|Exam Name||:||xSeries Technical High Performance Servers V2|
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|Updated On||:||February 15, 2019|
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For now, AI methods are primarily machine studying-primarily based and “slim” – powerful as they're by today's standards, they are limited to performing a number of, narrowly-defined tasks. AI of the subsequent decade will leverage the more advantageous energy of deep studying and turn into broader, fixing a more suitable array of extra complex issues. additionally, the everyday-goal technologies used these days for AI deployments will get replaced through a know-how stack that’s AI-certain and exponentially sooner – and it’s going to take a lot of money.
seeking to take center stage in AI’s unfolding, IBM – in mixture with ny state and several expertise heavies – is investing $2 billion in the IBM research AI Hardware center, focused on constructing next era AI silicon, networking and manufacturing as a way to, IBM spoke of, carry 1,000x AI efficiency efficiency growth over the subsequent decade.
“these days, AI’s ever-increasing sophistication is pushing the boundaries of the industry’s latest hardware programs as users locate extra how you can comprise a considerable number of sources of information from the facet, internet of issues, and more,” mentioned Mukesh Khare, VP, IBM research Semiconductor and AI Hardware community, in a blog announcing the assignment. “…these days’s methods have finished better AI efficiency through infusing laptop-gaining knowledge of capabilities with excessive-bandwidth CPUs and GPUs, really expert AI accelerators and high-efficiency networking equipment. To hold this trajectory, new thinking is required to accelerate AI performance scaling to in shape to ever-expanding AI workload complexities.”
IBM pointed out the center can be the nucleus of a new ecosystem of analysis and business partners taking part with IBM researchers. companions announced these days consist of Samsung for manufacturing and research, Mellanox technologies for prime-efficiency interconnect machine, Synopsys for utility systems, emulation and prototyping, and IP for setting up excessive-performance silicon chips, and semiconductor machine groups applied materials and Tokyo Electron.
Hosted at SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Albany, the big apple, in collaboration with neighboring Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute middle for Computational improvements, IBM mentioned the company and its companions will “enhance a variety of technologies from chip level contraptions, substances, and architecture, to the utility aiding AI workloads.”
huge Blue said analysis on the center will center of attention on overcoming “latest laptop-getting to know limitations via procedures that encompass approximate computing via Digital AI Cores and in-reminiscence computing via Analog AI Cores. These technologies will provide the thousand-fold raises in efficiency efficiency required for full realization of deep studying AI, the subsequent principal milestone in AI evolution, based on IBM.
“A key enviornment of research and development could be programs that meet the calls for of deep studying inference and practicing methods,” Khare stated. “Such systems present large accuracy improvements over greater universal desktop studying for unstructured facts. these extreme processing demands will grow exponentially as algorithms develop into greater complex with a purpose to bring AI techniques with extended cognitive capabilities.”
Khare pointed out the analysis center will host R&D, emulation, prototyping, checking out and simulation activities for brand new AI cores chiefly designed for practicing and deploying advanced AI fashions, including a check mattress by which contributors can display improvements in real-world applications. really good wafer processing for the center could be finished in Albany with some assist at IBM’s Thomas J. Watson analysis center in Yorktown Heights, the big apple.
during this slidecast, Chris Porter and Jeff Kamiol from IBM describe how IBM excessive efficiency capabilities convey versatile, software-in a position clusters within the cloud for corporations that deserve to immediately and economically add computing capability for high efficiency utility workloads.
IBM excessive performance services allows for quickly deployment of technical computing, analytics or Hadoop workloads within the cloud. businesses the usage of the carrier can with no trouble meet additional useful resource demands without the charge of deciding to buy or managing in-condominium infrastructure, minimizing their administrative burden and immediately addressing evolving company needs. The services include market-leading IBM Platform LSF and IBM Platform Symphony workload management utility, IBM Spectrum Scale utility defined storage, IBM excessive efficiency functions for Hadoop and the brand new IBM high performance features for EDA. The utility is built-in, provisioned and deployed as a part of complete, integrated services which includes naked-metal IBM SoftLayer infrastructure, optional InfinfiBand interconnects and support from an skilled and committed cloud operations crew. a global presence with the option of information middle place helps make certain that records regulations are met.
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February 11, 2019 Timothy Prickett Morgan
If nothing else, the IBM i platform has exhibited incredible sturdiness. One could even say legendary durability, in case you wish to take its heritage all of the manner back to the equipment/3 minicomputer from 1969. here is the real beginning factor in the AS/400 household tree and this is when massive Blue, for terribly sound criminal and technical and advertising causes, decided to fork its items to handle the exciting needs of big businesses (with the equipment/360 mainframe and its comply with-ons) and small and medium agencies (beginning with the gadget/three and relocating on during the equipment/34, device/32, device/38, and gadget/36 within the 1970s and early Eighties and passing in the course of the AS/four hundred, AS/400e, iSeries, equipment i, and then IBM i on energy methods platforms.
It has been an extended run certainly, and many valued clientele who've invested within the platform all started means lower back then and there with the early types of RPG and moved their purposes forward and changed them as their agencies advanced and the depth and breadth of company computing changed, relocating on up via RPG II, RPG III, RPG IV, ILE RPG, and now RPG free kind. Being on this platform for even three a long time makes you a relative newcomer.
there's a longer run ahead, considering the fact that we believe that the businesses which are nonetheless running IBM i techniques are the real diehards, those who haven't any intention of leaving the platform and that, at least in response to the survey statistics we've been privy too, are desiring to continue investing in, and even extend their investments in, the IBM i platform.
up to now, we are not in a recession and heaven inclined there are not one, so the priorities that IBM i shops have are not those that that they had a decade ago all through the top of the remarkable Recession. lower back then, as become the case in nearly all IT organizations, IBM i stores had been hunkering down and had been making an attempt to reduce expenses in all approaches possible, including deferring gadget enhancements and migrations as well as chopping back on other initiatives. only 29 percent of the 750 IBM i retail outlets that participated within the 2019 IBM i marketplace Survey, which HelpSystems did again in October 2018, have been involved about reducing IT spending. here is a remarkably low stage, and that i suppose is indicative of how particularly potent the economic climate is – excepting one of the vital suits and starts we saw at the conclusion of 2018 and here in early 2019 that make us frightened and will delivery inserting pressure on things. here are the appropriate concerns as culled from the survey:
coping with the increase in information and in identifying the analytics to bite on that statistics ranked a bit bit bigger on the 2019 IBM i market Survey than did reducing fees, and that i think over the long haul these issues will develop into greater crucial than modernizing functions and coping with the IBM i skills shortages which are a perennial be concerned. both of these considerations are being solved as new programmers and new equipment to make new interfaces to database applications are becoming greater ordinary and as technologies similar to free form RPG, which appears extra like Java, Python, and Hypertext Preprocessor, are being extra extensively deployed and, importantly, can be picked up extra right away by programmers skilled with these other languages.
Given the character of the customer base, it appears not going to me that security and high availability will no longer continue to be primary considerations, although that the IBM i platform is among the many most at ease platforms on this planet (and not just since it is imprecise, but since it is quite difficult to hack) and it has a range of high availability and disaster recuperation equipment (from IBM, Syncsort, Maxava, and HelpSystems) purchasable for people that want to double up their programs and protect their purposes and information. The bar is frequently better than fundamental backup and restoration for a lot of IBM i shops within the banking, assurance, manufacturing, and distribution industries that dominate the platform. These organizations can’t have protection breaches, and they can’t have downtime.
there's a surprising amount of steadiness in the IBM i client base that we suppose, at this point, is reflective in the steadiness of the IBM i platform and massive Blue’s personal perception that it needs a suit IBM i platform to have an normal healthy power systems enterprise. we all know that the power programs hardware business has simply became in five quarters of salary boom – whatever thing we mentioned lately in setting up our personal earnings model for the energy methods company – but what we didn't be aware of, and what make sure to know, is that in the second and third quarters of 2018, the IBM i component of the enterprise grew significantly faster than the general power programs company, and the best rationale that this did not happen within the final quarter of 2018 is that revenue of IBM i machinery in q4 2017 turned into somewhat effective and represented a really hard evaluate. The element is, the IBM i enterprise has been raising the vigour programs classification ordinary. (These suggestions concerning the IBM i business come compliments of Steve Sibley, vice president and providing supervisor of Cognitive programs at IBM.)
IBM’s personal fiscal steadiness of the vigor platform – which has been bolstered by using a circulate into Linux clusters for analytics and excessive efficiency computing simulation and modeling in addition to by using the adoption of the HANA in-reminiscence database through SAP purchasers on huge iron machines including Power8 and now Power9 techniques – helps IBM i consumers feel more assured in investing within the latest IBM i platform. The contemporary proof from a few diverse surveys, now not just the one performed with the aid of HelpSystems each year, suggests that businesses are by using and massive either carrying on with to make investments within the platform or even in some instances are planning to increase their spending on the IBM i platform in 2019.
As that you may see, the sample of funding plans for the IBM i platform, as proven within the chart above, has now not modified very a whole lot at all in the past four years. it's a remarkably solid sample with but a bit wiggling here and there that may no longer even be statistically gigantic. just under a quarter of IBM i shops have mentioned in the past 4 years that they plan to increase their funding within the platform in every year, and just below half say that they're conserving steady. This does not mean that the identical corporations, yr after yr, are investing more and other groups are staying pat, year after year. it's much more likely that every handful of years – greater like 4 or five – shoppers upgrade their techniques and extend their means, and they then sit tight. The ask yourself is that the split isn’t displaying far fewer businesses investing and much greater sitting tight. That greater than a tenth of the stores don’t comprehend what their plan is as each and every prior 12 months comes to a close is a bit worrying, nevertheless it is sincere and indicates that a good portion of retailers have other priorities aside from hardware and operating device upgrades. we now have stated this before and we can say it once more: We consider that the americans who reply to surveys and read weekly publications focused on the IBM i platform are the most active stores – the ones more prone to dwell highly latest on hardware and software. So the tempo of adoption for brand new applied sciences, and the rate of funding, should still be better than within the exact base, an awful lot of which does not trade a great deal in any respect.
So if we needed to adjust this facts to tackle the total base, there can be a ways fewer sites which are investing greater funds, much more companies that are sitting tight, and perhaps fewer sites that are contemplating moving off the IBM i platform. I suppose the distribution of facts is doubtless whatever like 10 p.c of retailers don't have any thought what they're doing investment clever with IBM this year, 5 percent are brooding about relocating some or all of their functions to an extra platform, probably 10 % are investing extra this year, and the closing 75 p.c are sitting tight. here is just a bet, of path. so far as we will tell, the expense of attrition – how many sites we definitely lose every 12 months – only a tad over 1 percent. So the cost of movement of functions off the platform, or incidences of unplugging IBM i databases and purposes, may additionally now not be any place close as excessive in the universal base as the statistics above suggests. what is alarming, most likely, is that the expense of moving some or all applications off the platform is balanced against those that say they'll boost investments. most likely these are hopeful survey takers, and those who suppose it's effortless to circulation discover it is not and those that believe they'll discover the funds to invest will not.
What we do know is that if the expense of application attrition become anywhere close as excessive as these surveys suggest, then the IBM i business would now not be growing to be, however shrinking. And we are aware of it isn't shrinking, so we feel there's a disconnect between planning and truth, both on the upside and the draw back.
in case you drill down into the facts for the 2019 IBM i marketplace Survey, there were 13 % of retailers that said they would be relocating some functions to a new platform, and an additional 9 p.c that stated they have been going to circulation all of their applications off IBM i. (This quantity is according to the fresh ALL400s survey finished with the aid of John Rockwell.)
Anyway, decent luck with that.
Porting functions from one platform to a different, of buying a brand new suite on that new platform, is an highly difficult assignment. It is not like attempting to alternate a tire whereas driving down the street, as is a typical metaphor, but rather like attempting to take the tire off one automobile moving down the highway and installing it on an extra motor vehicle riding beside it within the adjoining lane without crashing both motor vehicle or smashing into anybody else on the street. Optimism abounds, but when push involves shove, only a few companies are trying any such maneuver, and after they do, it's continually as a result of there's a corporate mandate, greater times than not caused by way of a merger or acquisition, that pits some other platform in opposition t IBM i running on vigor systems. groups that say they're making this type of flow off IBM i are sanguine for his or her own personal factors, in all probability, however they are not necessarily simple about how long it could take, what disruption it will charge, and what best improvement, if any, should be realized.
if you do the math on the chart above, eight-tenths of the base has no concept how long a circulation will take, one other 1.7 percent thinks it is going to take more than 5 years, and three percent say it'll take between two years and 5 years. most effective three.four % of the whole base say they could do it in below two years. We feel all of those numbers are positive, and the agencies who could with ease depart OS/400 and IBM i already did a long time in the past and people which are remain have a harder time, now not an easier time, relocating. If this had been now not real, the IBM i base can be a hell of plenty smaller than the a hundred and twenty,000 valued clientele we believe are obtainable, according to what big Blue has advised us in the past. here is the difference between worry or drive or tradition and the truth of attempting to circulate a enterprise off one platform and onto yet another. These moves are all the time an awful lot more durable than they appear on the entrance end, and we suspect most of the merits also don’t materialize for those that do jump structures.
at the typical attrition rate recommended with the aid of this survey records – 9 percent circulate off the platform in someplace between 12 months and greater than 5 years, with most agencies now not being capable of see greater than 5 years into the longer term it really is a neat trick – the installed base would cut back dramatically. it's difficult to say how far as a result of the wide selection of timeframes within the survey. If it became 9 percent of the bottom inside two years – name it 4.5 p.c of the bottom per year – then within a decade the average base would decrease from a hundred and twenty,000 IBM i sites worldwide down to about 72,000. this might dramatic indeed. however at a 1 p.c attrition rate per yr, the base continues to be at 107,500 wonderful valued clientele (no longer websites and never installed machines, each of which are bigger) by means of 2029. We suppose there is each opportunity that the attrition fee will really slow and drop under 1 % as IBM demonstrates dedication to the vigour programs platform and its IBM i working equipment. There are always some new shoppers being introduced in new markets, to make sure, however the bleed expense (despite the fact that it's small) continues to be probably an order of magnitude bigger than the feed fee.
when they do think about making the circulation, IBM i shops comprehend exactly the place they need to go, and this reply has been step by step altering over the years: Linux as a substitute for IBM i is on the upward push and home windows Server as an choice is on the wane. within the latest survey, fifty two % of the agencies that said they have been relocating all or a few of their purposes to yet another platform spoke of they were deciding upon home windows Server, while 34 % chose Linux. This displays the relative popularity of windows Server and Linux within the datacenters of the world at tremendous, and might be tipped simply a little more heavily in opposition t Linux compared to the relaxation of the realm. interestingly, 10 percent of these polled who talked about they had been moving had been AIX systems, and a different 4 percent were going upscale to gadget z mainframes – as unlikely as this may additionally seem. systems are likely to roll downhill; they don't constantly defy gravity like that.
The element about such surveys is that they show intent, no longer motion. We regularly intend to do a lot more than we really can accomplish, and relocating structures after spending decades of building up skills isn't continually a extremely sensible stream until the platform is in precise drawback – like the Itanium methods from Hewlett Packard commercial enterprise operating OpenVMS or HP-UX or the HP 3000s running MPE or the Sparc programs from Oracle operating Solaris. These had been once notable platforms with big put in bases and colossal income streams, but now, IBM is the remaining of these Unix and proprietary platforms with its power systems line. And it is with the aid of far the biggest and for certain the only one showing any growth.connected studies
The IBM i Base Did indeed stream On Up
The IBM i Base Is able to stream On Up
funding And Integration symptoms For IBM i
security nevertheless Dominates IBM i dialogue, HelpSystems’ 2018 Survey displays
The IBM i Base not As Jumpy as it Has Been
The Feeds And Speeds Of The IBM i Base
IBM i Priorities For 2017: Pivot To defense
IBM i developments, issues, And Observations
IBM i Survey gets stronger As Numbers develop
where Do these IBM i Machines Work?
finding IBM i: A online game Of 40 Questions
it is time to inform Us What you are up to
IBM i industry Survey: The significance Of Being Earnest
What’s Up within the IBM i marketplace?
IBM i marketplace Survey Fills within the Blanks
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In-DepthScale the Datacenter with Windows Server SMB Direct
RDMA networking has enabled high-performance computing for years, but Windows Server 2012 R2 with SMB Direct is bringing it to the mainstream.
File-based storage has grown tremendously over the last several years, far outpacing block storage, even as both grow at double-digit rates. Cloud datacenters are deploying file-based protocols at an accelerating pace for virtualized environments, as well as database infrastructure deployed for Big Data applications. The introduction of Server Message Block (SMB) 3.0 with the efficiency and performance of the SMB Direct protocol, has opened new opportunities for file storage in Windows-based datacenters. SMB Direct, a key component of SMB 3.0, can utilize networking based on the Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) protocol to deliver near-SAN-level performance and availability with integrated data protection and optimized data transfer between storage and server (see Figure 1).[Click on image for larger view.] Figure 1. RDMA networking allows high-speed client to file service data transfers.
RDMA is a specification that has long-provided a means of reducing latency in the transmission of data from one point to another, by placing the data directly into final destination memory, thereby eliminating unnecessary CPU and memory bus utilization. Used primarily for high-performance computing (HPC) for more than a decade, RDMA is now on the cusp of becoming a mainstream means of providing a scalable and high-performance infrastructure. A key factor fueling its growing use is Windows Server 2012 R2 offering several RDMA networking options. I'll review and compare those options within Windows Server 2012 R2 environments.
Windows Scale-Out File ServicesWindows Server 2012 R2 provides massive scale to transform datacenters into an elastic, always-on cloud-like operation designed to run the largest workloads. The server OS provides automated protection and aims to offer cost-effective business continuity to ensure uptime. Windows Server 2012 R2 provides a rich set of storage features letting IT managers move to lower-cost industry-standard hardware rather than purpose-built storage devices, without having to compromise on performance or availability. A vital storage capability in Windows Server 2012 R2 is the Scale-Out File Server (SOFS), which allows the storage of server application data, such as Hyper-V virtual machine (VM) files, on SMB file shares. All files shares are online on all nodes simultaneously. This configuration is commonly referred to as an active-active cluster configuration.
A SOFS allows for continuously available file shares. Continuous availability tracks file operations on a highly available file system so that clients can fail over to another node of the cluster without interruption. This is also known as Transparent Failover.
The Role of SMB DirectThe SMB 3.0 protocol in Windows Server 2012 R2 utilizes the Network Direct Kernel (NDK) layer within the Windows Sever OS to leverage RDMA network adapters (see Figure 2). Using RDMA enables storage that rivals costly and infrastructure-intensive Fibre Channel SANs in efficiency, with lower latency, while operating over standard 10 Gbps and 40 Gbps Ethernet infrastructure. RDMA network adapters offer this performance capability by operating at a line rate with very low latency thanks to CPU bypass and zero copy (the ability to write directly to the memory of the remote storage node using RPCs). In order to obtain these advantages, all transport protocol processing must be performed in the adapter hardware, completely bypassing the host OS.[Click on image for larger view.] Figure 2. RDMA Networking Configuration on Windows Server 2012 R2.
With NDK, SMB can perform data transfers direct from memory, through the adapter, to the network, and over to the memory of the application requesting data from the file share. This capability is especially useful for I/O-intensive workloads such as Hyper-V or SQL Server, resulting in remote file server performance comparable to local storage.
In contrast, in traditional networking, a request from an application to a remote storage location must go through numerous stages and buffers (involving data copies) on both the client and server side, such as the SMB client or server buffers, the transport protocol drivers in the networking stack, and the network card drivers.
With SMB Direct, the RDMA NIC transfers data straight from the SMB client buffer, through the client NIC to the server NIC, and up to the SMB server buffer, and vice versa. This direct transfer operation allows the application to access remote storage at the same performance as local storage.
Windows Server 2012 provides built-in support for using SMB Direct with Ethernet RDMA NICs, including iWARP (RDMA/TCP), and RoCE NICs (RDMA/UDP), to support high-speed data transfers. These NICs implement RDMA in hardware so that they can transfer data between them without involving the host CPU. As a result, SMB Direct is extremely fast with client-to-file server performance almost equaling that of using local storage.
RDMA NICs offload the server CPU, resulting in more efficient Microsoft virtualized datacenter installs. Windows Server 2012 SMB Direct 3.0 over RDMA provides higher performance by giving direct access to the data that resides on a remote file server, while the CPU reduction enables a larger number of VMs per Hyper-V server, resulting in CapEx and OpEx savings in power dissipation, system configuration and deployment scale throughout the life of the installation. Native system software support for RDMA networking in Windows Server 2012 R2 simplifies storage and VM management for enterprise and cloud IT administrators, with no network reconfiguration required.
Live migration is an important VM mobility feature and improving the performance of live migration has been a consistent focus for Windows Server. In Windows Server 2012 R2, Microsoft took these performance improvements to the next level. Live migration with RDMA is a new feature; it delivers the highest performance for migrations by offloading data transfers to RDMA NIC hardware.
iWARP: RDMA over TCP/IPiWARP is an implementation of RDMA using the ubiquitous Ethernet-TCP/IP networking as the network transport. iWARP NICs implement a hardware TCP/IP stack that eliminates all inefficiencies associated with software TCP/IP processing, while preserving all the benefits of the proven TCP/IP protocol. On the wire, iWARP traffic is thus identical to other TCP/IP applications and requires no special support from switches and routers, or changes to network devices. Thanks to the hardware offloaded TCP/IP, iWARP RDMA NICs offer high-performance and low-latency RDMA operation that's comparable to the latest InfiniBand speeds, and native integration within today's large Ethernet-based networks and clouds.
iWARP is able to dramatically improve upon the most common and widespread Ethernet communications in use today and deliver on the promise of a single, converged Ethernet network for carrying LAN, SAN, and RDMA traffic with the unrestricted routability and scalability of TCP/IP. Today, 40 Gbps Ethernet (40 GbE) iWARP controllers and adapters are available from Chelsio Communications, while Intel Corp. has also announced plans for availability of iWARP Ethernet controllers integrated within upcoming Intel server chipsets.
The iWARP protocol is the open Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard for RDMA over Ethernet. iWARP adapters are fully supported by the OpenFabrics Alliance Enterprise Software Distribution (OFED), with no changes needed for applications to migrate from specialized OFED-compliant RDMA fabrics such as InfiniBand to Ethernet.
Initially aimed at high-performance computing applications, iWARP is also now finding a home in datacenters thanks to its availability on high-performance 40 GbE NICs and increased datacenter demand for low latency, high bandwidth, and low server CPU utilization. It has also been integrated into server OSes such as Microsoft Windows Server 2012 with SMB Direct, which can seamlessly take advantage of iWARP RDMA without user intervention.
InfiniBandInfiniBand is an I/O architecture designed to increase the communication speed between CPUs, devices within servers and subsystems located throughout a network. InfiniBand is a point-to-point, switched I/O fabric architecture. Both devices at each end of a link have full access to the communication path. To go beyond a point and traverse the network, switches come into play. By adding switches, multiple points can be interconnected to create a fabric. As more switches are added to a network, aggregated bandwidth of the fabric increases.
High-performance clustering architectures have provided the main opportunity for InfiniBand deployment. Using the InfiniBand fabric as the cluster inter-process communications (IPC) interconnect may boost cluster performance and scalability while improving application response times. However, using InfiniBand requires deploying a separate infrastructure in addition to the requisite Ethernet network. The added costs in acquisition, maintenance and management have prompted interest in Ethernet-based RDMA alternatives such as iWARP.
Because it's layered on top of TCP, iWARP is fully compatible with existing Ethernet switching equipment that's able to process iWARP traffic out-of-the-box. In comparison, deploying InfiniBand requires environments where two separate network infrastructures are installed and managed, as well as specialized InfiniBand to Ethernet gateways for bridging between the two infrastructures.
RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE)The third RDMA networking option is RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE), which essentially implements InfiniBand over Ethernet. RoCE NICs are offered by Mellanox Technologies. Though it utilizes Ethernet cabling, this approach does suffer from deployment difficulty and costs due to requiring support for complex and expensive Ethernet "lossless" fabrics and Data Center Bridging (DCB) protocols. In addition, RoCE for the longest time lacked routability support, which limited its operation to a single Ethernet subnet.
Instead of using pervasive TCP/IP networking, RoCE relies instead on InfiniBand protocols at Layer 3 (L3) and higher layers in combination with Ethernet at the Link Layer (L2) and Physical Layer (L1). RoCE leverages Converged Ethernet, also known as DCB or Converged Enhanced Ethernet as a lossless physical layer networking medium. RoCE is similar to the Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) protocols in relying on networking infrastructure with DCB protocols. However, such support has been viewed a significant impediment to FCoE deployment, which raises similar concerns for RoCE.
The just-released version 2 of the RoCE protocol will get rid of the IB network layer, replacing it with the more commonly used UDP (connectionless) and IP layer to provide routability. However, RoCE v2 does not specify how lossless operation will be provided over an IP network, or how congestion control will be handled. RoCE v2 currently suffers from an inconsistent premise that continues to require DCB for Ethernet, while no longer operating within the confines of one Ethernet network.
Developed by Datawire, Ambassador is an open source API gateway designed specifically for use with the Kubernetes container orchestration framework. At its core, Ambassador is a control plane tailored for edge/API configuration for managing the Envoy Proxy “data plane”. Envoy itself is a cloud native Layer 7 proxy and communication bus used for handling “edge” ingress and service-to-service networking communication. Although originating from Lyft, Envoy is rapidly becoming the de facto proxy for modern networking, and can be found with practically all of the public cloud vendors offerings, as well as bespoke usage by many large end-user organisations like eBay, Pinterest and Groupon.
This article provides an insight into the creation of Ambassador, and discusses the technical challenges and lessons learned from building a developer-focused control plane for managing ingress traffic within microservice-based applications that are deployed into a Kubernetes cluster.The Emerging “Cloud Native” Fabric: Kubernetes and Envoy
Although the phrase “cloud native” is becoming as much of an overloaded term as “DevOps” and “microservices”, it is increasingly gaining traction throughout the IT industry. According to Gartner, the 2018 worldwide public cloud service revenue forecast was in the region of $175 Billion U.S. Dollars, and this could grow by over 15% next year. Although the current public cloud market is dominated by only a few key players that offer mostly proprietary technologies (and increasingly, and sometimes controversially, open source-as-service), the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) was founded in 2015 by the Linux foundation to provide a place for discussion and hosting of "open source components of a full stack cloud native environment".
Possibly learning from the journey previously undertaken by the OpenStack community, the early projects supported by the CNCF were arguably less ambitious in scope, provided clearer (opinionated) abstractions, and were also proven in real world usage (or inspired by real world usage in the case of Kubernetes). Two key platform components that have emerged from the CNCF are the Kubernetes container orchestration framework, originally contributed by Google, and the Envoy proxy for edge and service-to-service networking, originally donated by Lyft. Even when combined, the two specific technologies don’t provide a full Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) offering that many developers want. However, Kubernetes and Envoy are being included within many PaaS-like offerings.
Many PaaS vendors, and also end-user engineering teams, are treating these technologies as the “data plane” for cloud native systems: i.e. the part of the system that does the “heavy-lifting”, such as orchestrating containers and routing traffic based on Layer 7 metadata (such as HTTP URIs and headers, or MongoDB protocol metadata). Accordingly, a lot of innovation and commercial opportunities are focused on creating an effective “control plane”, which is where the end-user interacts with the technology, specifies configuration to be enacted by the data plane, and observes any metrics or logging.
The Kubernetes control plane is largely focused around a series of well-specified REST-like APIs (known simply as “the Kubernetes API”), and the associated ‘kubectl’ CLI tool provides a human-friendly abstraction over these APIs. The Envoy v1 control plane was initially based around JSON config loaded within files, with several loosely-defined APIs that allowed selective updating. These APIs have subsequently evolved into the Envoy v2 API, which provides a series of gRPC-based APIs that are strongly typed via the use of Protocol Buffers. However, initially there wasn’t an Envoy analogy to the Kubernetes kubectl tool, and this led to challenges in adoption by some teams. Where there are challenges, though, there are also opportunities within the implementation of a human-friendly control plane.“Service Mesh-all-the-things”...Maybe?
If we focus on the networking control plane, it would be hard to miss the emergence of the concept of the “service mesh”. Technologies like Istio, Linkerd and Consul Connect are aiming to manage cross-cutting service-to-service (“east-west”) traffic within a microservices systems. Indeed, Istio itself is effectively a control plane that enables a user to manage Envoy Proxy as the underlying data plane for managing Layer 7 networking traffic across the mesh. Linkerd offers its own (now Rust-based) proxy as the data plane, and Consul Connect offers both a bespoke proxy and, more recently, support for Envoy.
Istio architecture, showing the Envoy Proxy data plane at the top half of the diagram, and the control plane below (image courtesy of Istio documentation)
The important thing to remember with a service mesh is that the assumption is that you typically exert a high-degree of ownership and control on both parties that are communicating over the mesh. For example, two services may be built by separate engineering departments but they will typically work for the same organisation, or one service may be a third-party application but it is deployed within your trusted network boundary (which may span multiple data centers or Virtual Private Clouds). Here your operations team will typically agree on sensible communication defaults, and service teams will independently configure inter-service routing. In these scenarios you may not fully trust each service, and you most certainly will want to implement protections like rate limiting and circuit breaking, but fundamentally you can investigate and change any bad behaviour detected. This is not true, however, for managing edge or ingress (“north-south”) traffic that originates from outside your network boundary.
Cluster “ingress” traffic generally originates from sources outside of your direct control
Any communication originating from outside your trusted network can be from a bad actor, with motivations that are intentional (e.g. cyber criminals) or otherwise (e.g. broken client library within a mobile app), and therefore you must put appropriate defenses in place. Here the operations team will specify sensible system defaults, and also adapt these in real-time based on external events. In addition to rate limiting, you probably also want the ability to configure global and API-specific load shedding, for example, if the backend services or datastores become overwhelmed, and also implement DDoS protection (which may also be time- or geographically-specified). Service development teams also want access to the edge to configure routing for a new API, to test or release a new service via traffic shadowing or canary releasing, or other tasks.
As a quick aside, for further discussion on the (sometimes confusing) role of API gateways, Christian Posta has recently published an interesting blog post, “API Gateways Are Going Through an Identity Crisis”. I have also written articles about the role of an API gateway during a cloud/container migration or digital transformation, and how API gateways can be integrated with modern continuous delivery patterns.
Although at first glance these service mesh and edge/API gateway use cases may appear very similar, we believe there are subtle (and not so subtle) differences, and this impacts the design of the associated inter-service and edge control planes.Designing a Edge Control Plane
The choice of control plane is influenced heavily by the scope of control required, and the persona(s) of the primary people using it. My colleague Rafael Schloming has talked about this before at QCon San Francisco, where he discussed how the requirements to centralise or decentralise control and also the development/operation lifecycle stage in which a service is currently at (prototype, mission critical etc) impacts the implementation of the control plane.
As mentioned above, taking an edge proxy control plane as the example, a centralised operations or SRE team may want to specify globally sensible defaults and safeguards for all ingress traffic. However, the (multiple) decentralised product development teams working at the front line and releasing functionality will want fine-grained control for their services in isolation, and potentially (if they are embracing the “freedom and responsibility” model) the ability to override global safeguards locally.
A conscious choice that was made by the Ambassador community was that the primary persona targeted by the Ambassador control plane is the developeror application engineer, and therefore the focus on the control plane was on decentralised configuration. Ambassador was built to be Kubernetes-specific, and so a logical choice for specifying edge configuration was close to the Kubernetes Service specifications that were contained within YAML files and loaded into Kubernetes via kubectl.
Options for specifying Ambassador configuration included using the Kubernetes Ingress object, writing custom Kubernetes annotations or defining Custom Resource Definitions (CRDs). Ultimately the use of annotations was chosen, as they were simple and presented a minimal learning curve for the end-user. Using Ingress may have appeared to be the most obvious first choice, but unfortunately the specification for Ingress has been stuck in perpetual beta, and other than the “lowest common denominator” functionality for managing ingress traffic, not much else has been agreed upon.
An example of an Ambassador annotation that demonstrates a simple endpoint-to-service routing on a Kubernetes Service can be seen here:kind: Service apiVersion: v1 metadata: name: my-service annotations: getambassador.io/config: | --- apiVersion: ambassador/v0 kind: Mapping name: my_service_mapping prefix: /my-service/ service: my-service spec: selector: app: MyApp ports: - protocol: TCP port: 80 targetPort: 9376
The configuration within the getambassador.io/config should be relatively self-explanatory to anyone who has configured an edge proxy, reverse proxy or API gateway before. Traffic sent to the prefix endpoint will be “mapped” or routed to the “my-service” Kubernetes service. As this article is primarily focused on the designing and implementation of Ambassador, we won’t cover all of the functionality that can be configured, such as routing (including traffic shadowing), canarying (with integration with Prometheus for monitoring) and rate limiting. Although Ambassador is focused on the developer persona, there is also extensive support for operators, and centralised configuration can be specified for authentication, TLS/SNI, tracing and service mesh integration.
Let’s now turn our attention back onto the evolution of Ambassador over the past two years.Ambassador < v0.40: Envoy v1 APIs, Templating, and Hot Restarts
Ambassador itself is deployed within a container as a Kubernetes service, and uses the annotations added to Kubernetes Services as its core configuration model. This approach enables application developers to manage routing as part of their Kubernetes service definition workflow process (perhaps as part of a “GitOps” approach). Translating the simple Ambassador annotation config into valid Envoy v1 config is not a trivial task. By design, Ambassador’s configuration isn’t based on the same conceptual model as Envoy’s configuration -- we deliberately wanted to aggregate and simplify operations and config -- and herefore, a fair amount of logic within Ambassador translates between one set of concepts to the other.
Specifically when a user applies a Kubernetes manifest containing Ambassador annotations, the following steps occur:
There were many benefits with this initial implementation: the mechanics involved were fundamentally simple, the transformation of Ambassador config into Envoy config was reliable, and the file-based hot restart integration with Envoy was dependable.
However, there were also notable challenges with this version of Ambassador. First, although the hot restart was effective for the majority of use cases, it was not very fast, and some users (particularly those with large application deployments) found it was limiting the frequency with which they could change their configuration. Hot restart can also inappropriately drop connections, especially long-lived connections like WebSockets or gRPC streams.
More crucially, though, the first implementation of the Ambassador-to-Envoy intermediate representation (IR) allowed rapid prototyping but was primitive enough that it proved very difficult to make substantial changes. While this was a pain point from the beginning, it became a critical issue as Envoy shifted to the Envoy v2 API. It was clear that the v2 API would offer Ambassador many benefits -- as Matt Klein outlined in his blog post, “The universal data plane API” -- including access to new features and a solution to the connection-drop problem noted above, but it was also clear that the existing IR implementation was not capable of making the leap.Ambassador Now: Envoy v2 APIs (with ADS), Intermediate Representations, and Testing with KAT
In consultation with the Ambassador community, the Datawire team (stewarded by Flynn, lead engineer for Ambassador) undertook a redesign of the internals of Ambassador in 2018. This was driven by two key goals. First, we wanted to integrate Envoy’s v2 configuration format, which would enable the support of features such as Server Name Indication (SNI), label-based rate limiting, and improved authentication. Second, we also wanted to do much more robust semantic validation of Envoy configuration, due to its increasing complexity (which was particularly when configuring Envoy for use with large-scale application deployments).
We started by restructuring the Ambassador internals more along the lines of a multipass compiler. The class hierarchy was made to more closely mirror the separation of concerns between the Ambassador configuration resources, the IR, and the Envoy configuration resources. Core parts of Ambassador were also redesigned to facilitate contributions from the community outside Datawire. We decided to take this approach for several reasons. First, Envoy Proxy is a very fast moving project, and we realised that we needed an approach where a seemingly minor Envoy configuration change didn’t result in days of reengineering within Ambassador. In addition, we wanted to be able to provide semantic verification of configuration.
As we started working more closely with Envoy v2, a testing challenge was quickly identified. As more and more features were being supported in Ambassador, more and more bugs appeared in Ambassador’s handling of less common but completely valid combinations of features. This drove to creation of a new testing requirement that meant Ambassador’s test suite needed to be reworked to automatically manage many combinations of features, rather than relying on humans to write each test individually. Moreover, we wanted the test suite to be fast in order to maximise engineering productivity.
This meant that as part of the Ambassador re-architecture, we also created the Kubernetes Acceptance Test (KAT) framework. KAT is an extensible test framework that:
KAT is designed for performance -- it batches test setup upfront, and then runs all the queries in step 3 asynchronously with a high performance HTTP client. The traffic driver in KAT runs locally using one of other open source tools, Telepresence, which makes it easier to debug issues.
With the KAT test framework in place, we quickly ran into some issues with Envoy v2 configuration and hot restart, which presented the opportunity to switch to using Envoy’s Aggregated Discovery Service (ADS) APIs instead of hot restart. This completely eliminated the requirement for a process restart upon configuration changes, which previously we had found could lead to dropped connections under high loads or long-lived connections. We decided to use the Envoy Go control plane to interface to the ADS. This did, however, introduce a Go-based dependency to the previously predominantly Python-based Ambassador codebase.
With a new test framework, new IR generating valid Envoy v2 configuration, and the ADS, the major architectural changes in Ambassador 0.50 were complete. Now when a user applies a Kubernetes manifest containing Ambassador annotations, the following steps occur:
Just before release we hit one more issue. On the Azure Kubernetes Service, Ambassador annotation changes were no longer being detected. Working with the highly-responsive AKS engineering team, we were able to identify the issue -- namely, the Kubernetes API server in AKS is exposed through a chain of proxies that was dropping some requests. The proper mitigation for this was to support calling the FQDN of the API server, which is provided through a mutating webhook in AKS. Unfortunately, support for this feature was not available in the official Kubernetes Python client. We therefore elected to switch to the Kubernetes Golang client -- introducing yet another Go-based dependency.Key Takeaways from Building an Envoy Control Plane (Twice!)
As Matt Klein mentioned at the inaugural EnvoyCon, with the current popularity of the Envoy Proxy in the cloud native technology domain, it’s often easier to ask who isn’t using Envoy. We know that Google’s Istio has helped raise the profile of Envoy with Kubernetes users, and all of the other major cloud vendors are investing in Envoy, for example, within AWS App Mesh and Azure Service Fabric Mesh. At EnvoyCon we also heard how several big players such as eBay, Pinterest and Groupon are migrating to using Envoy as their primary edge proxy. There are also several other open source Envoy-based edge proxy control planes emerging, such as Istio Gateway, Solo.io Gloo, and Heptio Contour. I would argue that Envoy is indeed becoming the universal data plane of cloud native communications, but there is much work still to be done within the domain of the control plane.
In this article we’ve discussed how the Datawire team and Ambassador open source community have successfully migrated the Ambassador edge control plane to use the Envoy v2 configuration and ADS APIs. We’ve learned a lot in the process of building Ambassador 0.50, and we are keen to highlight our key takeaways as follows:
Migrating Ambassador to the Envoy v2 configuration and ADS APIs was a long and difficult journey that required lots of architecture and design discussions, and plenty of coding, but early feedback from results have been positive. Ambassador 0.50 is available now, so you can take it for a test run and share your feedback with the community on our Slack channel or on Twitter.About the Author
Daniel Bryant is leading change within organisations and technology, and currently works as a freelance consultant, of which Datawire is a client. His current work includes enabling agility within organisations by introducing better requirement gathering and planning techniques, focusing on the relevance of architecture within agile development, and facilitating continuous integration/delivery. Daniel’s current technical expertise focuses on ‘DevOps’ tooling, cloud/container platforms and microservice implementations. He is also a leader within the London Java Community (LJC), contributes to several open source projects, writes for well-known technical websites such as InfoQ, DZone and Voxxed, and regularly presents at international conferences such as QCon, JavaOne and Devoxx.
SAN JOSE, Calif., Feb. 05, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- iXsystems ®, the leader in Enterprise Storage and Servers Driven by Open Source, starts 2019 strongly after three consecutive years with over 50% year-over-year revenue growth in its TrueNAS ® product line. This achievement and momentum reflects the rapid adoption of the cutting-edge TrueNAS M-Series storage appliance.
2018 Products and Partnerships
The TrueNAS M-Series unified file, block, and object storage appliances deliver “Advanced Technologies in Perfect Harmony” according to DCIG and are proving to be the go-to storage solution for businesses, schools, and government agencies that need a storage solution scalable to over 10 petabytes. Released in May 2018, the M-Series provides high availability and 100Gb/s performance using best-of-breed technologies including NVDIMMs, NVMe, and the ZFS file system. They can be configured in Hybrid or All-Flash modes with industry-leading price-performance-capacity.
The Media and Entertainment (M&E) industry was among the earliest adopters of the TrueNAS M-Series. Production houses, including three major Hollywood studios, have implemented the TrueNAS M50 for both Archive and Editing workflows. The high capacity and high bandwidth of the M-Series, along with all the data protection and replication tools, make it well suited to the production and storage of valuable multimedia assets.
Both the TrueNAS X-Series and M-Series are also being used in more turnkey solutions. The Asigra TrueNAS backup appliance was identified by SearchDataBackup as one of the converged secondary storage solutions changing “buying patterns for organizations”, and is a finalist in SearchStorage’s 2018 Backup Products of the Year.
FreeNAS ®, the world’s most popular Open Source storage operating system, is integral to the success of the TrueNAS platforms. Version 11.2 of FreeNAS launched in December and features an all-new Angular-based web interface that will be extended to TrueNAS in 2019. With over 10 million downloads and a rapidly-growing community hundreds of thousands strong, FreeNAS can be found in organizations around the world of every size and industry. FreeNAS Mini and Certified appliances from iXsystems are widely used in offices and labs.
"There are an estimated 1 Million deployed TrueNAS and FreeNAS systems with many Exabytes under management. To support this vast user base, we will be releasing a single pane of glass management system for the combined FreeNAS and TrueNAS community."
– Morgan Littlewood, Senior Vice President, Product Management
The TrueNAS family, including FreeNAS, had another high growth year in 2018. The significant product enhancements and the high quality of the TrueNAS software and support stimulated the highest ever annual growth in revenue and units shipped. Key 2018 statistics include:
-- > 50% growth in TrueNAS systems revenues -- > 60% growth in capacity shipped -- > 80% growth in support revenues -- > 100% growth in Multi-PetaByte systems with 40 or 100 GbE networking -- > 100% growth in M&E storage deployments -- > 50% growth in FreeNAS software downloads per day
“When we launched TrueNAS in 2011, we knew that combining cutting-edge hardware and enterprise software enhancements along with our Open Source software was the secret to delivering unrivaled value and performance in a uniquely powerful and versatile storage solution. The response has been overwhelmingly positive. Our focus on software quality, data protection, and Enterprise-grade support provides our community with compelling economics in comparison with cloud and traditional storage vendors. We’d like to thank our customers, partners, and FreeNAS community for their ongoing support.”
– Brett Davis, Executive Vice President
To learn more about iXsystems and how TrueNAS can help your organization, visit www.iXsystems.com, contact us via https://www.ixsystems.com/contact-us/, or give us a call at 1-855-GREP-4-IX.
About iXsystemsThrough decades of expertise in system design and development of Open Source software (FreeNAS, FreeBSD, OpenZFS and TrueOS), iXsystems has become an innovation leader in a global marketplace that relies on Open Source solutions, high availability storage and servers, technology partnerships, and expert support. Since its founding in 2002, thousands of companies, universities, and government organizations have come to rely on iXsystems’ enterprise servers, TrueNAS Unified Storage, and consultative approach to building IT infrastructure and Private Clouds with Open Source economics. Millions of tech-savvy users also download and deploy our Open Source software each year. More information can be found at www.iXsystems.com.
Contact InformationDenise EberyDirector of Public Relationsdenise@iXsystems.com
A photo accompanying this announcement is available at http://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/b858e480-91a1-4770-8af5-9b5bbb82c08d
Copyright 2019 GlobeNewswire, Inc.
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Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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