologies and is identified for guidelines that promote diversity and inclusion,” IBM wrote in an announcement supplied to VentureBeat. “These values are why we're making publicly obtainable to other businesses a dataset of annotations for more than a million photos to help remedy one of the biggest issues in facial evaluation — the inability of different information to teach AI systems.”
Facial attention methods have these days come below improved scrutiny, and with respectable motive.
In July, the ACLU established that Amazon’s consciousness could, when calibrated a certain method, misidentify 28 sitting participants of Congress as criminals. A examine in 2012, meanwhile, confirmed that facial algorithms from dealer Cognitec performed 5 to 10 % worse on African-americans than on Caucasians. extra recently, it was published that a device deployed by way of London’s Metropolitan Police produces as many as 49 false fits for every hit.
Rick Smith, CEO of Axon, one of the most biggest suppliers of body cameras in the U.S., become previous this summer time quoted as announcing that facial focus isn’t yet correct enough for legislation enforcement applications.
“[They aren’t] where they need to be to be making operational selections off the facial attention,” he observed. “here is one where we believe you don’t want to be premature and turn out to be either the place you have got technical failures with disastrous effects or … there’s some unintended use case where it finally ends up being unacceptable publicly in terms of lengthy-time period use of the technology.”
In a weblog submit in August, AWS everyday manager Matt wood wrote that “there have all the time been and may at all times be dangers” with new technological capabilities and that it’s up to companies to “act responsibly.” And in a press release today, IBM stated that it’s “one of the first agencies any place to adopt a set of principles for have faith and transparency for new technologies, including AI techniques.”
youngsters, critics — including Microsoft president Brad Smith, who in July called on lawmakers to investigate face-detecting algorithms and craft policies guiding their utilization — argue their efforts don’t go a long way sufficient.
“think about a government monitoring everywhere you walked during the last month without your permission or advantage. think about a database of every person who attended a political rally that constitutes the very essence of free speech. think about the outlets of a searching mall using facial attention to share counsel with each and every other about every shelf that you browse and product you buy, devoid of asking you first. This has lengthy been the stuff of science fiction and accepted movies — like Minority document, Enemy of the State, and even 1984 — however now it’s on the verge of fitting possible,” Smith wrote.
Taking a glance again at 2018, it amazes me that the cybercrime danger landscape continues to appropriate itself 12 months after year. over the last yr, we’ve viewed historical breaches, the invention of tremendous-scale vulnerabilities, the emergence of the trust financial system and regulators making an attempt to help make sense of all of it.
The looming generic statistics protection rules (GDPR) time limit at last got here in might also after organizations spent years making ready. Now we’re in the GDPR era, and we’re nevertheless seeing organizations struggle to interpret and handle the law. agencies are asking themselves, may still we expose every possible incident to be lined or spend more time investigating incidents to ascertain them?
We also saw many unintended consequences from the GDPR, including the removal of WHOIS information that possibility intelligence consultants count on to determine malicious domains used via fraudsters. We realized that in Europe, agencies will need to move through work councils to acquire approval to deploy endpoint insurance policy equipment within the wake of an incident as a result of the privacy regulation. This gives attackers a significant expertise to harvest data for an extensive amount of time — upwards of 30 to 90 days.
one in every of my protection predictions for 2018 became that agencies will delivery to get response right. We’ve viewed some progress on this, however there’s still loads of work to be carried out here. considering we opened our Cyber range in Cambridge, Massachusetts two years in the past, we’ve had more than 2,000 people experience what it’s like to respond to an attack.
We’ve seen many trade corporations come collectively in the Cyber latitude and collaborate to help their entire industries. We additionally launched our Cyber Tactical Operations core (C-TOC), an 18-wheeler that should be traveling Europe in 2019 to handle the extended demand for preparedness training. Of route, there’s at all times room for growth, but our business is making growth, and for that, I’m proud.
So what lies ahead in 2019? How will the cybercrime probability landscape change and evolve?
precise experts from IBM X-drive had been examining emerging developments and clues this year, which they trust are warning signs of expertise major cybercriminal exercise in 2019. beneath, these consultants demonstrate their true safety predictions for 2019 based on insights from their analysis and work with clients. The predictions span a range of knowledge assault schemes and consequences, from industry-selected prognostications to a swift enlargement of emerging criminal schemes.
First, a few my very own predictions:Social Insecurity Numbers Dropped for entry
With most americans’ Social security numbers a shared secret after 2017, businesses will start to circulation away from the use of the numbers as a kind of access. In specific, corporate advantages classes frequently nevertheless use Social safety numbers as an identifier. expect companies and benefits programs to evolve their authentication methods ahead of regulators.
What corporations can do: cease the use of Social safety numbers for identification. instead, use one-time PIN to set up money owed tied to two-factor authentication. additionally, further use of biometrics for authentication.unexpected penalties of the GDPR
2018 became all about implementation of GDPR and getting businesses organized. In 2019, new, unexpected affects of GDPR on danger intelligence will be recognized and have broader consequences in cybersecurity. With the removing of WHOIS records, identification of malicious domains linked to unhealthy actors turns into a giant problem, and we’ll seemingly see malicious domains ramp up. businesses in Europe will battle to eradicate attackers from networks and devices as a result of a 30- to 90-day waiting length to installation endpoint insurance policy after an incident. My hope is that regulators, work councils and safety business leaders can work together in 2019 to establish some exceptions by which safety takes precedent.
possible answer: better collaboration between regulators, work councils and protection business leaders to establish exceptions to regulations when protection inadvertently may endure as a result of the rules.
Now, some predictions from my fellow X-drive group individuals:automated client service systems in Attackers’ sights
Kiosk and different self-provider techniques have develop into further and further part of our world. retailers, airways, inns and public buildings are the usage of these methods to pace up determine-ins and cut back labor expenses. In 2018, we saw a resurgence in ATM hacking, and we expect in 2019 to peer public-dealing with self-provider programs centered as a method to harvest helpful consumer information.
– Charles Henderson, X-drive purple
What agencies can do: examine hardware and utility earlier than criminals have an opportunity to. Harden physical interfaces and disable unused ports on the hardware level. When the use of third-birthday celebration accessories, make sure that they are nevertheless supported by the brand.
hearken to the podcast: highlight on ATM trying outA Cyber assurance Market truth check
The increase of cybersecurity insurance has risen alongside the epic growth of cybercrime. while a advantageous tool to manipulate costs of a security incident or facts breach, businesses have develop into too reliant on coverage, avoiding investment in different preventative applied sciences and response capabilities. In 2019, we’ll see nearer teaming between cyber insurance providers and security vendors to fill the rising hole created by the market.
– Christopher Scott, X-force Incident Response and Intelligence functions (IRIS)
possible solution: providers of managed protection services and cyber coverage crew up collectively to present consulting features, check chance and put into effect shielding strategies.Have records, Will trip
Cybercriminals will shift their attractions to the lucrative databases of non-public facts maintained by way of commute and hospitality agencies. In 2018, we saw the tip of the iceberg with high-profile breaches at airways and inn chains. predict extra mega breaches during this area in 2019 as cybercriminals seem to monetize rewards facets and accumulate new credentials, reminiscent of passport numbers and driver licenses, to set up identities for online crime. This facts may additionally cause targeted, trip-linked phishing, tapping a person’s pursuits, motivations and connections.
– Wendi Whitmore, X-drive IRIS
What agencies can do: installation information obfuscation applied sciences, encryption and ordinary database undertaking monitoring. behavior common protection testing and have an incident response plan in location. commonly audit the storage necessities for for my part identifiable suggestions (PII) and set expirations for how long sensitive statistics is kept.facts of Cybercriminal inventory Manipulation
There’s growing speculation that some shorting of shares may also be tied to cyberattacks. Are criminals taking part to time their assaults for economic benefit? In 2019, we predict these schemes might be extra exposed and possibly prosecuted as government regulators take note of this exercise.
– Dustin Heywood, X-force purple
viable answer: A breach of a public enterprise is now both a technical crisis as well as a financial disaster. rapid manipulation of stock costs can occur as a result of dangerous guys seeking to earnings or hedge cash reacting to breaking news. Your speed of response and precision of communications will count. businesses need to construct and look at various their runbooks forward of time.Crypto-Mining Powered by way of PowerShell
PowerShell use for malicious actions has endured to develop in 2018. IBM X-force IRIS saw the tool used by way of malicious actors to inject malware at once into memory, raise obfuscation and stay away from antivirus detection application. In 2019, X-force IRIS anticipates that crypto-mining equipment will use PowerShell to load fileless malware onto compromised systems — corresponding to said recreation by means of the crypto-miner GhostMiner prior this yr.
– Dave McMillen, X-force IRIS
What companies can do: agencies will are looking to ensure that they are logging, monitoring and auditing PowerShell use in their networks. This can also be finished via leveraging the newest version of PowerShell and enabling logging via neighborhood coverage Settings. These logs should be forwarded to a relevant place the place they may also be analyzed.
besides logging, companies the use of home windows 10 should still make certain to enforce an antivirus answer it really is suitable with the Anti Malware Scanning Interface (AMSI). This interface gives antivirus products the capacity to check out PowerShell code before it's achieved, allowing the product to cease malicious PowerShell earlier than it might probably run.
Meet more IBM security All Stars
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Kiran Medical Systems, the radiology division of Trivitron Healthcare, has ventured into Color Doppler Ultrasound with the launch of Kiran SonoRad V9 Color Doppler in India. SonoRad V9 is a superior Color Doppler Ultrasound which can be used for wide range of clinical applications. The unique features of SonoRad V9 will further provide maximum value at an affordable cost and is ideal for nursing homes, diagnostic centres and large & mid-size hospitals.
Speaking on the occasion, Satyaki Banerjee, CEO, Kiran Medical Systems, said," The launch of SonoRad V9 Color Doppler Ultrasound is a strategic move and is in line with Kiran’s vision to be a one stop solution in Radiology & Imaging. Kiran brand has always been synonymous with quality and reliability in Radiology and with SonoRad V9, we have an opportunity to make a mark in Sonography segment as well.”
SonoRad V9 comes with strong technical features like 38 cm depth penetration, 4D, Real Skin Imaging Tomographic Ultrasound Imaging, Panoramic Imaging, Real time Doppler auto-trace, Anatomical M-mode with special 3 cursors, advanced ergonomics with omni-directional mechanic arm and 19” LED Monitor with 170 degree wide view. It supports wide variety of probes to suit major applications like Obstretics/Gynaecology, Radiology with high performance. SonoRad V9 supports cardiology features like TDI as well and CW/PW/HPRF is available with supporting probe. SonoRad V9 will be a right choice for multi-dimensional and whole body Color Doppler with high performance to cost ratio.
M Brahadeesh, president - Imaging, Trivitron said, “Trivitron Healthcare Group has been involved in Ultrasound business for more than 2 decades through strategic partnership with Hitachi-Aloka. We have an excellent team with rich experience in the modality, strong customer connect and dealer network across the country. Kiran SonoRad V9 will be complimentary to Hitachi's Ultrasound range and will increase our customer penetration in Tier II & Tier III locations as well.”
Commenting on this development Dr. GSK Velu, chairman and managing director, Trivitron Group of Companies said, “With the Launch of Kiran’s Sonorad V9 Color Doppler, we are one more step closer towards achieving our vision of making healthcare affordable and accessible to everyone. Kiran will continue to be the flag bearer from India for innovation and quality in radiology & imaging modality”.
Kiran’s portfolio of radiology products includes the Ultisys range of mobile & fixed radiography systems with the option of digital image acquisition chain, infinity and elite series surgical C-Arm systems available in 3.5 kW and 5.0 kW generator power options, a comprehensive range of radiation protection products, Anti-scatter X-ray grids and a wide range of imaging accessories.
Having a solid expertise in research and development, Trivitron manufactures and distributes exceptional medical technology products to 180 countries since 1997. With 9 US FDA, CE certified manufacturing facilities; Trivitron spearheads innovation in the fields of newborn screening, In-Vitro Diagnostics, imaging & radiology, radiation protection, critical care and operating room solutions.
Quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) is an important branch of quantum communication, based on the principles of quantum mechanics for the direct transmission of classified information. While recent proof-of-principle experimental studies have made remarkable progress; QSDC systems remain to be implemented in practice. In a recent study, Ruoyang Qi and co-workers at the departments of low-dimensional quantum physics, information technology, electronics and information engineering, proposed and experimentally implemented a practical quantum secure communication system.
In the work, Qi et al. analyzed the security of the system using the Wyner wiretap channel theory. The scientists developed a coding scheme using concatenation (interconnected) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in a realistic environment of high noise and high losses. The system operated with a repetition rate of 1 MHz across a distance of 1.5 kilometers and maintained a secure communication rate of 50 bps to send text messages, reasonably sized images and sounds. The results are now published in Light: Science & Applications.
The work by Qi et al. highlighted a form of QSDC that can transfer direct information without a distribution key to prevent vulnerability to attacks. In the work, the team used a 1550 nm laser to generate single photons that carried secure quantum information, the scientists were able to successfully decode the information upon receipt. The method was reliable even in realistic environments caused by high photon loss or errors introduced due to noise. The standard LDPC code that they used in the study for better error-correction performance was implemented by the Consulate Committee for Space Data Systems (CCDS) for near-earth and deep-space applications.
Global security depends on secure communication infrastructures. At present, communication is secured via encryption techniques such as the RSA public key scheme. The secrecy capacity is defined as the supremum of all achievable transmission rates with security and reliability. In practice, it is difficult to estimate the secrecy capacity in classical communication systems due to the difficulty with eavesdropping detection. In quantum systems, single photons or entangled photon pairs can transmit digital information, giving rise to new features in quantum cryptography, unattainable in classical transmission media. In principle, it is impossible to eavesdrop without disturbing the transmission so as to avoid detection in such a setup.
The first quantum communication protocol was proposed by Bennett and Brassard (BB84), based on exploiting quantum resources for secure key agreement. In 2000, QSDC was proposed to communicate information directly without a secret key and eliminate loopholes associated with key storage and ciphertext attacks. Subsequent proof-of-principle studies have demonstrated QSDC based single photons and entangled pairs, including studies where a fiber could communicate across a meaningful distance of 500 m using two-step QSDC protocols.Illustration of the practical DL04-QSDC protocol. The “main channel” and the “wiretap channel” are discrete memoryless channels. The main channel represents a channel between the sender and the legitimate receiver, while the wiretap channel represents a channel between the sender and the eavesdropper. Credit: Light: Science & Applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-3
In the present study, Qi et al. implemented a practical quantum secure direct communication system using a procedure based on the DL04 protocol (without a key). According to the Wyner wiretap model, to implement the QSDC system in practice, the system should work below the secrecy capacity of the channel for secure information transmission. The scientists estimated the secrecy capacity of the system using interconnected low-density parity check (LDPC) codes. They designed the scheme to specifically operate in high loss and high error-rate regimes, unique for quantum communication. Qi et al. thus demonstrated the QSDC platform could effectively function in a realistic environment.
When implementing the DL04-QSDC protocol, the scientists included a discrete memoryless 'main channel' and a 'wiretap channel'. The main channel represented the network between the sender and the receiver. The wiretap channel represented the network between the legitimate users and the eavesdropper. The protocol contained four steps:
Qi et al. used highly attenuated lasers as an approximate single-photon source in the implementation. For better approximation of a single photon source to detect eavesdropping attacks, a decoy state quantum key distribution method can be used. If the secrecy capacity is non-zero for any wiretap channel, i.e. if the legitimate receiver has a better channel than the eavesdropper, there exists some coding scheme that achieves perfect secrecy according to the Wyner model. However, not all coding schemes can guarantee the security, which essentially depends on details of the coding.Left: Experimental setup. Right: System stability with different message blocks. ex and ez are the error rates of measurements using the X-basis and Z-basis, respectively, at Alice’s site. e is the error rate at Bob’s site. The error rate was estimated block by block; each block contains 1312 × 830 pulses. The mean number of photons is 0.1. The inherent loss of a quantum channel is 14.5 dB, which includes the efficiency of the detector, ~70%, and the optical elements, ~13 dB. The total loss of the system is 25.1 dB at a distance of 1.5 km. Credit: Light: Science & Applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-3 The scientists then implemented the scheme in a fiber system with phase coding, for quantum communication across long distances. In this setup, Bob prepares a sequence of single-photon pulses, after polarization control and attenuation, the pulses are prepared as random qubits and sent to Alice's site through a 1.5 km-long fiber. On arrival at Alice's site, it's separated in to two parts, where one goes to the encoding module and the other to the control module for error-check, controlled by field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) in the setup.
Simultaneously encoding occurs in the encoding module. If the error-rate is smaller than the threshold, the encoding part is allowed to send the single photons back to Bob via the same fiber, where they are guided to single photon detectors for measurement. The scientists controlled the setup consisting of three phase modulators (PM) and single photon detectors (SPD) to encode messages at the two sites using the FPGAs, which were further controlled by upper-position computers.The solid line represents the mutual information between Alice and Bob; by the noisy-channel coding theorem that transmission rate cannot exceed the capacity of the main channel. The dotted line is the mutual information between Alice and Eve, the maximum information that an eavesdropper can obtain. Symbols represent experimental results. Together with the chosen LDPC code, the coding scheme yields a transmission rate of 0.00096 when the bit-error rate is under 10^−6. Because the rate is greater than the mutual information between Alice and Eve, both the security and reliability of the information transmission are assured. Credit: Light: Science & Applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-3 In the experimental results, the scientists represented the mutual information versus the loss of the system as two straight lines. The area between these two lines formed the information theoretic secure area. As a result, for a coding scheme with an information rate within the specified area, the security could be reliably guaranteed. Using the experimental setup, Qi et al. attained a secure information rate of 50 bps, well within the defined secure area. Illustration of the coding scheme. A message m together with a local random bits r and public random seed s are processed by the reverse universal hashing families UHF−1 to vector u, and then u is changed by LDPC code into v, which is mapped to codeword c and is then sent to the receiver's site. Because of loss and error, receiver Bob receives a degraded codeword, and then he demaps, decodes and obtains the message after performing universal hashing families UHF. Credit: Light: Science & Applications, doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41377-019-0132-3 The scientists illustrated a coding scheme to guarantee the reliability of transmission for QSDC based on interconnected LDPC codes. Preprocessing was based on universal hashing families (UHF). In the process, for each message (m), the sender Alice generates a local sequence of random bit (r) and public random seed (s). Next, she maps to a vector (u) by the inverse of an appropriately chosen UHF (UHF-1), which is then changed by LDPC code into (v), mapped to codeword (c) and sent to the receiver's site.
In information theory, the noisy-channel coding theorem establishes reliable communication for any given degree of noise contamination of a communication channel. To ensure reliability of the information, Alice modulates the pulses that reach the legitimate receiver Bob, who makes measurements in the same basis as he prepared them. Due to loss and error, Bob receives a degraded codeword, which he demaps and decodes after postprocessing with UHF to obtain the message.
In this way, Qi et al. implemented a practical QSDC system in a realistic environment of high noise and high loss. Among other techniques, the scientists used an LDPC code to reduce error and loss in the system. They analyzed the security of the system in depth using the Wyner wiretap channel theory. When the secrecy capacity was non-zero; a coding scheme with an information rate less than the secrecy capacity ensured both security and reliability of the information transmission. In total, the scientists obtained a secure information rate of 50 bps at a practically meaningful distance of 1.5 km. Qi et al. imply these parameters are premature and envision an improved system that can integrate the existing technology for a higher rate of dozens of kbps information transmission in the future.
Explore further: Measurement-device-independent quantum communication without encryption
More information: Implementation and security analysis of practical quantum secure direct communication www.nature.com/articles/s41377-019-0132-3, Ruoyang Qi et al. 06 February 2019, Light: Science & Applications.
Secure direct communication with a quantum one-time pad journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/ … 3/PhysRevA.69.052319, Deng Fuo-Guo and Long Gui Li, May 2004, Physical Review A.
A method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=359342 Rivest R.L. et al. February 1978, Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery.
A Mathematical Theory of Communication dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=584093, Shannon C.E. October 1948, The Bell System Technical Journal, IEEE Explore.
© 2019 Science X Network
Paul Allen funded the development of SpaceShipOne, which won the Ansari X Prize in 2004. But Allen’s death last October has affected another space company he founded, Stratolaunch. (credit: J. Foust)by Roger HandbergMonday, February 18, 2019
Pushing out toward the final frontier is difficult both in the physical sense of building vehicles capable of carrying people out into the unknown as well as in the human sense. The former refers to the fact that simply reaching outer space safely and pushing outward from there is expensive, dangerous, and requires a long-term mindset. The lonely tinker working in their garage (e.g. the Wright Brothers) represented one path forward in the early days of human flight, albeit not spaceflight. Spaceflight requires significant resources, which traditionally has meant that the government or other organizations must be persuaded to provide that funding over relatively long periods of time. The Smithsonian, for example, supported Goddard’s early work leading to a liquid fueled launch vehicle albeit small in size.Finding a sponsor for the project, one with deep pockets and a willingness to continue funding even as test flight failures mount up, has been hard to find historically.
To be truly successful, spaceflight cannot be a one-off venture but instead must proceed through distinct steps in the development process, from drawings, models to prototypes to actual launch vehicles. That is what distinguishes such developers from leaders pursuing publicity and glory by launching modified rockets as a one-off stunt. Scaling up a prototype to a truly useable flight vehicle, one not experimental in nature, is a long process often fraught with frequent testing failures. Space history is littered with such failures, including spectacular explosions.
Which brings one to the other side of the equation: finding a sponsor for the project, one with deep pockets and a willingness to continue funding even as test flight failures mount up. From spaceflight’s earliest days, such sponsors were hard to find, with the result that most successful pursuers of spaceflight linked up with national militaries. Funders such as the Smithsonian Institution lacked the deep pockets necessary for more advanced work. The military came looking for usable weapons initially but, in time, supported other space applications that possessed military value such as reconnaissance and communications.
However, these funding sources were often narrowly focused on the mission objective sought by the funding organization. During World War II in Germany, Nazi security officials were reportedly concerned that the builders of the V-2 were more interested in pursuing space exploration than building the best military applications. Whether this was true is unimportant because a similar situation arose later in the United States in the 1950s when US Army leaders were concerned that Werhner von Braun and his team were more interested in reaching orbit than achieving the goal of developing a useful ballistic missile. So, each test launch was reportedly inspected prior to flight to ensure that payload was going downrange, not up into orbit.
After Sputnik 1 was launched in October 1957, US concern became getting to orbit as quickly as possible especially after the nationally televised Vanguard launch fiasco. Thus, the pattern was set: space advocates could obtain government funding for space activities, but those after the Apollo program were not a priority but rather a “nice to have”. Evidence to this point is seen in the decline in NASA’s relative share of the US federal budget compared to the its heyday during the Apollo program. This view ignores the reality of how extraordinary the Apollo program was in terms of political support, but even NASA’s budget quickly receded in terms of relative budget share prior to the Apollo 11 mission landing in 1969.
With the growth of commercial space activities, the impetus for government support was further lessened since the private sector can do many of the tasks NASA accomplished or had developed earlier. The federal government continues to fund space activities such as space science missions, while human spaceflight continues as a major function but represents a much lower national priority despite political rhetoric to the contrary across multiple presidential administrations.Searching for alternatives
Given this reality, the search for other, more pristine sources of funding for space development began—pristine in that the motives ascribed were not explicitly political or military, although often commercial in ultimate intent. These sponsors motivated by some personal dream or vision of a bold space future. For obvious reasons, such sponsors are hard to find.Patrons enter the field due to their impatience with the pace of progress. They are convinced an opportunity exists that their investment or involvement but more importantly their vision can.
Such a quest became possible because the massive and continuous government investment in space technologies ultimately flowed into the commercial sector: the concept of off-the-shelf space technologies became realistic. Commercial startups still had to engage in hard research and development, but the principles were clearer and the lead designers and engineers had both experience and expertise to bolster their chances at success. This opened the door for patrons to enter the field.
Patrons are individuals and/or families who possess enough resources to invest long term in projects that grabbed their attention. Earlier in history, such individuals funded art and music and, in some cases, scientists, explorers, and engineers. Their motives varied, but the key was their commitment to a project. In time, as costs rose, governments and large-scale businesses replaced such patrons. Such activities continue today but government funding becomes often an important facet of the funding. In recent times, patrons have returned to prominence due to government shortfalls or withdrawals from funding a particular area. Otherwise, patrons otherwise enter the field due to their impatience with the pace of progress. They are convinced an opportunity exists that their investment or involvement but more importantly their vision can.Rise of the billionaire space patron
Recently, space activities in several areas have witnessed the return of the patron to prominence. Vast fortunes are being accumulated by individuals who have interests in pursuing new technology. Some enter the space field because of what they perceive as a stagnant field essentially replicating itself without advancing. Their views are driven by their earlier roles as disrupters—that is, generating major changes or else creating new fields of economic growth. These “space baron” billionaires, as Christian Davenport described them in his recent book, are much celebrated, including Paul Allen, Bill Gates, Elon Musk, Richard Branson, and Jeff Bezos. Bill Gates is the one least likely to be included but his original investments in the Teledesic effort was a change agent in that it introduced the concept of the giant constellation of communications satellites. Teledesic was conceived as 840 LEO satellites, plus spares, in an interconnected web providing global coverage. The project was scaled down to 288 satellites, and less in later iterations, before being cancelled due to cost and technical issues. Ahead of its time, Teledesic signaled one path to the future being aggressively pursued today by multiple players proposing broadband megaconstellations.
The patrons’ role is to act as catalyst, hopefully sparking a boom in whichever facet of space activities they pursue. This expectation of great success is based on their earlier being at the cusp of change in their original endeavor. Musk appears more frequently in the media but is also the least wealthy with his resources committed to several enterprises, including Tesla and SpaceX. Paul Allen was the model for the space age patron with his first public presence coming during the Ansari X Prize competition. He funded the winning entry in 2004 when SpaceShipOne completed its second suborbital flight within a two-week period, opening the door to suborbital human spaceflight on a commercial basis. Subsequently, Allen funded development of Stratolaunch, building a giant airplane to serve as an air-launch platform.
Richard Branson followed up on the Ansari X Prize with commercialization of the flight concept in a second-generation SpaceShipTwo. That developmental process has dragged due to technical issues and a fatal flight accident during testing. Most recent estimates are that the system will enter commercial service later this year. The concept has been broadened to incorporate scientific and commercial payloads that require some time in microgravity, while an offshoot, Virgin Orbit, develops its own air-launch system. Branson’s Virgin Galactic represents an early effort at operationalizing tourist flights with possibly multiple flight locations spread across the globe wherever the customer base is found, such as Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. The challenge is that others may duplicate that model or move past it to orbital flights for tourists and companies needing cheaper access to space.Death has already claimed one of these patrons: Paul Allen, whose passing is already leading to a scaling back of the dream that he pursued.
Jeff Bezos, in a mysterious and secretive manner, has engaged in a flight development process at Blue Origin that appears long-term in nature. The early effort focused on suborbital reusable flight but is expected to expand to orbital flight for both passengers and payloads. Presently, everything is developmental in nature such as the New Shepard aimed at suborbital flight, while New Glenn will provide orbital launch services. The latter has already been able to acquire several launch contracts, most recently for Telesat’s broadband constellation. This activity is all in the future, but establishes Blue Origin as a serious contender in an increasingly competitive launch marketplace.
These patrons or space barons, with their tech-derived fortunes in most cases (Branson being the exception), represent an alternative to corporate and government funding. All their efforts are driven by their personal goal of making space activities more real and in effect “down to Earth” in that they are trying to both break the chains of the past and build upon the accomplishments of those earlier space pioneers, either engineers or entrepreneurs. Their success will open doors somewhat faster, but the question that arises is whether their companies or endeavors will endure past their tenure.Possible downside
Death has already claimed one of these patrons: Paul Allen, whose passing is already leading to a scaling back of the dream that he pursued. The company has announced that it will not pursue development of a family of rockets capable of carrying a variety of payloads to orbit. Instead, the program will focus on launching Pegasus vehicles, an already established technology, no longer pushing the boundaries forward. The prior announcement of the rocket family was fairly new and preceded Allen’s death by several months.
Others have had other life events occur that potentially could be disruptive of plans such as Jeff Bezos’ recently announced plans for a divorce. Most attention has focused on possible impact on Amazon and its operations, although that is likely the most stable situation in the new context because that company has in place a structure that can function even if the leader is distracted—its impact would be lessened and more likely long term in nature. Bezos’ engagement in Blue Origin is more personal and therefore more likely subject to possible disruption through events in his personal life.
In Elon Musk’s situation, his behavior has apparently become an issue in that there is concern whether his example permeates the organization, SpaceX. NASA said last fall it was performing a safety review of the commercial crew program, of which SpaceX is a partner, while the Pentagon’s inspector general last week announced plans to audit whether the Air Force followed procedures when it certified SpaceX’s rockets.
Those issues should be resolvable, but they illustrate the point that dependence on a patron or space baron is a single point failure situation. Allen’s untimely death has apparently ended the vision that underlay the original impetus for Stratolaunch. Paul Allen bought the vision that the company pursued until his death, but now the company appears much less ambitious and visionary.
A patron with deep pockets can do much to foster a field of endeavor, but the weakness is that progress may end when that individual dies, becomes disinterested or bankrupt, or otherwise decreases the resources needed to implement that vision. Paul Allen was a serial patron—the Ansari X Prize first, then Stratolaunch (along with a diversity of other projects)—but that vision was not institutionalized, so it may have ended with his death. Families such as the Rockefellers attempted, through funding Rockefeller University along with the University of Chicago and the family foundation, to institutionalize the family’s interest in certain topics. Individuals of extreme wealth, or those with the ability to leverage what they have, can still have an impact on space activities especially in the commercial sector. The question is whether that results in an enduring impact or just a series of vanity projects.
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Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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