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000-071 - xSeries Technical Principles - Dump Information

Vendor : IBM
Exam Code : 000-071
Exam Name : xSeries Technical Principles
Questions and Answers : 270 Q & A
Updated On : February 15, 2019
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000-071 Questions and Answers

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000-071 xSeries Technical Principles

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000-071 exam Dumps Source : xSeries Technical Principles

Test Code : 000-071
Test Name : xSeries Technical Principles
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 270 Real Questions

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IBM xSeries Technical Principles

World's Most remote Island receives advanced clinical aid From team Led by using IBM, UPMC and Beacon equity partners | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

source: IBM

November 14, 2007 23:59 ET

true-Time Telemedicine solution for Tristan da Cunha Brings Promise of enhanced scientific substances to isolated Populations far and wide

ARMONK, big apple--(Marketwire - November 14, 2007) - the area's most far off inhabited island can now access advanced telemedical care, because of services and help from a high-know-how group led by IBM (NYSE: IBM), Beacon equity companions and the institution of Pittsburgh medical center (UPMC). Tristan da Cunha is observed greater than 1,665 miles west of Cape town, South Africa, and is accessible simplest through a ship commute lasting every week or extra. Some 270 British citizens name the island domestic.

IBM, Beacon fairness partners, and UPMC today joined Medweb and the government of Tristan da Cunha in announcing the successful implementation of "venture Tristan." This validated and confirmed far off clinical solution combines medical machine, satellite communications and remotely supported electronic health-listing (EHR) technology, allowing clinical experts from any place on the planet to support island clinicians of their day by day practices with scientific diagnoses and emergency assist.

unless currently, the island's most effective surgeon, Dr. Carel Van der Merwe, has had to count upon minimal know-how and restrained clinical help. Working from a health center without so a good deal as its own telephone to give take care of sufferers, he has commonly carried out lifestyles-saving diagnoses and tactics without correct device or really expert expertise. missing a communications equipment that may accept email attachments, assist in deciphering X-Rays or EKGs, he has relied on digital photographs scanned, printed and faxed to specialists heaps of miles away, delaying diagnoses by means of days. with no airstrip on the island, emergency evacuation or outdoor scientific intervention has been and continues to be today essentially unattainable.

mission Tristan was conceived by using Edward Mullen, Chairman of Beacon equity companions, and Paul Grundy, MD, MPH, and IBM's Director of Healthcare technology and Strategic Initiatives, as a means to honor the memory of a detailed friend, Thomas Wiese. It changed into implemented with the tips and guide of UPMC, as well as of Dr. Richard Bakalar, Chief clinical Officer for IBM, who additionally established the Navy's first built-in Telemedicine workplace on the national Naval medical core in Bethesda, MD, prior to joining IBM. Dr. Bakalar is also President of the American Telemedicine association.

assignment Tristan, which is based on open necessities and runs on the Linux working equipment, is expected to drastically boost the island's stage of medical care and regular of dwelling. The island's health care provider is now in a position to electronically trap and share clinical information and counsel, together with X-Rays and EKGs as well as pulmonary characteristic opinions and video digital camera examinations with general practitioner consultants. satellite communications will allow clinicians to give real-time diagnostic tips and cautioned treatments to the attending physician.

"The skill to share scientific records without delay and easily can be a life saver for our residents," said Dr. Van der Merwe. "with the aid of joining forces, IBM, Beacon equity partners, Medweb and UPMC have not most effective created the means to bring crucial, affected person-centric care to our remote island, however additionally to different distant locations all over the world -- on land or sea -- that require constant connection to professional medical supplies."

Contributions from every team member were as follows:

-- IBM: answer co-construction, integration and assignment administration for the telemedicine equipment supplied to Tristan da Cunha. items and functions included staffing, on-web site installing of the equipment (requiring a 25 day carrier name on account of the restrained potential of getting to the island), economic resources, IBM xSeries servers provided to Medweb and excessive-decision displays.

-- Beacon fairness companions: Co-building of the idea and funding for the challenge.

-- Medweb: Medweb servers and application and additional medical enter contraptions together with a computed radiography equipment for digital X-Ray; integration of ECG, digital cameras, spirometry and video conferencing capabilities; configuration and testing, faraway installation, training and sustained guide capabilities on an ongoing basis, including simple technical and assist desk features.

-- college of Pittsburgh clinical core: With its largely identified journey in telemedicine in the U.S. and abroad, UPMC volunteered to assist plan and put in force assignment Tristan. moreover, UPMC offered clinical expert carrier to the island, together with clinical consultations on request; cozy and reputable entry to powerful and finished multimedia medical records on Tristan patients from the Medweb Telemedicine answer; and ongoing far off practising to aid task Tristan as obligatory.

-- SOAPware®: undertaking Tristan facets slicing-facet, remotely supported electronic fitness list (EHR) know-how courtesy of SOAPware, Inc. This answer has greater installed sites and is in use in additional countries than another.

"Connecting essentially the most far off inhabited spot on the face of the earth, Tristan da Cunha, to advanced clinical care in real time and over the information superhighway is proof that the realm is actually flat. this is a large step towards providing everybody access to facilities of healthcare excellence despite geographical vicinity," referred to Paul Grundy, MD, MPH, IBM's executive sponsor for project Tristan and Director of IBM's Healthcare know-how and Strategic Initiatives. "or not it's now feasible to display screen a affected person's heart and remotely change the setting on a pacemaker or make a posh fracture diagnoses over a satellite cyber web connection -- even in an ambiance where the closest advanced care by way of a ship would in any other case have taken per week to attain the Island and a different to return to the mainland for care."

In dedicating assignment Tristan to the reminiscence of Weiss, who become misplaced to cancer in 2006 after a lifetime of assisting others, the parties share a imaginative and prescient of the task's competencies influence worldwide. "Thomas had tremendous energy and enthusiasm for reaching out to others," referred to Ed Mullen. "it is in memory of his spirit, unravel and guiding principles that our crew has worked to installation Tristan on Tristan da Cunha. Our unanimous goal is to extend this superior telemedical answer to enrich healthcare in far flung areas all over."


Database Administration: developing the Database atmosphere | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

organising a usable database environment requires a fine deal of ability, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will outline the concepts concerned in establishing a usable database atmosphere.

This chapter is from the e-book 

some of the fundamental initiatives linked to the job of DBA is the system of deciding on and setting up a DBMS. sadly, many business executives and IT professionals without database management history expect that as soon as the DBMS is put in, the bulk of the work is completed. The actuality is, identifying and installing the DBMS is infrequently essentially the most elaborate part of a DBA’s job. organising a usable database atmosphere requires an outstanding deal of skill, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will outline the principles involved in organising a usable database atmosphere.

The manner of choosing a suitable DBMS for enterprise database administration is not as complex because it was. The variety of fundamental DBMS providers has dwindled due to industry consolidation and domination of the sphere via just a few very tremendous gamers.

Yet, large and medium-measurement organizations customarily run multiple DBMS products, from as few as two to as many as ten. as an example, it is not uncommon for a large enterprise to use IMS or IDMS and DB2 on the mainframe, Oracle and MySQL on several distinct UNIX servers, Microsoft SQL Server on home windows servers, as well as pockets of alternative DBMS items similar to Sybase, Ingres, Adabas, and PostgreSQL on various structures, no longer to point out single-user computer DBMS items equivalent to Microsoft access, Paradox, and FileMaker. Who selected to set up all these DBMSs and why?

sadly, frequently the answer is that no longer a lot idea and planning went into the choice-making manner. on occasion the decision to buy and installation a brand new DBMS is driven by using a company want or a new utility. here's affordable in case your firm has no DBMS and should purchase one for the primary time. this is infrequently the case, even though. despite no matter if a DBMS exists on-web site, a new DBMS is regularly viewed as a requirement for a new application. sometimes a new DBMS product is purchased and installed with out first examining if the software may well be correctly carried out using an current DBMS. Or, more doubtless, the DBAs know the application can be carried out the usage of an existing DBMS however lack the organizational power or aid to reject a new DBMS concept.

There are other causes for the existence of numerous DBMS structures in a single firm. in all probability the business bought a business off-the-shelf utility equipment that doesn't run on any of the current DBMS platforms. on occasion the determination to buy a brand new DBMS is driven with the aid of the desire to support the latest and top-rated expertise. as an example, many mainframe shops moving from a hierarchic (IMS) or CODASYL (IDMS) database model to the relational mannequin deployed DB2, resulting in an extra DBMS to study and guide. Then, when client/server computing became usual, extra DBMSs have been carried out on UNIX, Linux, and home windows servers.

once a DBMS is installed, elimination can also be intricate as a result of incompatibilities among the many distinct DBMSs and the need of converting utility code. moreover, when a brand new DBMS is put in, old functions and databases are always now not migrated to it. The ancient DBMS is still and have to continue to be supported. This complicates the DBA’s job.

So what should still be executed? neatly, the DBA group should still be empowered to make the DBMS selections for the corporation. No company unit should still be allowed to buy a DBMS without the permission of the DBA community. this is a tough provision to put into effect and much more complicated to enforce. company politics frequently work against the DBA community because it generally possesses much less organizational vigor than other business executives.

selecting a DBMS

The DBA neighborhood should still set a coverage related to the DBMS items to be supported within the company. each time possible, the policy should still minimize the number of distinct DBMS items. For a store with distinctive working systems and numerous forms of hardware, opt for a default DBMS for the platform. Discourage deviation from the default except a compelling company case exists—a enterprise case that passes the technical inspection of the DBA group.

lots of the principal DBMS items have identical features, and if the characteristic or performance doesn't exist nowadays, it probably will inside 18 to 24 months. So, undertaking caution earlier than finding out to select a DBMS based totally on its potential to support a specific function.

When deciding on a DBMS, it is sensible to opt for a product from a tier-1 vendor as listed in desk 2.1. Tier 1 represents the greatest providers having essentially the most heavily implemented and supported items in the marketplace. You cannot go incorrect with DB2 or Oracle. both are general and assist well-nigh any category of database. another primary player is Microsoft SQL Server, but only for windows platforms. DB2 and Oracle run on diverse platforms starting from mainframe to UNIX, in addition to home windows and even handheld devices. making a choice on a DBMS aside from these three may still be carried out simplest under selected circumstances.

desk 2.1. Tier-1 DBMS vendors

DBMS seller

DBMS Product

IBM company

DB2

New Orchard street

Armonk, big apple 10504

mobilephone: (914) 499-1900

Oracle organization

Oracle

500 Oracle Parkway

Redwood Shores, CA 94065

telephone: (650) 506-7000

Microsoft employer

SQL Server

One Microsoft method

Redmond, WA 98052

phone: (425) 882-8080

After the massive three come MySQL, Sybase, Teradata, and Informix. table 2.2 lists these tier-2 DBMS providers. All of these offerings are great DBMS items, however their installed base is smaller, their products are engineered and marketed for niche functions, or the agencies are smaller with fewer supplies than the huge Three (IBM, Oracle, and Microsoft), so there is some possibility in determining a DBMS from tier 2 as a substitute of tier 1. however, there may well be strong causes for deploying a tier-2 answer, such as the high performance provided via Informix or the information warehousing and analytics capabilities of Teradata.

table 2.2. Tier-2 DBMS carriers

DBMS supplier

DBMS Product

IBM employer

Informix Dynamic Server

New Orchard street

Armonk, the big apple 10504

telephone: (914) 499-1900

Sybase Inc. (an SAP business)

Adaptive Server enterprise

6475 Christie Avenue

Emeryville, CA 94608

telephone: (510) 922-3500

Teradata organisation

Teradata

10000 Innovation power

Dayton, OH 45342

mobile: (937) 242-4030

MySQL (a subsidiary of Oracle service provider)

MySQL

mobilephone: (208) 338-8100

Of path, there are other DBMS products in the marketplace, lots of which can be fine products and priceless of consideration for uniqueness processing, certain predefined wants, and niche roles. if your enterprise is heavily into the open-supply utility circulation, PostgreSQL, EnterpriseDB, or MySQL might possibly be practicable options. If an object DBMS is essential for a particular mission, you could consider ObjectDesign or Versant. And there are numerous NoSQL DBMS choices purchasable, too, such as Hadoop, Cassandra, and MongoDB.1

although, for the bulk of your records management needs, a DBMS from a tier-1, or most likely tier-2, DBMS seller will carry satisfactory functionality with minimal risk. A myriad of DBMS items are available, every with definite features that make them useful of consideration on a case-via-case basis. determining any of the reduce-tier candidates—even such major names as software AG’s Adabas and Actian’s Ingres—includes incurring additional chance. refer to Appendix B for a list of DBMS vendors.

I don't need it to sound as if the preference of a DBMS is a no brainer. you'll need a methodology and a plan for selecting the applicable DBMS in your specific circumstance. When picking a DBMS, be certain to accept as true with each and every of these elements:

  • working device guide. Does the DBMS support the working systems in use at your firm, together with the types that you're at the moment the usage of and plan on using?
  • category of company. have in mind the company philosophy if you choose a DBMS. Some businesses are very conservative and like to retain a tight rein on their environments; these agencies tend to gravitate towards traditional mainframe environments. government operations, financial associations, and insurance and health businesses always tend to be conservative. extra-liberal corporations are often inclined to consider alternative architectures. It is not wonderful for manufacturing organizations, dot-coms, and universities to be much less conservative. ultimately, some corporations simply do not believe windows as a mission-critical ambiance and prefer to use UNIX; this guidelines out some database carriers (Microsoft SQL Server, in specific).
  • Benchmarks. What efficiency benchmarks are available from the DBMS supplier and different users of the DBMS? The Transaction Processing efficiency Council (TPC) publishes reputable database efficiency benchmarks that can also be used as a suggestion for the basic general efficiency of many different sorts of database processing. (check with the sidebar “The Transaction Processing performance Council” for extra details.) In normal, performance benchmarks will also be helpful as a broad indicator of database performance however should no longer be the handiest determinant when settling on a DBMS. lots of the TPC benchmarks are run in opposition t database implementations that aren't consultant of most production database methods and hence are not indicative of the actual performance of a particular DBMS. moreover, benchmarks are constantly up-to-date to demonstrate new and stronger efficiency measurements for each and every of the essential DBMS items, rendering the benchmark “winners” obsolete very right away.
  • Scalability. Does the DBMS assist the variety of users and database sizes you plan to enforce? How are giant databases built, supported, and maintained—effectively or with lots of pain? Are there unbiased users who can verify the DBMS dealer’s scalability claims?
  • Availability of assisting software equipment. Are the supporting tools you require obtainable for the DBMS? These items might also consist of query and evaluation tools, records warehousing assist equipment, database administration tools, backup and healing tools, performance-monitoring equipment, means-planning tools, database utilities, and support for numerous programming languages.
  • The Transaction Processing efficiency Council is an impartial, no longer-for-income company that manages and administers efficiency benchmark exams. Its mission is to define transaction processing and database benchmarks to deliver the business with purpose, verifiable efficiency information. TPC benchmarks measure and consider computer functions and operations.

    The definition of transaction espoused via the TPC is a business one. a standard TPC transaction includes the database updates for things reminiscent of stock control (goods), airline reservations (features), and banking (cash).

    The benchmarks produced by means of the TPC measure performance in terms of what number of transactions a given device and database can function per unit of time, for instance, number of transactions per second. The TPC defines three benchmarks:

  • TPC-C, for deliberate creation workload in a transaction atmosphere
  • TPC-H, a choice help benchmark inclusive of a collection of enterprise-oriented advert hoc queries and concurrent facts modifications
  • TPC-E, an updated OLTP workload (in line with economic transaction processing)
  • additional info and in-depth definitions of those benchmarks may also be found on the TPC internet site at www.tpc.org (see figure 2.1).

  • Technicians. Is there a sufficient supply of knowledgeable database experts for the DBMS? believe your needs in terms of DBAs, technical assist personnel (system programmers and directors, operations analysts, and so on.), and utility programmers.
  • cost of possession. what is the full can charge of ownership of the DBMS? DBMS providers cost wildly varying expenditures for their know-how. total cost of ownership may still be calculated as a mix of the license cost of the DBMS; the license can charge of any required supporting utility; the cost of database specialists to program, aid, and administer the DBMS; and the cost of the computing resources required to function the DBMS.
  • free up time table. How commonly does the DBMS supplier liberate a brand new edition? Some providers have rapid free up cycles, with new releases popping out every 12 to 18 months. This may also be respectable or dangerous, reckoning on your approach. if you need slicing-part elements, a fast unlock cycle is respectable. despite the fact, in case your shop is greater conservative, a DBMS that alterations often will also be problematic to help. A swift free up cycle will cause conservative organizations both to improve extra commonly than they would like or to reside with out of date DBMS software that is not likely to have the identical degree of support because the latest releases.
  • Reference clients. Will the DBMS dealer give current consumer references? are you able to locate other clients to your own who could provide more impartial solutions? communicate with existing users to elicit issues and issues you may additionally have not noted. How is help? Does the supplier reply well to problems? Do things often work as marketed? Are there loads of malicious program fixes that have to be utilized always? what is the high-quality of latest releases? These questions will also be answered simplest with the aid of the folks in the trenches.
  • When picking a DBMS, be certain to have in mind the complexity of the products. DBMS application is terribly complex and is getting extra complicated with every new liberate. performance that used to be supported handiest with add-on software or impartial programs is increasingly being added as features of the DBMS, as shown in determine 2.2. you'll deserve to plan for and support the entire points of the DBMS. in spite of the fact that there is not any latest requirement for certain elements, once you put into effect the DBMS the programmers and developers will discover a cause to use almost anything the vendor threw into it. it's superior to plan and be organized than to allow facets for use and not using a plan for aiding them.

    Figure 2.2

    figure 2.2. Convergence of features and performance in DBMS utility

    DBMS Architectures

    The aiding structure for the DBMS atmosphere is terribly critical to the success of the database functions. One wrong alternative or poorly applied component of the normal structure may cause bad efficiency, downtime, or unstable applications.

    When mainframes dominated business computing, DBMS architecture became a simpler difficulty. everything ran on the mainframe, and that turned into that. although, these days the IT infrastructure is disbursed and heterogeneous. The common structure—even for a mainframe DBMS—will likely include numerous systems and interoperating device software. A group along with company and IT experts, in preference to a single person or community, may still make the closing architecture determination. business experts should encompass representatives from a considerable number of departments, in addition to from accounting and felony for application contract issues. Database administration representatives (DA, DBA, and SA), as well as contributors of the networking neighborhood, working device specialists, operations handle personnel, programming specialists, and another involved parties, may still be blanketed during this group.

    in addition, be sure that the DBMS you opt for is acceptable for the nature and sort of processing you propose to implement. four stages of DBMS structure can be found: commercial enterprise, departmental, very own, and cellular.

    An business DBMS is designed for scalability and excessive efficiency. An commercial enterprise DBMS ought to be capable of aiding very large databases, a huge variety of concurrent clients, and multiple sorts of applications. The business DBMS runs on a big-scale computer, usually a mainframe or a excessive-end server running UNIX, Linux, or windows Server. in addition, an enterprise DBMS offers all the “bells and whistles” obtainable from the DBMS supplier. Multiprocessor support, support for parallel queries, and different advanced DBMS elements are core accessories of an business DBMS.

    A departmental DBMS, every so often called a workgroup DBMS, serves the center floor. The departmental DBMS helps small to medium-dimension workgroups inside a company; typically, it runs on a UNIX, Linux, or windows server. The dividing line between a departmental database server and an commercial enterprise database server is quite gray. Hardware and software enhancements can permit a departmental DBMS to handle initiatives that up to now can be performed simplest via an commercial enterprise DBMS. The incessantly falling cost of departmental hardware and application accessories additional contributes to lowering the total charge of operation and enabling a workgroup ambiance to scale up to serve the enterprise.

    a private DBMS is designed for a single person, typically on a low- to medium-powered workstation platform. Microsoft access, SQLite, and FileMaker2 are examples of private database utility. Of direction, the important DBMS carriers additionally market own models of their better-powered solutions, similar to Oracle Database own edition and DB2 very own version. on occasion the cost effective of a personal DBMS effects in a inaccurate try to select a personal DBMS for a departmental or business solution. although, do not be lured by using the inexpensive. a personal DBMS product is proper simplest for extremely small-scale initiatives and should never be deployed for multiuser applications.

    at last, the cell DBMS is a really good version of a departmental or business DBMS. it is designed for faraway users who don't seem to be continually connected to the network. The cell DBMS enables local database entry and amendment on a computing device or handheld device. in addition, the cell DBMS provides a mechanism for synchronizing far off database adjustments to a centralized commercial enterprise or departmental database server.

    A DBMS designed for one class of processing can be ill proper for other makes use of. for example, a private DBMS is not designed for dissimilar users, and an business DBMS is commonly too complicated for single users. make certain to have in mind the ameliorations amongst business, departmental, own, and cell DBMS software, and decide the appropriate DBMS in your particular statistics-processing wants. You could need to choose diverse DBMS types—this is, a DBMS for each level—with utilization determined with the aid of the needs of each development challenge.

    in case your company requires DBMS options at distinctive tiers, choose the option of a bunch of DBMS solutions from the same supplier each time viable. Doing so will reduce differences in access, construction, and administration. for example, choose Oracle Database own edition for your single-user DBMS needs if your company uses Oracle because the business DBMS of alternative.

    DBMS Clustering

    Clustering is using distinctive “unbiased” computing methods working collectively as a single, tremendously accessible gadget. a modern DBMS presents clustering help to boost availability and scalability. both predominant architectures for clustering are shared-disk and shared-nothing. These names do an outstanding job of describing the nature of the structure—at the least at a high level.

    Shared-nothing clustering is depicted in determine 2.3. In a shared-nothing architecture, each system has its personal private supplies (memory, disks, and many others.). The clustered processors talk through passing messages via a network that interconnects the computers. in addition, requests from consumers are immediately routed to the device that owns the aid. just one of the clustered programs can “personal” and access a particular useful resource at a time. in the experience a failure occurs, resource possession may also be dynamically transferred to an extra system in the cluster. The main expertise of shared-nothing clustering is scalability. In conception, a shared-nothing multiprocessor can scale as much as hundreds of processors because they don't intrude with one one more—nothing is shared.

    In a shared-disk atmosphere, all of the related techniques share the identical disk gadgets, as proven in figure 2.four. each processor nonetheless has its personal inner most reminiscence, but the entire processors can without delay address the entire disks. usually, shared-disk clustering doesn't scale as neatly for smaller machines as shared-nothing clustering. Shared-disk clustering is greater appropriate to tremendous-commercial enterprise processing in a mainframe ambiance. Mainframes—very colossal processors—are capable of processing massive volumes of labor. first-rate merits may also be obtained with handiest a few clustered mainframes, whereas many laptop and midrange processors would need to be clustered to achieve equivalent advantages.

    Shared-disk clustering is constantly preferable for applications and features requiring handiest modest shared entry to data and for applications or workloads that are very difficult to partition. purposes with heavy data replace requirements are likely stronger applied as shared-nothing. table 2.three compares the capabilities of shared-disk and shared-nothing architectures.

    table 2.three. comparison of Shared-Disk and Shared-Nothing Architectures

    Shared-Disk

    Shared-Nothing

    short adaptability to altering workloads

    Can take advantage of easier, more affordable hardware

    excessive availability

    basically limitless scalability

    Performs optimum in a heavy examine atmosphere

    Works well in a high-volume, read-write ambiance

    facts needn't be partitioned

    statistics is partitioned throughout the cluster

    The principal DBMS providers provide aid for various kinds of clustering with diverse capabilities and necessities. for instance, DB2 for z/OS gives shared-disk clustering with its records Sharing and Parallel Sysplex capabilities; DB2 on non-mainframe structures makes use of shared-nothing clustering. Oracle’s true software Clusters provide shared-disk clustering.

    for most users, the simple advantage of clustering is the better availability that accrues by combining processors. In some instances, clustering can support an business to achieve five-nines (ninety nine.999 p.c) availability. additionally, clustering can also be used for load balancing and failover.

    DBMS Proliferation

    quite often of thumb, create a coverage (or at least some fundamental instructions) that have to be adopted earlier than a new DBMS may also be introduced into the corporation. Failure to achieve this can cause a proliferation of distinctive DBMS items that could be elaborate to support. it will probably also trigger confusion concerning which DBMS to use for which development effort.

    As mentioned past, there's a plethora of DBMS providers, each touting its advantages. As a DBA, you can be bombarded with advertising and marketing and earnings efforts that try and convince you that you need an additional DBMS. try to face up to except a very compelling rationale is given and a brief-term return on investment (ROI) may also be validated. Even when confronted with legitimate causes and respectable ROI, make sure to double-determine the arguments and ROI calculations. every so often the reasons certain are old-fashioned and the ROI figures don't take everything into consideration—such because the additional charge of administration.

    bear in mind, every DBMS requires database administration aid. additionally, every DBMS makes use of distinctive how one can perform an identical tasks. the fewer DBMS products installed, the much less advanced database administration turns into, and the more suitable your chances become of presenting valuable facts management components for your corporation.

    Hardware considerations

    When organising a database environment for application development, settling on the DBMS is only part of the equation. The hardware and working system on which the DBMS will run will vastly affect the reliability, availability, and scalability (RAS) of the database atmosphere. for instance, a mainframe platform equivalent to an IBM zEC12 operating z/OS will probably deliver higher RAS than a midrange IBM xSeries machine working AIX, which in flip will probably exceed a Dell server working windows. That is not to claim every little thing should run on a mainframe; different concerns such as can charge, journey, manageability, and the needs of the functions to be developed should be regarded. The bottom line is that you simply should be sure to element hardware platform and operating system constraints into the DBMS choice standards.

    Cloud Database techniques

    Cloud computing (see the sidebar) is increasing in usage, specifically at small to medium-size groups. A cloud implementation may also be extra least expensive than building an entire local computing infrastructure that requires administration and assist.

    A cloud database device gives you DBMS functions over the cyber web. The change-off almost comes right down to trusting a cloud issuer to save and control your statistics in return for minimizing database administration and preservation cost and effort. the use of cloud database systems can allow agencies, especially smaller ones without the supplies to invest in an commercial enterprise computing infrastructure, to center of attention on their company as an alternative of their computing ambiance.

    by using consolidating records sources in the cloud, it is viable to improve collaboration among partners, branch offices, remote laborers, and cell devices, because the records turns into accessible as a carrier. There is no should set up, installation, patch, or control the DBMS utility because the cloud company manages and cares for these administrative initiatives. Of path, the downside is that your information is now kept and controlled through an external agent—the cloud company. another inherent chance of cloud computing is the opportunity of nefarious agents posing as official customers.

    An example of a cloud database platform is Microsoft SQL Azure. it is built on SQL Server technologies and is a element of the home windows Azure platform.


    IBM experiences 2005 First-Quarter results; reflects Expensing of fairness Compensation | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    IBM announced on Thusday, April 14th, 2005, first- quarter 2005 diluted revenue per commonplace share of $.eighty five from continuing operations as stated, together with the effect of expensing share-based mostly compensation, in comparison with diluted salary on a similar foundation of $.79 per share within the first quarter of 2004, a rise of eight %. First- quarter earnings from carrying on with operations changed into $1.forty one billion, including the adoption of expensing fairness compensation, compared with $1.36 billion a year ago, a rise of 3 percent. Revenues from continuing operations for the primary quarter were $22.9 billion, up 3 p.c, compared with revenues of $22.2 billion for the first quarter of 2004.

    earlier this month, IBM introduced its intention to cost fairness compensation within the first quarter. The adoption is in keeping with the implementation information supplied in the SEC's liberate of group of workers Accounting Bulletin No. 107, and based on the FASB's revised observation of monetary Accounting standards (SFAS) No. 123(R), "Share- based funds."

    Samuel J. Palmisano, IBM chairman and chief executive officer, observed: "After a robust birth, we had issue closing transactions in the last weeks of the quarter, particularly in countries with gentle financial situations, as well as with short-time period global services signings. as a result, we did not achieve all of our dreams for the quarter. Middleware software and midrange methods outcomes had been strong, and we grew vastly in business efficiency Transformation capabilities and in the emerging markets of China, Brazil, India and eastern Europe. We back essentially $4 billion to buyers in the quarter via share repurchases and dividends. we are taking appropriate measures to sharpen our execution, as we proceed to put in force our international increase suggestions."

    First-quarter salary boom of 3 % (1 %, adjusting for foreign money) became pushed through boom within the Americas and Europe/center East/Africa. in the Americas, first-quarter revenues from continuing operations had been $9.3 billion, up 2 % (1 %, adjusting for currency) from the 2004 period. Revenues from Europe/core East/Africa have been $7.7 billion, a rise of seven p.c (2 p.c, adjusting for foreign money). Asia-Pacific revenues grew 1 percent (down 2 %, adjusting for forex) to $5.2 billion. OEM revenues increased three % to $691 million compared with the first quarter of 2004.

    Revenues grew in four of IBM's 5 trade sectors in the first quarter led by way of the Distribution sector, as well as increase in income to Small and Medium businesses.

    Revenues from global services, together with maintenance, elevated 6 % (3 percent, adjusting for forex) to $11.7 billion within the first quarter. international services revenues, with the exception of renovation, extended 7 % (4 percent, adjusting for currency). IBM signed services contracts totaling $10.0 billion and ended the quarter with an estimated features backlog, including Strategic Outsourcing, company Consulting features, built-in technology services and maintenance, of $110 billion.

    moreover these signings and backlog figures there were about $200 million of Engineering and know-how capabilities signings to provide enterprise efficiency Transformation features purchasers with design ability and technical capabilities.

    Hardware revenues from continuing operations had been very nearly flat (down 2 percent, adjusting for forex) to $6.7 billion within the first quarter versus the first quarter of 2004. Revenues from the programs and technology neighborhood totaled $three.9 billion for the quarter, up 2 p.c on eServer salary increases. This comprises a 12 % increase in pSeries UNIX servers, which is expected to profit market share within the first quarter, and an eight % increase in xSeries servers. Revenues from the zSeries mainframe product diminished 16 % compared with the prior-12 months quarter. the overall beginning of zSeries computing vigour as measured in MIPS (tens of millions of directions per second) decreased 11 %. Revenues for the iSeries midrange servers accelerated 1 percent. Storage programs and know-how OEM expanded 5 % and a couple of percent, respectively. Revenues from own systems group lowered 3 % to $2.7 billion. in the fourth-quarter 2004, IBM announced an agreement to sell the own Computing Division, a unit of the very own systems community, which is anticipated to shut in the 2nd-quarter 2005.

    Revenues from software had been $three.6 billion, a rise of two % (flat, adjusting for currency) in comparison with the first quarter of 2004. Revenues from IBM's middleware brands, which include WebSphere, DB2, Rational, Tivoli and Lotus products, have been $2.8 billion, up 3 percent versus the primary quarter of 2004. working systems revenues diminished 2 percent to $590 million compared with the primary quarter of 2004.

    Revenues for WebSphere family of software items, which helps consumers' capacity to control a large choice of company procedures the usage of open specifications to interconnect functions, statistics and working methods, increased 11 %. Revenues for assistance management multiplied 5 p.c together with revenues for DB2 database software, which makes it possible for purchasers to leverage advice on demand, extended 9 p.c. Revenues from Tivoli utility (infrastructure utility that allows purchasers to centrally manage networks and storage) elevated 15 p.c, and revenues for Lotus utility, which enables taking part and messaging by way of shoppers in precise-time communique and abilities management, extended eleven p.c. Revenues from Rational software (integrated construction tools) were flat in comparison with the primary quarter of 2004.

    consequently, IBM expects to gain or cling market share for the first quarter in the collaborative application, techniques administration and security utility, net functions and information administration classes.

    global Financing revenues declined 12 % (15 p.c, adjusting for foreign money) in the first quarter to $580 million. Revenues from the enterprise Investments/different enviornment, which includes business- particular IT solutions akin to product existence-cycle administration utility, elevated 15 p.c (12 percent, adjusting for currency) to $332 million in comparison with the primary quarter of 2004.

    The business's complete gross earnings margin from carrying on with operations changed into 36.0 % in the 2005 first quarter, which includes the impact of expensing fairness compensation, compared with 35.6 percent within the first quarter of 2004 on the same basis.

    in the first quarter of 2005, complete expense and other earnings from carrying on with operations multiplied 5 p.c to $6.2 billion and, coupled with the revenue boost of 3 p.c, IBM's total fee-to-earnings ratio accelerated 0.5 points to 27.three p.c. For the quarter, the reporting periods mirror the adoption of expensing fairness compensation as it relates to each selling, standard and administrative (SG&A) cost and analysis, development and engineering (RD&E) fee. SG&A cost increased 6 % to $four.9 billion. RD&E rate increased three % to $1.5 billion. highbrow property and custom building revenue accelerated to $219 million in comparison with $180 million a yr in the past. other (revenue) and expense turned into $22 million of net cost within the first quarter of 2005 versus $13 million within the same period final 12 months.

    IBM's helpful tax cost from continuing operations in the first quarter 2005 become 30.0 percent, compared with 30.1 % in the first quarter of 2004.

    Share repurchases totaled about $3.four billion within the first quarter. The weighted-typical number of diluted ordinary shares fantastic in the first-quarter 2005 changed into 1.66 billion compared with 1.73 billion shares within the equal length of 2004. As of March 31, 2005, there were 1.61 billion primary standard shares unbelievable.

    IBM ended the primary quarter of 2005 with $eight.7 billion of money available. The stability sheet remains effective, and the company is neatly positioned to take competencies of alternatives.

    Debt, including world Financing, totaled $23.four billion, in comparison with $22.9 billion at 12 months-end 2004. From a management phase view, the non-world financing debt-to-capitalization ratio became 5.3 percent at the end of March 31, 2005, and international Financing debt declined $413 million from yr-end 2004 to a total of $21.9 billion, resulting in a debt-to-fairness ratio of 6.7 to 1.

    forward-looking and Cautionary Statements

    other than the historic assistance and discussions contained herein, statements contained during this unencumber can also represent forward- looking statements inside the meaning of the private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements involve a couple of hazards, uncertainties and other elements that may trigger specific outcomes to differ materially, as mentioned in the business's filings with the U.S. Securities and change fee (SEC).

    Presentation of information during this Press unlock

    so as to supply traders with more information concerning the business's effects as determined with the aid of generally authorised accounting principles (GAAP), the business has additionally disclosed in this press unlock here non-GAAP advice which administration believes offers helpful information to investors:

    - adjusting for currency

    The rationale for management's use of non-GAAP measures is included as a part of the supplementary materials introduced inside the first- quarter salary materials. These materials can be found on the IBM investor relations internet site at www.ibm.com/investor and will be protected in a subsequent submitting of a form 8-k with the SEC.

    conference name and Webcast

    IBM's standard quarterly salary convention call is scheduled to begin at 6:00 p.m. EDT, today. buyers may take part by viewing the Webcast at www.ibm.com/investor/1q05.

    monetary outcomes connected

    overseas business MACHINES CORPORATIONCOMPARATIVE economic outcomes(Unaudited; bucks in hundreds of thousands except per share amounts)

    Three Months Ended March 31Percent2005 2004* exchange------- ------- -------salary

    international features $eleven,696 $11,024 6.1p.cGross profit margin 24.3% 23.7%

    Hardware 6,749 6,735 0.2%Gross profit margin 27.5% 26.5%

    utility 3,551 3,466 2.4p.cGross income margin 86.four% 85.9%

    global Financing 580 662 -12.5percentGross income margin 54.2% 60.5%

    business Investments/different 332 288 15.2percentGross earnings margin fifty two.5% 39.5%

    total income 22,908 22,175 three.three%

    GROSS profit eight,254 7,892 four.6%Gross earnings margin 36.0% 35.6%

    expense AND other earnings

    S,G&A 4,933 4,658 5.9p.ccost to revenue 21.5% 21.0%

    R,D&E 1,459 1,416 3.0percentfee to earnings 6.4% 6.4%

    intellectual propertyand custom developmentincome (219) (a hundred and eighty) 21.9p.cother (salary) and cost 22 13 71.threep.chobby price 49 35 forty.0%

    complete cost ANDOTHER income 6,244 5,942 5.1percentcost to earnings 27.3% 26.eight%

    income FROM CONTINUINGOPERATIONS BEFOREINCOME TAXES 2,010 1,950 3.1%Pre-tax margin eight.8% 8.eight%

    Provision forincome taxes 603 586 2.8%helpful tax fee 30.0% 30.1%

    salary FROM CONTINUINGOPERATIONS $1,407 $1,364 three.2%net margin 6.1% 6.1%

    DISCONTINUED OPERATIONSLoss from discontinuedoperations 5 1

    internet earnings $1,402 $1,363 2.9%====== ======

    income/(LOSS)PER SHAREOF usual stock:

    ASSUMING DILUTIONCONTINUINGOPERATIONS $0.85 $0.seventy nine 7.6p.cDISCONTINUEDOPERATIONS (0.00) (0.00)------ ------total $0.84** $0.seventy nine 6.3%====== ======BASICCONTINUINGOPERATIONS $0.86 $0.81 6.2percentDISCONTINUEDOPERATIONS (0.00) (0.00)------ ------total $0.86 $0.eighty one 6.2%====== ======WEIGHTED-ordinary NUMBEROF standard SHARESOUTSTANDING (M's)ASSUMING DILUTION 1,660.6 1,727.4BASIC 1,628.7 1,691.7

    * Restated first-quarter 2004 fiscal results to consist of the impactof share-primarily based compensation price.

    ** doesn't total as a result of rounding.

    international enterprise MACHINES CORPORATIONCONSOLIDATED observation OF financial position(Unaudited)

    At At(dollars in millions) March 31, December 31, Percent2005 2004* change----------- ----------- -------belongings

    money, cash equivalents,and marketable securities $eight,651 $10,570 -18.2%

    Receivables - web, inventories,prepaid prices 32,692 36,573 -10.6%

    Plant, apartment machines,and other property - internet 14,708 15,one hundred seventy five -3.1%

    Investments and different belongings 48,848 forty eight,685 0.three%-------- --------

    complete property $104,899 $111,003 -5.5%======== ========

    LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' equity

    short-time period debt $6,329 $eight,099 -21.9p.clong-term debt 17,083 14,828 15.2%-------- --------total debt 23,412 22,927 2.1%

    bills payable, taxes,and accruals 27,493 31,687 -13.2%

    other liabilities 24,074 24,701 -2.5%-------- --------complete LIABILITIES 74,979 79,315 -5.5%

    STOCKHOLDERS' equity 29,920 31,688 -5.6%-------- --------complete LIABILITIES ANDSTOCKHOLDERS' equity $104,899 $111,003 -5.5%======== ========

    * Restated 2004 monetary position to consist of the affect ofshare-primarily based compensation cost.

    international business MACHINES CORPORATIONSEGMENT facts(Unaudited)

    FIRST QUARTER 2005---------------------------------------------Pre-taxIncome(Loss)From(greenbacks in millions) -------- profits --------- continuing Pre-taxExternal inner total Operations Margin-------- -------- ------- ---------- -------SEGMENTS

    global services $eleven,696 $745 $12,441 $942 7.6%% trade 6.1% -2.2% 5.6% -four.9percentSystems and TechnologyGroup 3,869 235 4,104 109 2.7%% change 2.5% -0.4% 2.3% -35.9percentpersonal methods neighborhood 2,739 32 2,771 (17) -0.6%% change -three.1% 39.1% -2.7% -fifty four.5p.capplication three,551 461 four,012 893 22.3%% exchange 2.4% 15.0% three.7% four.6p.cglobal Financing 579 449 1,028 396 38.5%% exchange -12.9% 60.four% eight.8% 5.9%enterprise Investments 292 2 294 (32) -10.9%% alternate 6.2% 0.0% 6.1% 38.5%

    complete SEGMENTS 22,726 1,924 24,650 2,291 9.3%% alternate three.1% 12.9% 3.9% -1.5%

    Eliminations / other 182 (1,924) (1,742) (281)

    total IBM $22,908 $0 $22,908 $2,010 8.8%% exchange three.3% three.3% three.1%

    FIRST QUARTER 2004-----------------------------------------------Pre-taxIncome(Loss)From(dollars in tens of millions) -------- revenue --------- continuing Pre-taxExternal inner complete Operations Margin-------- -------- ------- ---------- -------

    SEGMENTS

    world features $eleven,024 $762 $11,786 $991 8.fourp.cSystems and TechnologyGroup three,776 236 four,012 a hundred and seventy 4.2%personal methods community 2,826 23 2,849 (eleven) -0.four%software three,466 401 3,867 854 22.1%global Financing 665 280 945 374 39.6p.cbusiness Investments 275 2 277 (52) -18.eight%

    total SEGMENTS 22,032 1,704 23,736 2,326 9.eight%

    Eliminations / different 143 (1,704) (1,561) (376)

    total IBM* $22,a hundred seventy five $0 $22,175 $1,950 eight.8%

    * Restated first-quarter 2004 economic outcomes to consist of the impactof share-based compensation rate.


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    Database Administration: Creating the Database Environment | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Establishing a usable database environment requires a great deal of skill, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will outline the principles involved in establishing a usable database environment.

    This chapter is from the book 

    One of the primary tasks associated with the job of DBA is the process of choosing and installing a DBMS. Unfortunately, many business executives and IT professionals without database management background assume that once the DBMS is installed, the bulk of the work is done. The truth is, choosing and installing the DBMS is hardly the most difficult part of a DBA’s job. Establishing a usable database environment requires a great deal of skill, knowledge, and consideration. This chapter will outline the principles involved in establishing a usable database environment.

    The process of choosing a suitable DBMS for enterprise database management is not as difficult as it used to be. The number of major DBMS vendors has dwindled due to industry consolidation and domination of the sector by a few very large players.

    Yet, large and medium-size organizations typically run multiple DBMS products, from as few as two to as many as ten. For example, it is not uncommon for a large company to use IMS or IDMS and DB2 on the mainframe, Oracle and MySQL on several different UNIX servers, Microsoft SQL Server on Windows servers, as well as pockets of other DBMS products such as Sybase, Ingres, Adabas, and PostgreSQL on various platforms, not to mention single-user PC DBMS products such as Microsoft Access, Paradox, and FileMaker. Who chose to install all these DBMSs and why?

    Unfortunately, often the answer is that not much thought and planning went into the decision-making process. Sometimes the decision to purchase and install a new DBMS is driven by a business need or a new application. This is reasonable if your organization has no DBMS and must purchase one for the first time. This is rarely the case, though. Regardless of whether a DBMS exists on-site, a new DBMS is often viewed as a requirement for a new application. Sometimes a new DBMS product is purchased and installed without first examining if the application could be successfully implemented using an existing DBMS. Or, more likely, the DBAs know the application can be implemented using an existing DBMS but lack the organizational power or support to reject a new DBMS proposal.

    There are other reasons for the existence of multiple DBMS platforms in a single organization. Perhaps the company purchased a commercial off-the-shelf application package that does not run on any of the current DBMS platforms. Sometimes the decision to buy a new DBMS is driven by the desire to support the latest and greatest technology. For example, many mainframe shops moving from a hierarchic (IMS) or CODASYL (IDMS) database model to the relational model deployed DB2, resulting in an additional DBMS to learn and support. Then, when client/server computing became popular, additional DBMSs were implemented on UNIX, Linux, and Windows servers.

    Once a DBMS is installed, removal can be difficult because of incompatibilities among the different DBMSs and the necessity of converting application code. Furthermore, when a new DBMS is installed, old applications and databases are usually not migrated to it. The old DBMS remains and must continue to be supported. This complicates the DBA’s job.

    So what should be done? Well, the DBA group should be empowered to make the DBMS decisions for the organization. No business unit should be allowed to purchase a DBMS without the permission of the DBA group. This is a difficult provision to implement and even more difficult to enforce. Business politics often work against the DBA group because it frequently possesses less organizational power than other business executives.

    Choosing a DBMS

    The DBA group should set a policy regarding the DBMS products to be supported within the organization. Whenever possible, the policy should minimize the number of different DBMS products. For a shop with multiple operating systems and multiple types of hardware, choose a default DBMS for the platform. Discourage deviation from the default unless a compelling business case exists—a business case that passes the technical inspection of the DBA group.

    Most of the major DBMS products have similar features, and if the feature or functionality does not exist today, it probably will within 18 to 24 months. So, exercise caution before deciding to choose a DBMS based solely on its ability to support a specific feature.

    When choosing a DBMS, it is wise to select a product from a tier-1 vendor as listed in Table 2.1. Tier 1 represents the largest vendors having the most heavily implemented and supported products on the market. You cannot go wrong with DB2 or Oracle. Both are popular and support just about any type of database. Another major player is Microsoft SQL Server, but only for Windows platforms. DB2 and Oracle run on multiple platforms ranging from mainframe to UNIX, as well as Windows and even handheld devices. Choosing a DBMS other than these three should be done only under specific circumstances.

    Table 2.1. Tier-1 DBMS Vendors

    DBMS Vendor

    DBMS Product

    IBM Corporation

    DB2

    New Orchard Road

    Armonk, NY 10504

    Phone: (914) 499-1900

    Oracle Corporation

    Oracle

    500 Oracle Parkway

    Redwood Shores, CA 94065

    Phone: (650) 506-7000

    Microsoft Corporation

    SQL Server

    One Microsoft Way

    Redmond, WA 98052

    Phone: (425) 882-8080

    After the big three come MySQL, Sybase, Teradata, and Informix. Table 2.2 lists these tier-2 DBMS vendors. All of these offerings are quality DBMS products, but their installed base is smaller, their products are engineered and marketed for niche purposes, or the companies are smaller with fewer resources than the Big Three (IBM, Oracle, and Microsoft), so there is some risk in choosing a DBMS from tier 2 instead of tier 1. However, there may be solid reasons for deploying a tier-2 solution, such as the high performance offered by Informix or the data warehousing and analytics capabilities of Teradata.

    Table 2.2. Tier-2 DBMS Vendors

    DBMS Vendor

    DBMS Product

    IBM Corporation

    Informix Dynamic Server

    New Orchard Road

    Armonk, NY 10504

    Phone: (914) 499-1900

    Sybase Inc. (an SAP Company)

    Adaptive Server Enterprise

    6475 Christie Avenue

    Emeryville, CA 94608

    Phone: (510) 922-3500

    Teradata Corporation

    Teradata

    10000 Innovation Drive

    Dayton, OH 45342

    Phone: (937) 242-4030

    MySQL (a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation)

    MySQL

    Phone: (208) 338-8100

    Of course, there are other DBMS products on the market, many of which are fine products and worthy of consideration for specialty processing, certain predefined needs, and niche roles. If your company is heavily into the open-source software movement, PostgreSQL, EnterpriseDB, or MySQL might be viable options. If an object DBMS is important for a specific project, you might consider ObjectDesign or Versant. And there are a variety of NoSQL DBMS offerings available, too, such as Hadoop, Cassandra, and MongoDB.1

    However, for the bulk of your data management needs, a DBMS from a tier-1, or perhaps tier-2, DBMS vendor will deliver sufficient functionality with minimal risk. A myriad of DBMS products are available, each with certain features that make them worthy of consideration on a case-by-case basis. Choosing any of the lower-tier candidates—even such major names as Software AG’s Adabas and Actian’s Ingres—involves incurring additional risk. Refer to Appendix B for a list of DBMS vendors.

    I do not want it to sound as if the selection of a DBMS is a no-brainer. You will need a strategy and a plan for selecting the appropriate DBMS for your specific situation. When choosing a DBMS, be sure to consider each of these factors:

  • Operating system support. Does the DBMS support the operating systems in use at your organization, including the versions that you are currently using and plan on using?
  • Type of organization. Take into consideration the corporate philosophy when you choose a DBMS. Some organizations are very conservative and like to keep a tight rein on their environments; these organizations tend to gravitate toward traditional mainframe environments. Government operations, financial institutions, and insurance and health companies usually tend to be conservative. More-liberal organizations are often willing to consider alternative architectures. It is not uncommon for manufacturing companies, dot-coms, and universities to be less conservative. Finally, some companies just do not trust Windows as a mission-critical environment and prefer to use UNIX; this rules out some database vendors (Microsoft SQL Server, in particular).
  • Benchmarks. What performance benchmarks are available from the DBMS vendor and other users of the DBMS? The Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPC) publishes official database performance benchmarks that can be used as a guideline for the basic overall performance of many different types of database processing. (Refer to the sidebar “The Transaction Processing Performance Council” for more details.) In general, performance benchmarks can be useful as a broad indicator of database performance but should not be the only determinant when selecting a DBMS. Many of the TPC benchmarks are run against database implementations that are not representative of most production database systems and therefore are not indicative of the actual performance of a particular DBMS. In addition, benchmarks are constantly updated to show new and improved performance measurements for each of the major DBMS products, rendering the benchmark “winners” obsolete very quickly.
  • Scalability. Does the DBMS support the number of users and database sizes you intend to implement? How are large databases built, supported, and maintained—easily or with a lot of pain? Are there independent users who can confirm the DBMS vendor’s scalability claims?
  • Availability of supporting software tools. Are the supporting tools you require available for the DBMS? These items may include query and analysis tools, data warehousing support tools, database administration tools, backup and recovery tools, performance-monitoring tools, capacity-planning tools, database utilities, and support for various programming languages.
  • The Transaction Processing Performance Council is an independent, not-for-profit organization that manages and administers performance benchmark tests. Its mission is to define transaction processing and database benchmarks to provide the industry with objective, verifiable performance data. TPC benchmarks measure and evaluate computer functions and operations.

    The definition of transaction espoused by the TPC is a business one. A typical TPC transaction includes the database updates for things such as inventory control (goods), airline reservations (services), and banking (money).

    The benchmarks produced by the TPC measure performance in terms of how many transactions a given system and database can perform per unit of time, for example, number of transactions per second. The TPC defines three benchmarks:

  • TPC-C, for planned production workload in a transaction environment
  • TPC-H, a decision support benchmark consisting of a suite of business-oriented ad hoc queries and concurrent data modifications
  • TPC-E, an updated OLTP workload (based on financial transaction processing)
  • Additional information and in-depth definitions of these benchmarks can be found at the TPC Web site at www.tpc.org (see Figure 2.1).

  • Technicians. Is there a sufficient supply of skilled database professionals for the DBMS? Consider your needs in terms of DBAs, technical support personnel (system programmers and administrators, operations analysts, etc.), and application programmers.
  • Cost of ownership. What is the total cost of ownership of the DBMS? DBMS vendors charge wildly varying prices for their technology. Total cost of ownership should be calculated as a combination of the license cost of the DBMS; the license cost of any required supporting software; the cost of database professionals to program, support, and administer the DBMS; and the cost of the computing resources required to operate the DBMS.
  • Release schedule. How often does the DBMS vendor release a new version? Some vendors have rapid release cycles, with new releases coming out every 12 to 18 months. This can be good or bad, depending on your approach. If you want cutting-edge features, a rapid release cycle is good. However, if your shop is more conservative, a DBMS that changes frequently can be difficult to support. A rapid release cycle will cause conservative organizations either to upgrade more frequently than they would like or to live with outdated DBMS software that is unlikely to have the same level of support as the latest releases.
  • Reference customers. Will the DBMS vendor supply current user references? Can you find other users on your own who might provide more impartial answers? Speak with current users to elicit issues and concerns you may have overlooked. How is support? Does the vendor respond well to problems? Do things generally work as advertised? Are there a lot of bug fixes that must be applied continuously? What is the quality of new releases? These questions can be answered only by the folks in the trenches.
  • When choosing a DBMS, be sure to take into account the complexity of the products. DBMS software is very complex and is getting more complex with each new release. Functionality that used to be supported only with add-on software or independent programs is increasingly being added as features of the DBMS, as shown in Figure 2.2. You will need to plan for and support all the features of the DBMS. Even if there is no current requirement for certain features, once you implement the DBMS the programmers and developers will find a reason to use just about anything the vendor threw into it. It is better to plan and be prepared than to allow features to be used without a plan for supporting them.

    Figure 2.2

    Figure 2.2. Convergence of features and functionality in DBMS software

    DBMS Architectures

    The supporting architecture for the DBMS environment is very critical to the success of the database applications. One wrong choice or poorly implemented component of the overall architecture can cause poor performance, downtime, or unstable applications.

    When mainframes dominated enterprise computing, DBMS architecture was a simpler concern. Everything ran on the mainframe, and that was that. However, today the IT infrastructure is distributed and heterogeneous. The overall architecture—even for a mainframe DBMS—will probably consist of multiple platforms and interoperating system software. A team consisting of business and IT experts, rather than a single person or group, should make the final architecture decision. Business experts should include representatives from various departments, as well as from accounting and legal for software contract issues. Database administration representatives (DA, DBA, and SA), as well as members of the networking group, operating system experts, operations control personnel, programming experts, and any other interested parties, should be included in this team.

    Furthermore, be sure that the DBMS you select is appropriate for the nature and type of processing you plan to implement. Four levels of DBMS architecture are available: enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile.

    An enterprise DBMS is designed for scalability and high performance. An enterprise DBMS must be capable of supporting very large databases, a large number of concurrent users, and multiple types of applications. The enterprise DBMS runs on a large-scale machine, typically a mainframe or a high-end server running UNIX, Linux, or Windows Server. Furthermore, an enterprise DBMS offers all the “bells and whistles” available from the DBMS vendor. Multiprocessor support, support for parallel queries, and other advanced DBMS features are core components of an enterprise DBMS.

    A departmental DBMS, sometimes referred to as a workgroup DBMS, serves the middle ground. The departmental DBMS supports small to medium-size workgroups within an organization; typically, it runs on a UNIX, Linux, or Windows server. The dividing line between a departmental database server and an enterprise database server is quite gray. Hardware and software upgrades can allow a departmental DBMS to tackle tasks that previously could be performed only by an enterprise DBMS. The steadily falling cost of departmental hardware and software components further contributes to lowering the total cost of operation and enabling a workgroup environment to scale up to serve the enterprise.

    A personal DBMS is designed for a single user, typically on a low- to medium-powered PC platform. Microsoft Access, SQLite, and FileMaker2 are examples of personal database software. Of course, the major DBMS vendors also market personal versions of their higher-powered solutions, such as Oracle Database Personal Edition and DB2 Personal Edition. Sometimes the low cost of a personal DBMS results in a misguided attempt to choose a personal DBMS for a departmental or enterprise solution. However, do not be lured by the low cost. A personal DBMS product is suitable only for very small-scale projects and should never be deployed for multiuser applications.

    Finally, the mobile DBMS is a specialized version of a departmental or enterprise DBMS. It is designed for remote users who are not usually connected to the network. The mobile DBMS enables local database access and modification on a laptop or handheld device. Furthermore, the mobile DBMS provides a mechanism for synchronizing remote database changes to a centralized enterprise or departmental database server.

    A DBMS designed for one type of processing may be ill suited for other uses. For example, a personal DBMS is not designed for multiple users, and an enterprise DBMS is generally too complex for single users. Be sure to understand the differences among enterprise, departmental, personal, and mobile DBMS software, and choose the appropriate DBMS for your specific data-processing needs. You may need to choose multiple DBMS types—that is, a DBMS for each level—with usage determined by the needs of each development project.

    If your organization requires DBMS solutions at different levels, favor the selection of a group of DBMS solutions from the same vendor whenever possible. Doing so will minimize differences in access, development, and administration. For example, favor Oracle Database Personal Edition for your single-user DBMS needs if your organization uses Oracle as the enterprise DBMS of choice.

    DBMS Clustering

    Clustering is the use of multiple “independent” computing systems working together as a single, highly available system. A modern DBMS offers clustering support to enhance availability and scalability. The two predominant architectures for clustering are shared-disk and shared-nothing. These names do a good job of describing the nature of the architecture—at least at a high level.

    Shared-nothing clustering is depicted in Figure 2.3. In a shared-nothing architecture, each system has its own private resources (memory, disks, etc.). The clustered processors communicate by passing messages through a network that interconnects the computers. In addition, requests from clients are automatically routed to the system that owns the resource. Only one of the clustered systems can “own” and access a particular resource at a time. In the event a failure occurs, resource ownership can be dynamically transferred to another system in the cluster. The main advantage of shared-nothing clustering is scalability. In theory, a shared-nothing multiprocessor can scale up to thousands of processors because they do not interfere with one another—nothing is shared.

    In a shared-disk environment, all the connected systems share the same disk devices, as shown in Figure 2.4. Each processor still has its own private memory, but all the processors can directly address all the disks. Typically, shared-disk clustering does not scale as well for smaller machines as shared-nothing clustering. Shared-disk clustering is better suited to large-enterprise processing in a mainframe environment. Mainframes—very large processors—are capable of processing enormous volumes of work. Great benefits can be obtained with only a few clustered mainframes, while many PC and midrange processors would need to be clustered to achieve similar benefits.

    Shared-disk clustering is usually preferable for applications and services requiring only modest shared access to data and for applications or workloads that are very difficult to partition. Applications with heavy data update requirements are probably better implemented as shared-nothing. Table 2.3 compares the capabilities of shared-disk and shared-nothing architectures.

    Table 2.3. Comparison of Shared-Disk and Shared-Nothing Architectures

    Shared-Disk

    Shared-Nothing

    Quick adaptability to changing workloads

    Can exploit simpler, cheaper hardware

    High availability

    Almost unlimited scalability

    Performs best in a heavy read environment

    Works well in a high-volume, read-write environment

    Data need not be partitioned

    Data is partitioned across the cluster

    The major DBMS vendors provide support for different types of clustering with different capabilities and requirements. For example, DB2 for z/OS provides shared-disk clustering with its Data Sharing and Parallel Sysplex capabilities; DB2 on non-mainframe platforms uses shared-nothing clustering. Oracle’s Real Application Clusters provide shared-disk clustering.

    For most users, the primary benefit of clustering is the enhanced availability that accrues by combining processors. In some cases, clustering can help an enterprise to achieve five-nines (99.999 percent) availability. Additionally, clustering can be used for load balancing and failover.

    DBMS Proliferation

    As a rule of thumb, create a policy (or at least some simple guidelines) that must be followed before a new DBMS can be brought into the organization. Failure to do so can cause a proliferation of different DBMS products that will be difficult to support. It can also cause confusion regarding which DBMS to use for which development effort.

    As mentioned earlier, there is a plethora of DBMS vendors, each touting its benefits. As a DBA, you will be bombarded with marketing and sales efforts that attempt to convince you that you need another DBMS. Try to resist unless a very compelling reason is given and a short-term return on investment (ROI) can be demonstrated. Even when confronted with valid reasons and good ROI, be sure to double-check the arguments and ROI calculations. Sometimes the reasons specified are outdated and the ROI figures do not take everything into account—such as the additional cost of administration.

    Remember, every DBMS requires database administration support. Moreover, each DBMS uses different methods to perform similar tasks. The fewer DBMS products installed, the less complicated database administration becomes, and the better your chances become of providing effective data management resources for your organization.

    Hardware Issues

    When establishing a database environment for application development, selecting the DBMS is only part of the equation. The hardware and operating system on which the DBMS will run will greatly impact the reliability, availability, and scalability (RAS) of the database environment. For example, a mainframe platform such as an IBM zEC12 running z/OS will probably provide higher RAS than a midrange IBM xSeries machine running AIX, which in turn will probably exceed a Dell server running Windows. That is not to say everything should run on a mainframe; other issues such as cost, experience, manageability, and the needs of the applications to be developed must be considered. The bottom line is that you must be sure to factor hardware platform and operating system constraints into the DBMS selection criteria.

    Cloud Database Systems

    Cloud computing (see the sidebar) is increasing in usage, especially at small to medium-size businesses. A cloud implementation can be more cost-effective than building an entire local computing infrastructure that requires management and support.

    A cloud database system delivers DBMS services over the Internet. The trade-off essentially comes down to trusting a cloud provider to store and manage your data in return for minimizing database administration and maintenance cost and effort. Using cloud database systems can enable organizations, especially smaller ones without the resources to invest in an enterprise computing infrastructure, to focus on their business instead of their computing environment.

    By consolidating data sources in the cloud, it is possible to improve collaboration among partners, branch offices, remote workers, and mobile devices, because the data becomes accessible as a service. There is no need to install, set up, patch, or manage the DBMS software because the cloud provider manages and cares for these administrative tasks. Of course, the downside is that your data is now stored and controlled by an external agent—the cloud provider. Another inherent risk of cloud computing is the possibility of nefarious agents posing as legitimate customers.

    An example of a cloud database platform is Microsoft SQL Azure. It is built on SQL Server technologies and is a component of the Windows Azure platform.


    World's Most Remote Island Gets Advanced Medical Support From Team Led by IBM, UPMC and Beacon Equity Partners | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    SOURCE: IBM

    November 14, 2007 23:59 ET

    Real-Time Telemedicine Solution for Tristan da Cunha Brings Promise of Improved Medical Resources to Isolated Populations Everywhere

    ARMONK, NY--(Marketwire - November 14, 2007) - The world's most remote inhabited island can now access advanced telemedical care, thanks to services and support from a high-technology team led by IBM (NYSE: IBM), Beacon Equity Partners and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC). Tristan da Cunha is located more than 1,665 miles west of Cape Town, South Africa, and is accessible only by a boat trip lasting a week or more. Some 270 British Citizens call the island home.

    IBM, Beacon Equity Partners, and UPMC today joined Medweb and the Government of Tristan da Cunha in announcing the successful implementation of "Project Tristan." This tested and proven remote medical solution combines medical equipment, satellite communications and remotely supported electronic health-record (EHR) technology, allowing medical experts from anywhere in the world to assist island clinicians in their daily practices with medical diagnoses and emergency support.

    Until recently, the island's only physician, Dr. Carel Van der Merwe, has had to rely upon minimal technology and limited medical support. Working from a hospital without so much as its own telephone to provide care for patients, he has often performed life-saving diagnoses and procedures without proper equipment or specialized expertise. Lacking a communications system that could accept email attachments, help in interpreting X-Rays or EKGs, he has depended on digital images scanned, printed and faxed to specialists thousands of miles away, delaying diagnoses by days. With no airstrip on the island, emergency evacuation or outside medical intervention has been and remains today virtually impossible.

    Project Tristan was conceived by Edward Mullen, Chairman of Beacon Equity Partners, and Paul Grundy, MD, MPH, and IBM's Director of Healthcare Technology and Strategic Initiatives, as a way to honor the memory of a close friend, Thomas Wiese. It was implemented with the guidance and support of UPMC, as well as of Dr. Richard Bakalar, Chief Medical Officer for IBM, who also established the Navy's first integrated Telemedicine Office at the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, MD, prior to joining IBM. Dr. Bakalar is also President of the American Telemedicine Association.

    Project Tristan, which is based on open standards and runs on the Linux Operating System, is expected to greatly enhance the island's level of medical care and standard of living. The island's physician is now able to electronically capture and share medical data and information, including X-Rays and EKGs as well as pulmonary function evaluations and video camera examinations with physician consultants. Satellite communications will enable clinicians to provide real-time diagnostic advice and suggested treatments to the attending physician.

    "The ability to share medical data quickly and easily will be a life saver for our residents," said Dr. Van der Merwe. "By joining forces, IBM, Beacon Equity Partners, Medweb and UPMC have not only created the capability to bring critical, patient-centric care to our remote island, but also to other distant locations around the world -- on land or sea -- that require constant connection to expert medical resources."

    Contributions from each team member were as follows:

    -- IBM: Solution co-development, integration and project management for the telemedicine system provided to Tristan da Cunha. Products and services included staffing, on-site installation of the system (requiring a 25 day service call because of the limited means of getting to the island), financial resources, IBM xSeries servers provided to Medweb and high-resolution monitors.

    -- Beacon Equity Partners: Co-development of the concept and funding for the project.

    -- Medweb: Medweb servers and software and additional medical input devices including a computed radiography system for digital X-Ray; integration of ECG, digital cameras, spirometry and video conferencing capabilities; configuration and testing, remote installation, training and sustained support services on an ongoing basis, including primary technical and help desk services.

    -- University of Pittsburgh Medical Center: With its widely recognized experience in telemedicine in the U.S. and abroad, UPMC volunteered to help plan and implement Project Tristan. Additionally, UPMC offered clinical professional service to the island, including medical consultations on request; secure and reliable access to robust and comprehensive multimedia medical data on Tristan patients from the Medweb Telemedicine solution; and ongoing remote training to support Project Tristan as needed.

    -- SOAPware®: Project Tristan features cutting-edge, remotely supported Electronic Health Record (EHR) technology courtesy of SOAPware, Inc. This solution has more installed sites and is in use in more nations than any other.

    "Connecting the most remote inhabited spot on the face of the earth, Tristan da Cunha, to advanced medical care in real time and over the Internet is proof that the world is really flat. This is a big step towards providing everyone access to centers of healthcare excellence regardless of geographical location," said Paul Grundy, MD, MPH, IBM's executive sponsor for Project Tristan and Director of IBM's Healthcare Technology and Strategic Initiatives. "It's now possible to monitor a patient's heart and remotely change the setting on a pacemaker or make a complex fracture diagnoses over a satellite Internet connection -- even in an environment where the closest advanced care via a ship would otherwise have taken a week to reach the Island and another to return to the mainland for care."

    In dedicating Project Tristan to the memory of Weiss, who was lost to cancer in 2006 after a lifetime of helping others, the parties share a vision of the project's potential impact around the world. "Thomas had enormous energy and enthusiasm for reaching out to others," said Ed Mullen. "It is in memory of his spirit, resolve and guiding principles that our team has worked to deploy Tristan on Tristan da Cunha. Our unanimous goal is to expand this advanced telemedical solution to improve healthcare in remote locations around the world."


    IBM Reports 2005 First-Quarter Results; Reflects Expensing of Equity Compensation | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    IBM announced on Thusday, April 14th, 2005, first- quarter 2005 diluted earnings per common share of $.85 from continuing operations as reported, including the effect of expensing share-based compensation, compared with diluted earnings on a similar basis of $.79 per share in the first quarter of 2004, an increase of 8 percent. First- quarter income from continuing operations was $1.41 billion, including the adoption of expensing equity compensation, compared with $1.36 billion a year ago, an increase of 3 percent. Revenues from continuing operations for the first quarter were $22.9 billion, up 3 percent, compared with revenues of $22.2 billion for the first quarter of 2004.

    Earlier this month, IBM announced its intention to expense equity compensation in the first quarter. The adoption is based on the implementation guidance provided in the SEC's release of Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 107, and in accordance with the FASB's revised Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 123(R), "Share- based Payments."

    Samuel J. Palmisano, IBM chairman and chief executive officer, said: "After a strong start, we had difficulty closing transactions in the final weeks of the quarter, especially in countries with soft economic conditions, as well as with short-term Global Services signings. As a result, we did not achieve all of our goals for the quarter. Middleware software and midrange systems results were solid, and we grew significantly in Business Performance Transformation Services and in the emerging markets of China, Brazil, India and Eastern Europe. We returned nearly $4 billion to investors in the quarter through share repurchases and dividends. We are taking appropriate measures to sharpen our execution, as we continue to implement our global growth strategies."

    First-quarter revenue growth of 3 percent (1 percent, adjusting for currency) was driven by growth in the Americas and Europe/Middle East/Africa. In the Americas, first-quarter revenues from continuing operations were $9.3 billion, up 2 percent (1 percent, adjusting for currency) from the 2004 period. Revenues from Europe/Middle East/Africa were $7.7 billion, an increase of 7 percent (2 percent, adjusting for currency). Asia-Pacific revenues grew 1 percent (down 2 percent, adjusting for currency) to $5.2 billion. OEM revenues increased 3 percent to $691 million compared with the first quarter of 2004.

    Revenues grew in four of IBM's five industry sectors in the first quarter led by the Distribution sector, as well as growth in sales to Small and Medium Businesses.

    Revenues from Global Services, including maintenance, increased 6 percent (3 percent, adjusting for currency) to $11.7 billion in the first quarter. Global Services revenues, excluding maintenance, increased 7 percent (4 percent, adjusting for currency). IBM signed services contracts totaling $10.0 billion and ended the quarter with an estimated services backlog, including Strategic Outsourcing, Business Consulting Services, Integrated Technology Services and Maintenance, of $110 billion.

    In addition to these signings and backlog figures there were about $200 million of Engineering and Technology Services signings to provide Business Performance Transformation Services customers with design skill and technical capabilities.

    Hardware revenues from continuing operations were essentially flat (down 2 percent, adjusting for currency) to $6.7 billion in the first quarter versus the first quarter of 2004. Revenues from the Systems and Technology Group totaled $3.9 billion for the quarter, up 2 percent on eServer revenue increases. This includes a 12 percent increase in pSeries UNIX servers, which is expected to gain market share in the first quarter, and an 8 percent increase in xSeries servers. Revenues from the zSeries mainframe product decreased 16 percent compared with the prior-year quarter. The total delivery of zSeries computing power as measured in MIPS (millions of instructions per second) decreased 11 percent. Revenues for the iSeries midrange servers increased 1 percent. Storage Systems and Technology OEM increased 5 percent and 2 percent, respectively. Revenues from Personal Systems Group decreased 3 percent to $2.7 billion. In the fourth-quarter 2004, IBM announced an agreement to sell the Personal Computing Division, a unit of the Personal Systems Group, which is expected to close in the second-quarter 2005.

    Revenues from Software were $3.6 billion, an increase of 2 percent (flat, adjusting for currency) compared with the first quarter of 2004. Revenues from IBM's middleware brands, which include WebSphere, DB2, Rational, Tivoli and Lotus products, were $2.8 billion, up 3 percent versus the first quarter of 2004. Operating systems revenues decreased 2 percent to $590 million compared with the first quarter of 2004.

    Revenues for WebSphere family of software products, which facilitates customers' ability to manage a wide variety of business processes using open standards to interconnect applications, data and operating systems, increased 11 percent. Revenues for Information Management increased 5 percent including revenues for DB2 database software, which enables clients to leverage information on demand, increased 9 percent. Revenues from Tivoli software (infrastructure software that enables customers to centrally manage networks and storage) increased 15 percent, and revenues for Lotus software, which allows collaborating and messaging by customers in real-time communication and knowledge management, increased 11 percent. Revenues from Rational software (integrated development tools) were flat compared with the first quarter of 2004.

    As a result, IBM expects to gain or hold market share for the first quarter in the collaborative software, systems management and security software, Web services and data management categories.

    Global Financing revenues declined 12 percent (15 percent, adjusting for currency) in the first quarter to $580 million. Revenues from the Enterprise Investments/Other area, which includes industry- specific IT solutions such as product life-cycle management software, increased 15 percent (12 percent, adjusting for currency) to $332 million compared with the first quarter of 2004.

    The company's total gross profit margin from continuing operations was 36.0 percent in the 2005 first quarter, which includes the effect of expensing equity compensation, compared with 35.6 percent in the first quarter of 2004 on a similar basis.

    In the first quarter of 2005, total expense and other income from continuing operations increased 5 percent to $6.2 billion and, coupled with the revenue increase of 3 percent, IBM's total expense-to-revenue ratio increased 0.5 points to 27.3 percent. For the quarter, the reporting periods reflect the adoption of expensing equity compensation as it relates to both selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expense and research, development and engineering (RD&E) expense. SG&A expense increased 6 percent to $4.9 billion. RD&E expense increased 3 percent to $1.5 billion. Intellectual property and custom development income increased to $219 million compared with $180 million a year ago. Other (income) and expense was $22 million of net expense in the first quarter of 2005 versus $13 million in the same period last year.

    IBM's effective tax rate from continuing operations in the first quarter 2005 was 30.0 percent, compared with 30.1 percent in the first quarter of 2004.

    Share repurchases totaled approximately $3.4 billion in the first quarter. The weighted-average number of diluted common shares outstanding in the first-quarter 2005 was 1.66 billion compared with 1.73 billion shares in the same period of 2004. As of March 31, 2005, there were 1.61 billion basic common shares outstanding.

    IBM ended the first quarter of 2005 with $8.7 billion of cash on hand. The balance sheet remains strong, and the company is well positioned to take advantage of opportunities.

    Debt, including Global Financing, totaled $23.4 billion, compared with $22.9 billion at year-end 2004. From a management segment view, the non-global financing debt-to-capitalization ratio was 5.3 percent at the end of March 31, 2005, and Global Financing debt declined $413 million from year-end 2004 to a total of $21.9 billion, resulting in a debt-to-equity ratio of 6.7 to 1.

    Forward-Looking and Cautionary Statements

    Except for the historical information and discussions contained herein, statements contained in this release may constitute forward- looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements involve a number of risks, uncertainties and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially, as discussed in the company's filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

    Presentation of Information in this Press Release

    In an effort to provide investors with additional information regarding the company's results as determined by generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), the company has also disclosed in this press release the following non-GAAP information which management believes provides useful information to investors:

    - adjusting for currency

    The rationale for management's use of non-GAAP measures is included as part of the supplementary materials presented within the first- quarter earnings materials. These materials are available on the IBM investor relations Web site at www.ibm.com/investor and will be included in a subsequent filing of a Form 8-K with the SEC.

    Conference Call and Webcast

    IBM's regular quarterly earnings conference call is scheduled to begin at 6:00 p.m. EDT, today. Investors may participate by viewing the Webcast at www.ibm.com/investor/1q05.

    Financial Results Attached

    INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATIONCOMPARATIVE FINANCIAL RESULTS(Unaudited; Dollars in millions except per share amounts)

    Three Months Ended March 31Percent2005 2004* Change------- ------- -------REVENUE

    Global Services $11,696 $11,024 6.1%Gross profit margin 24.3% 23.7%

    Hardware 6,749 6,735 0.2%Gross profit margin 27.5% 26.5%

    Software 3,551 3,466 2.4%Gross profit margin 86.4% 85.9%

    Global Financing 580 662 -12.5%Gross profit margin 54.2% 60.5%

    Enterprise Investments/Other 332 288 15.2%Gross profit margin 52.5% 39.5%

    TOTAL REVENUE 22,908 22,175 3.3%

    GROSS PROFIT 8,254 7,892 4.6%Gross profit margin 36.0% 35.6%

    EXPENSE AND OTHER INCOME

    S,G&A 4,933 4,658 5.9%Expense to revenue 21.5% 21.0%

    R,D&E 1,459 1,416 3.0%Expense to revenue 6.4% 6.4%

    Intellectual propertyand custom developmentincome (219) (180) 21.9%Other (income) and expense 22 13 71.3%Interest expense 49 35 40.0%

    TOTAL EXPENSE ANDOTHER INCOME 6,244 5,942 5.1%Expense to revenue 27.3% 26.8%

    INCOME FROM CONTINUINGOPERATIONS BEFOREINCOME TAXES 2,010 1,950 3.1%Pre-tax margin 8.8% 8.8%

    Provision forincome taxes 603 586 2.8%Effective tax rate 30.0% 30.1%

    INCOME FROM CONTINUINGOPERATIONS $1,407 $1,364 3.2%Net margin 6.1% 6.1%

    DISCONTINUED OPERATIONSLoss from discontinuedoperations 5 1

    NET INCOME $1,402 $1,363 2.9%====== ======

    EARNINGS/(LOSS)PER SHAREOF COMMON STOCK:

    ASSUMING DILUTIONCONTINUINGOPERATIONS $0.85 $0.79 7.6%DISCONTINUEDOPERATIONS (0.00) (0.00)------ ------TOTAL $0.84** $0.79 6.3%====== ======BASICCONTINUINGOPERATIONS $0.86 $0.81 6.2%DISCONTINUEDOPERATIONS (0.00) (0.00)------ ------TOTAL $0.86 $0.81 6.2%====== ======WEIGHTED-AVERAGE NUMBEROF COMMON SHARESOUTSTANDING (M's)ASSUMING DILUTION 1,660.6 1,727.4BASIC 1,628.7 1,691.7

    * Restated first-quarter 2004 financial results to include the impactof share-based compensation expense.

    ** Does not total due to rounding.

    INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATIONCONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL POSITION(Unaudited)

    At At(Dollars in millions) March 31, December 31, Percent2005 2004* Change----------- ----------- -------ASSETS

    Cash, cash equivalents,and marketable securities $8,651 $10,570 -18.2%

    Receivables - net, inventories,prepaid expenses 32,692 36,573 -10.6%

    Plant, rental machines,and other property - net 14,708 15,175 -3.1%

    Investments and other assets 48,848 48,685 0.3%-------- --------

    TOTAL ASSETS $104,899 $111,003 -5.5%======== ========

    LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY

    Short-term debt $6,329 $8,099 -21.9%Long-term debt 17,083 14,828 15.2%-------- --------Total debt 23,412 22,927 2.1%

    Accounts payable, taxes,and accruals 27,493 31,687 -13.2%

    Other liabilities 24,074 24,701 -2.5%-------- --------TOTAL LIABILITIES 74,979 79,315 -5.5%

    STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY 29,920 31,688 -5.6%-------- --------TOTAL LIABILITIES ANDSTOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY $104,899 $111,003 -5.5%======== ========

    * Restated 2004 financial position to include the impact ofshare-based compensation expense.

    INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATIONSEGMENT DATA(Unaudited)

    FIRST QUARTER 2005---------------------------------------------Pre-taxIncome(Loss)From(Dollars in millions) -------- Revenue --------- Continuing Pre-taxExternal Internal Total Operations Margin-------- -------- ------- ---------- -------SEGMENTS

    Global Services $11,696 $745 $12,441 $942 7.6%% change 6.1% -2.2% 5.6% -4.9%Systems and TechnologyGroup 3,869 235 4,104 109 2.7%% change 2.5% -0.4% 2.3% -35.9%Personal Systems Group 2,739 32 2,771 (17) -0.6%% change -3.1% 39.1% -2.7% -54.5%Software 3,551 461 4,012 893 22.3%% change 2.4% 15.0% 3.7% 4.6%Global Financing 579 449 1,028 396 38.5%% change -12.9% 60.4% 8.8% 5.9%Enterprise Investments 292 2 294 (32) -10.9%% change 6.2% 0.0% 6.1% 38.5%

    TOTAL SEGMENTS 22,726 1,924 24,650 2,291 9.3%% change 3.1% 12.9% 3.9% -1.5%

    Eliminations / Other 182 (1,924) (1,742) (281)

    TOTAL IBM $22,908 $0 $22,908 $2,010 8.8%% change 3.3% 3.3% 3.1%

    FIRST QUARTER 2004-----------------------------------------------Pre-taxIncome(Loss)From(Dollars in millions) -------- Revenue --------- Continuing Pre-taxExternal Internal Total Operations Margin-------- -------- ------- ---------- -------

    SEGMENTS

    Global Services $11,024 $762 $11,786 $991 8.4%Systems and TechnologyGroup 3,776 236 4,012 170 4.2%Personal Systems Group 2,826 23 2,849 (11) -0.4%Software 3,466 401 3,867 854 22.1%Global Financing 665 280 945 374 39.6%Enterprise Investments 275 2 277 (52) -18.8%

    TOTAL SEGMENTS 22,032 1,704 23,736 2,326 9.8%

    Eliminations / Other 143 (1,704) (1,561) (376)

    TOTAL IBM* $22,175 $0 $22,175 $1,950 8.8%

    * Restated first-quarter 2004 financial results to include the impactof share-based compensation expense.



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